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Using existing data from clinical registries to support clinical trials and other prospective studies has the potential to improve research efficiency. However, little has been reported about staff experiences and lessons learned from implementation of this method in pediatric cardiology.
We describe the process of using existing registry data in the Pediatric Heart Network Residual Lesion Score Study, report stakeholders’ perspectives, and provide recommendations to guide future studies using this methodology.
The Residual Lesion Score Study, a 17-site prospective, observational study, piloted the use of existing local surgical registry data (collected for submission to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons-Congenital Heart Surgery Database) to supplement manual data collection. A survey regarding processes and perceptions was administered to study site and data coordinating center staff.
Survey response rate was 98% (54/55). Overall, 57% perceived that using registry data saved research staff time in the current study, and 74% perceived that it would save time in future studies; 55% noted significant upfront time in developing a methodology for extracting registry data. Survey recommendations included simplifying data extraction processes and tailoring to the needs of the study, understanding registry characteristics to maximise data quality and security, and involving all stakeholders in design and implementation processes.
Use of existing registry data was perceived to save time and promote efficiency. Consideration must be given to the upfront investment of time and resources needed. Ongoing efforts focussed on automating and centralising data management may aid in further optimising this methodology for future studies.
In Scotland, the base of the Ballagan Formation has traditionally been placed at the first grey mudstone within a contiguous Late Devonian to Carboniferous succession. This convention places the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary within the Old Red Sandstone (ORS) Kinnesswood Formation. The consequences of this placement are that tetrapods from the Ballagan Formation were dated as late Tournaisian in age and that the ranges of typically Devonian fish found in the Kinnesswood Formation continued into the Carboniferous. The Pease Bay specimen of the fish Remigolepis is from the Kinnesswood Formation. Comparisons with its range in Greenland, calibrated against spores, show it was Famennian in age. Detailed palynological sampling at Burnmouth from the base of the Ballagan Formation proves that the early Tournaisian spore zones (VI and HD plus Cl 1) are present. The Schopfites species that occurs through most of the succession is Schopfites delicatus rather than Schopfites claviger. The latter species defines the late Tournaisian CM spore zone. The first spore assemblage that has been found in Upper ‘ORS' strata underlying the Ballagan Formation (Preston, Whiteadder Water), contains Retispora lepidophyta and is from the early latest Famennian LL spore zone. The spore samples are interbedded with volcaniclastic debris, which shows that the Kelso Volcanic Formation is, in part, early latest Famennian in age. These findings demonstrate that the Ballagan Formation includes most of the Tournaisian with the Devonian–Carboniferous boundary positioned close to the top of the Kinnesswood Formation. The Stage 6 calcrete at Pease Bay can be correlated to the equivalent section at Carham, showing that it represents a time gap equivalent to the latest Famennian glaciation(s). Importantly, some of the recently described Ballagan Formation tetrapods are older than previously dated and now fill the key early part of Romer's Gap.
The lower Mississippian Ballagan Formation of northern Britain is one of only two successions worldwide to yield the earliest known tetrapods with terrestrial capability following the end-Devonian mass extinction event. Studies of the sedimentary environments and habitats in which these beasts lived have been an integral part of a major research project into how, why and under what circumstances this profound step in the evolution of life on Earth occurred. Here, a new palaeogeographic map is constructed from outcrop data integrated with new and archived borehole material. The map shows the extent of a very low-relief coastal wetland developed along the tropical southern continental margin of Laurussia. Coastal floodplains in the Midland Valley and Tweed basins were separated from the marginal marine seaway of the Northumberland–Solway Basin to the south by an archipelago of more elevated areas. A complex mosaic of sedimentary environments was juxtaposed, and included fresh and brackish to saline and hypersaline lakes, a diverse suite of floodplain palaeosols and a persistent fluvial system in the east of the region. The strongly seasonal climate led to the formation of evaporite deposits alternating with flooding events, both meteoric and marine. Storm surges drove marine floods from the SW into both the western Midland Valley and Northumberland–Solway Basin; marine water also flooded into the Tweed Basin and Tayside in the east. The Ballagan Formation is a rare example in the geological record of a tropical, seasonal coastal wetland that contains abundant, small-scale evaporite deposits. The diverse sedimentary environments and palaeosol types indicate a network of different terrestrial and aquatic habitats in which the tetrapods lived.
