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We extend the unpublished work of Handel and Miller on the classification, up to isotopy, of endperiodic automorphisms of surfaces. We give the Handel–Miller construction of the geodesic laminations, give an axiomatic theory for pseudo-geodesic laminations, show that the geodesic laminations satisfy the axioms, and prove that pseudo-geodesic laminations satisfying our axioms are ambiently isotopic to the geodesic laminations. The axiomatic approach allows us to show that the given endperiodic automorphism is isotopic to a smooth endperiodic automorphism preserving smooth laminations ambiently isotopic to the original ones. Using the axioms, we also prove the ‘transfer theorem’ for foliations of 3-manifolds, namely that, if two depth-one foliations
are transverse to a common one-dimensional foliation
whose monodromy on the non-compact leaves of
exhibits the nice dynamics of Handel–Miller theory, then
also induces monodromy on the non-compact leaves of
exhibiting the same nice dynamics. Our theory also applies to surfaces with infinitely many ends.
This study investigates the China-located subsidiaries of foreign-owned multinational corporations (MNCs) for patterns of intra-firm and interorganizational technological knowledge accumulation. We analyze US patents attributed to those subsidiaries between 1996 and 2005 and argue that MNCs have recently tended toward open network structures, enabling subsidiaries in emerging markets to develop technological capabilities by searching for diversified inter-organizational knowledge sources beyond geographically local contexts to compensate for local limitations and deficiencies. Findings show that subsidiaries in China have gradually developed their technological capabilities through non-localized searches beyond their organizational, technological, and geographical boundaries. The study contributes to the literature on MNC organizational restructuring, subsidiary evolution, and subsidiary-level non-localized knowledge searches. The findings also have important implications for knowledge spillovers, MNC knowledge management, and government policies.
To validate a fat intake questionnaire (FIQ) developed to assess habitual dietary intake while focusing on the assessment of detailed fatty acid intake including total trans unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA).
An 88 food item/food group FIQ was developed using a meal pattern technique. Validation was achieved by comparison with dietary intake assessed by a modified diet history (DH) in a cross-over design. Eighty-four individuals supplied adipose tissue biopsies for linoleic acid and total TUFA analysis as an independent validation of the FIQ and DH.
Medical Centre, Dublin Airport, Republic of Ireland.
One hundred and five healthy volunteers (43 females and 62 males aged 23–63 years).
Significant correlations (P < 0.0005) were achieved for intakes of energy (0.78), total fat (0.77), saturated fat (0.77), monounsaturated fat (0.63), polyunsaturated fat (0.73), TUFA (0.67) and linoleic acid (0.71) assessed by the FIQ compared with the DH. Linoleic acid intake assessed by the FIQ and the DH was significantly correlated with adipose tissue concentrations (r = 0.58 and 0.49, respectively; P<0.005); however, total TUFA intake was poorly correlated with adipose tissue concentrations (r = 0.17 and 0.10 for FIQ and DH, respectively).
The FIQ compared favourably with the DH in assessing habitual diet, in particular fatty acid intake. In addition, the FIQ was successfully validated against the linoleic acid composition of adipose tissue, an independent biomarker of relative fatty acid status. The FIQ could therefore be used as an alternative to the DH as it is a shorter, less labour-intensive method.
Five types of constructions are introduced for non-prioritized belief revision, i.e., belief revision in which the input sentence is not always accepted. These constructions include generalizations of entrenchment-based and sphere-based revision. Axiomatic characterizations are provided, and close interconnections are shown to hold between the different constructions.
Ever since . systems of spheres have been considered to give an intuitive and elegant way to give a semantics for logics of theory- or belief- change. Several authors [5, 11] have considered giving up the rather strong assumption that systems of spheres be linearly ordered by inclusion. These more general structures are called hypertheories after . It is shown that none of the proposed logics induced by these weaker structures are compact and thus cannot be given a strongly complete axiomatization in a finitary logic. Complete infinitary axiomatizations are given for several intuitive logics based on hypertheories that are not linearly ordered by inclusion.
Since technology is localised and context-specific, the technological trajectories of large firms tend to lock-in to particular national configurations. This article examines evidence on the industrial patterns of technological development in the largest firms originating from the US, Germany, the UK, France, Switzerland and Sweden, through their corporate patenting in the US since 1920. It is shown that in each national group the profile of development is path-dependent, but with some selected convergence between groups leading to the formation of three clusters of groups (the US and UK, German and Swiss, and French and Swedish) that share common characteristics.
I will divide my discussion into three sections. First, I will explain why innovation matters to the growth and competitiveness of firms and wider economies, and to the trade balances of national economies. I argue that with globalisation, innovation is exercising a steadily increasing influence upon economic performance. I advance this argument in the context of two very different perspectives on profits and economic growth, each of which can be found in the extensive historical literature on these issues.
Second, I deal with a possible counter-argument, which says that in a global world the rewards from innovation cannot be kept by the originators within national boundaries, and therefore it becomes less important as a source of profits and growth. This is known in the literature as the ‘appropriability’ argument – the view that it is difficult for innovating firms or countries to appropriate a full return on their investments in innovation. I show instead how, in the light of a newly emerging consensus among economists about the nature of technological change (a consensus especially, although not exclusively, among non-neoclassical economists), the appropriability argument has been overplayed, and need not be of undue concern.
