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The known benefit concerts in which Mozart was involved will be the main focus of this chapter. In such settings, the focus was on the extraordinary gifts of the young composer–performer, as is plain from prior advertisements in the London press. These concerts will be contextualized in various ways, including private concerts for the Royal family and aristocrats; ‘society’ concerts (principally those of Mrs Cornelys); the Bach–Abel concerts; ‘exhibition’ concerts at which Mozart’s precocious talent was displayed; close analysis of the press advertisements through the lenses of ethics and anthropology; a necessarily speculative discussion of the new compositions (including symphonies) that Mozart may have performed at the benefit concerts; concert representation as a barometer of Mozart’s developing compositional style, including an examination of the sonatas K10–15 in the light of domestic music making; and especially the ‘London Notebook”, K15a–ss, a remarkable testament of his development at the age of eight or nine.
Nitridation is the process in which, during the initial growth of a-SiNx:H layers on Si surfaces, nitrogen (N) is incorporated into Si lattice near its surface. We show that this nitridation process affects the density of interface states (Dit) and fixed charges (Qf) at the interface. These parameters determine the effective surface passivation quality of the layers. The nitridation can be tuned independently of the growth of a-SiNx:H layers by using a plasma treatment prior to actual a-SiNx:H layer deposition. It is shown that the Qf can be varied from 2·1012 to 15·1012 cm-2 without changing the a-SiNx:H deposition process. It is demonstrated that in our case and processing window, Qf is the determining factor in surface passivation quality in the range of 2·1012 to 8·1012 cm-2. For higher values of Qf, Dit has increased significantly and has become dominant thereby reducing the passivation quality. It is shown that the passivation can be controlled independently of the a-SiNx:H deposition process. On completed solar cells this variation in Qf due to nitridation results in a change in open-circuit voltage, Voc, of almost 20mV.
We introduce a new approach to an enumerative problem closely linked with the geometry of branched coverings, that is, we study the number
of ways a given permutation (with cycles described by the partition
) can be decomposed into a product of exactly
3-cycles, etc., with certain minimality and transitivity conditions imposed on the factors. The method is to encode such factorizations as planar maps with certain descent structure and apply a new combinatorial decomposition to make their enumeration more manageable. We apply our technique to determine
has one or two parts, extending earlier work of Goulden and Jackson. We also show how these methods are readily modified to count inequivalent factorizations, where equivalence is defined by permitting commutations of adjacent disjoint factors. Our technique permits us to generalize recent work of Goulden, Jackson, and Latour, while allowing for a considerable simplification of their analysis.
Take yourself back in time. It is 1700 and you are in the studio of your teacher, Arcangelo Corelli, in Rome. He has just demonstrated to you a passage from his newly-published Sonate a Violino e Violone o Cimbalo, and now asks you: ‘non l’intendite parlare?’
‘Do you not hear it speak?’ In that question, Corelli captures the essentials of musical performance in the eighteenth century. The composer (who in the eighteenth century was so often also the performer) expected his music to be rendered sensible, expressive, meaningful by being spoken. The performer (whether or not synonymous with the composer) had a duty to make that music speak by reading the signs it contained (whether notated or not) and applying performance conventions to them that differed widely across Europe, and were diversely recorded in vocal and instrumental treatises published throughout the century in many places and in many languages. All such treatises, though, presumed the same thing: that the performer will afford the music a way of being spoken. The instrument or voice was a related tool (combining with the performer’s skill) that allowed the music to speak, and to speak appropriately. Finally, the audience expected the music to speak to them. Music was a kind of Rhetoric.
Whenever I was in Berlin, I would seldom miss Möser’s quartet evenings. For me, such artistic presentations were always the most intelligible forum for appreciating instrumental music, in which one heard four reasonable people conversing, as it were, believed their discourse to be profitable and became acquainted with the individuality of the instruments. Goethes Briefe Band IV: Briefe der Jahre 1821–1832.’ Textkritisch durchgesehen und mit Anmerkungen versehen von Karl Robert Mandelkow (Hamburg, 1967), no. 1443.