Older adults represent the highest proportion of gamblers (Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation [OLG], 2012). Unpartnered older adults may be more socially isolated and lonely (Dykstra & de Jong Gierveld, 2004), thus more likely to be at risk for problem gambling (McQuade & Gill, 2012). We examined whether gambling to socialize or from loneliness and going to the casino with friends/family mediate the relation between marital status and problem gambling. Data from a random sample of older adults at gambling venues across Southwestern Ontario indicated that gambling with family/friends and gambling due to loneliness mediated the relationship between marital status and problem gambling. Relative to those married, unpartnered older adults were less likely to gamble with family/friends, more likely to gamble due to loneliness, and had higher problem gambling. Prevention and treatment initiatives should examine ways to decrease loneliness and social isolation among older adults and offer alternative social activities.
Chondrichthyan teeth from a new locality in the Scottish Borders supply additional evidence of Early Carboniferous chondrichthyans in the UK. The interbedded dolostones and siltstones of the Ballagan Formation exposed along Whitrope Burn are interpreted as representing a restricted lagoonal environment that received significant amounts of land-derived sediment. This site is palynologically dated to the latest Tournaisian–early Viséan. The diverse dental fauna documented here is dominated by large crushing holocephalan toothplates, with very few, small non-crushing chondrichthyan teeth. Two new taxa are named and described. Our samples are consistent with worldwide evidence that chondrichthyan crushing faunas are common following the Hangenberg extinction event. The lagoonal habitat represented by Whitrope Burn may represent a temporary refugium that was host to a near-relict fauna dominated by large holocephalan chondrichthyans with crushing dentitions. Many of these had already become scarce in other localities by the Viséan and become extinct later in the Carboniferous. This fauna provides evidence of early endemism or niche separation within European chondrichthyan faunas at this time. This evidence points to a complex picture in which the diversity of durophagous chondrichthyans is controlled by narrow spatial shifts in niche availability over time.
On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall near Corpus Christi, Texas. The ensuing unprecedented flooding throughout the Texas coastal region affected millions of individuals.1 The statewide response in Texas included the sheltering of thousands of individuals at considerable distances from their homes. The Dallas area established large-scale general population sheltering as the number of evacuees to the area began to amass. Historically, the Dallas area is one familiar with “mega-sheltering,” beginning with the response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005.2 Through continued efforts and development, the Dallas area had been readying a plan for the largest general population shelter in Texas. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:33–37)
In the United States alone, ∼14,000 children are hospitalised annually with acute heart failure. The science and art of caring for these patients continues to evolve. The International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was held on February 4 and 5, 2015. The 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute was funded through the Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program Endowment, a philanthropic collaboration between All Children’s Hospital and the Morsani College of Medicine at the University of South Florida (USF). Sponsored by All Children’s Hospital Andrews/Daicoff Cardiovascular Program, the International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit assembled leaders in clinical and scientific disciplines related to paediatric heart failure and created a multi-disciplinary “think-tank”. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarise the lessons from the 2015 International Pediatric Heart Failure Summit of Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute, to describe the “state of the art” of the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure, and to discuss future directions for research in the domain of paediatric cardiac failure.
We report the first successful application of corona charging noncontact C-V and I-V metrology to interface and dielectric characterization of high-k/III-V structures. The metrology, which has been commonly used in Si IC manufacturing, uses incremental corona charge dosing, ΔQC, on the dielectric surface, and the measurement of surface voltage response, ΔVS, using a Kelvin-probe. Its application to In0.53Ga0.47As with a high-k stack required modifications related to the effects of dielectric trap induced voltage transients. The developed Corona Charge-Kelvin Probe Metrology adopted strictly differential measurements using ΔQC and ΔV, and corresponding differential capacitance rather than measurements based on total global charge, Q, and voltage, V, values.