Goethe’s letter to Carl Friedrich Zelter (9 November 1829) is sometimes cited as an idealisation of the Classical string quartet, in which this genre is treated as a musical embodiment of civilised Enlightenment conversation between intellectual peers, the ‘thread’ of the conversation passing effortlessly through the entire musical ensemble. In other respects Goethe’s comment sheds light upon the relationship between early Romantic instrumental music – specifically chamber music in this context – and its immediate Classical past. The evocation of an ideal mode of Enlightenment conversation suggests a nostalgia for a past, even if that past were nothing but an imagined construction (that is, one of many such possible pasts), in relation to which the early Romantic present might be situated. Although he mentions no specific event, either public or private, nor even a specific repertory, it is clear enough that what Goethe had in mind was one of a series of quartet performances organised in Berlin by Karl Möser, at first informally, as an outgrowth of a tradition of chamber and orchestral concerts he had initiated in 1812, and continued on a more permanent footing from the mid-1820s.
This book presents the proceedings of a meeting ‘New Challenges to Health: The Threat of Virus Infection’ organized by the Society for General Microbiology at Heriot- Watt University, Edinburgh, in March 2001. The purpose of the meeting was to review the continuing threat of viruses (and prions) to human and animal health. Although several virus diseases have been controlled by vaccination (such as polio, measles, mumps, rubella and yellow fever) and one (smallpox) has been eradicated, viruses remain a potent threat to human and animal health due to their ability to evolve and adapt rapidly. For viruses such as influenza and HIV, the ability to undergo rapid antigenic variation enables them to evade existing immunity and cause disease. Viruses may adapt to new situations, such as changes in the population density of human, animal or insect hosts, or the presence of substantial numbers of immunosuppressed individuals, and cause disease where hitherto they were unable to do so. Rapid virus evolution also enables virus strains to arise that are resistant to existing antiviral drugs. The book starts with a consideration of the mathematical modelling of epidemic virus infections, and the surveillance and emergence of virus infections. There follow chapters that review the molecular and cell biological mechanisms by which viruses and prions may induce disease. These include influenza and HIV, the devastating haemorrhagic diseases caused by Ebola and Marburg viruses, prion diseases such as BSE and variant CJD, certain psychiatric illness, and how the emergence of drug-resistant strains of virus poses a major problem for antiviral chemotherapy.
Glen’s flow law is a well-established general law for steady-state glacier ice deformation, and many laboratory tests and field measurements have been undertaken which have shown the generality of the law to be correct. In Nature, ice deformation is the response of the glacier/ice sheet to the applied self-weight stress of the ice mass (i.e. ice thickness, gravity and ice density) which produces a stress gradient within the ice column. Detailed experimental analyses of ice samples in the laboratory have until now only been undertaken using uniform stress fields in uniaxial or triaxial tests. Obviously the best method for investigating ice in the laboratory would be if stress gradients similar to those found in Nature could be replicated. In the following paper we describe the physical modelling of two (laboratory-prepared) isotropic, polycrystalline ice models (0.75 × 0.25 × 0.18 m) at enhanced gravity levels (80g) in a geotechnical beam centrifuge. Steel plate was placed on top of the ice model, replicating an overburden of approximately 36 m of ice (at 80g). Thus we were able to model the deformation of the lower 14 m of an ice mass approximately 50 m thick. Models are confined laterally by the Perspex strongbox walls, preventing lateral extension within the sample during testing. Models are unconfined on their downslope ends, rendering longitudinal stresses negligible. Deformation can therefore be treated as simple shear. Samples are instrumented with displacement markers and thermocouples. Values for A and n in the flow law derived from the experiments are reasonable and indicate the potential of this method for ice-deformation studies.