Electrical characterization data including interface trap density, electrical oxide thickness, and dielectric leakage are presented for a sample containing an In0.53 Ga0.47 As channel overlaid with a bilayer (2nm Al2O3/5nm HfO2) dielectric stack that is considered to be very promising for application in performance NFETs with high-mobility channels.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
We present an update of the ‘key points’ from the Antarctic Climate Change and the Environment (ACCE) report that was published by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) in 2009. We summarise subsequent advances in knowledge concerning how the climates of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean have changed in the past, how they might change in the future, and examine the associated impacts on the marine and terrestrial biota. We also incorporate relevant material presented by SCAR to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings, and make use of emerging results that will form part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report.
Thin transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films of gallium-doped zinc oxide have been deposited on glass substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using diethyl zinc, triethyl gallium and water vapour as precursors. The gallium-doped zinc oxide films were deposited over the temperature range 100-350°C. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the as-deposited films are polycrystalline in character. The electrical resistivity of the gallium-doped zinc oxide films was evaluated using four-point probe and contactless measurement methods as a function of film thickness. The lowest sheet resistance of 16 Ω/☐ was measured from a film thickness of 400nm and a gallium content of 5 atomic percent. The electron Hall mobility of this film was 12.3 cm2/Vs. The visible transmittance of the films was 78% with a haze of 0.2%.
This paper addresses the fundamental aspects of etching semiconductors with inert gas beams in the presence of a suitable precursor gas. In particular, the changes that an energetic bombarding ion/neutral species cause to the surface and sub-surface region of a solid are considered, both in terms of the introduction of damage to the semiconductor and chemical processes that are provoked in the adsorbed states present. The implications for practical etching reactions are then discussed.
This paper addresses the issue of chlorine adsorption on GaAs(100) with respect to the mechanisms of thermal and ion-enhanced etching. The use of halogenated precursors eg. dichloroethane is also discussed in regard to chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE).
Gregory S. Pettit, Human Sciences Professor in Human Development and Family Studies, Auburn University,
John E. Bates, Professor of Psychology, Indiana University,
Amy Holtzworth-Munroe, Professor in the Department of Psychology, Indiana University,
Amy D. Marshall, Postdoctoral Fellow for the National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder,
Lori D. Harach, Assistant Professor in the Department of Human Ecology, University of Alberta,
David J. Cleary, Graduate Student in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Auburn University,
Kenneth A. Dodge, Director of the Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University
Experiences in the family and peer group play important roles in the development of interpersonal competencies across the childhood and adolescent years. Toward the end of adolescence, stable and supportive romantic relationships increasingly serve adaptive functions in promoting individual well-being and in fostering a sense of connection and security to others (Collins, Hennighausen, Schmit, & Sroufe, 1997; Conger, Cui, Bryant, & Elder, 2000; Furman, 1999). Romantic relationships marked by conflict and violence pose risks for current and longer-term adjustment and can compromise the health and well-being of the partner to whom the violence is directed (Capaldi & Owen, 2001). Romantic relationships in which one or both partners are wary, jealous, and insecure can stifle growth and fuel disagreements and disharmony (Holtzworth-Munroe, Meehan, Herron, Rehman, & Stuart, 2000).
Relationship insecurity and relationship violence covary to some degree (Holtzworth-Munroe & Stewart, 1994), suggesting that they may be linked in the development of romantic relationship dysfunction. Within the marital violence literature, insecurity has been proposed as a key pathway through which relationship violence develops. Consistent with this perspective, Holtzworth-Munroe et al. (2000), in their examination of types of male batterers, found that one type of batterer could be characterized by insecurity and a tendency to confine violence to an intimate relationship. Holtzworth-Munroe et al. (2000) speculate that insecurity plays an etiological role in the development of partner violence. If this were the case, then insecurity might serve as a mediating link between social experience (e.g., of rejection and intimidation) and subsequent violence.