Third, I contend that national systems of innovation and states continue to have an important role to play in a global economy. Far from collapsing with globalisation (as some writers have imagined), national systems of innovation have been consolidated, and I explain why. There is also a role for policy support for innovation by national states, despite the fact that the justification for that policy cannot rest entirely on the appropriability argument, as it has done traditionally in the economics literature since about 1960.
Reports suggest a high prevalence of substance misuse in psychotic disorders but few studies examine comorbidity at onset of psychosis.
To identify the prevalence and pattern of substance use and misuse in first-episode psychosis, and relationships with diagnosis, mode of presentation and demographic variables.
Consensus diagnoses for 168 subjects presenting with first-episode psychosis were made using ICD–10 diagnostic criteria. Information on substance use and misuse was obtained from multiple sources. We examined associations between substance misuse, diagnosis and demographic factors.
Criteria for drug use, drug misuse or alcohol misuse were met by 37% of the sample. One-year prevalence rates were 19.5% (drug misuse) and 11.7% (alcohol misuse). Thirteen subjects (8.4%) received a primary diagnosis of substance-related psychotic disorder; a significant increase compared with an earlier cohort from the same catchment area. Drug misuse was associated with younger age of onset of psychosis, male gender and non–African–Caribbean ethnicity.
This study confirms high rates of substance misuse at onset of psychosis. There is evidence for an increase in diagnosis of substance-related psychotic disorders over time. Those most at risk of substance misuse are young males.
The undergraduate medical curriculum in Nottingham has recently undergone dramatic change in response to General Medical Council recommendations. As part of the changes, the examination procedure in psychiatry has been altered, replacing the clinical ‘long case’ with an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The OSCE has long been seen as a valuable assessment tool in more ‘procedure-orientated’ specialities, but its use in psychiatry is not widely reported. This paper discusses the reasons behind the change, the design and implementation of the OSCE, and benefits and problems encountered during its first application.
Substantial changes are taking place to undergraduate psychiatric curricula, in response to recent General Medical Council recommendations. The overall aim is to provide a training in core knowledge and skills that enables students to become competent junior house officers. These developments will inevitably affect clinicians' involvement in undergraduate teaching. How change is being implemented in Nottingham –and the success and challenges so far – is discussed.
It is frequently argued by economic historians that Britain's technological decline relative to countries which industrialised later can be dated to the Victorian period (Habakkuk 1962, Landes 1969). One factor which has been suggested to explain this relative decline is the disadvantages which were due to British industry's early start, making a switch to newer methods of production more costly (a theme discussed by Jervis 1947, Frankel 1955, Saville 1961, Kindleberger 1961, Habakkuk 1962, Ames and Rosenberg 1963, Aldcroft and Richardson 1969, amongst others). Generally underlying the early start thesis is the belief that production methods in different parts of an industry or an economy are interrelated, such that it is costly to change one component of a production process or the methods prevailing in an individual sector without complementary changes elsewhere.
This idea can be allied to an argument which has become popular more recently in the literature on the economics of technological change. The proposition has been advanced that technological innovation proceeds as a cumulative process, and that as a consequence it tends to iock in' to a particular course, once that course has become established. This proposition has been seen as relevant in a variety of contexts. One suggestion is that where there is competition between rival technologies for adoption it is possible that adopting firms become ‘locked in’ to a potentially less efficient technology following the choice of the earliest adopters (Arthur 1989). The decisions of the earliest adopters affect the decisions of the firms that come later. One reason is the role of technological interrelatedness, whereby a supporting infrastructure of complementary technologies become better developed, lowering the costs and increasing the benefits of adopting a technology which is already more widely diffused.
Imazethapyr at 0.05 to 0.14 kg ai/ha applied preplant incorporated, preemergence, and postemergence was evaluated alone and with complementary herbicides in the field for weed control in soybean. Imazethapyr controlled 90% or more smooth pigweed regardless of application method or herbicide rate. Imazethapyr at 0.05 kg/ha controlled jimsonweed 30% better postemergence compared to soil applications. Imazethapyr at 0.10 kg/ha controlled 90% or more velvetleaf regardless of application method. The addition of alachlor to soil-applied imazethapyr enhanced giant foxtail, jimsonweed, and velvetleaf control. Adding acifluorfen or bentazon to postemergence imazethapyr antagonized weed control. Adding sethoxydim to postemergence imazethapyr was not beneficial.
The extent of 14C-imazaquin and 14C-imazethapyr abiotic vs. biotic degradation in soil was investigated. Degradation was measured in an in vitro system which allowed 90% recovery of applied herbicide. Triallate biodegradation is well documented and therefore used as a standard. Herbicide degradation was compared in two soils, a Cisne silt loam and a Drummer silty clay loam. Herbicide degradation in gamma-irradiated soil was compared to fresh soil. Biomass quantities were measured for the duration of the experiments. 14CO2 evolution, extractable parent, metabolites, and unextractable residue were measured. After 12 weeks of incubation, 95% of the radioactivity could be extracted as parent from sterilized soil. In unsterilized soil, imazaquin and imazethapyr degraded at a similar rate which was dependent upon soil type. All herbicides degraded slower in the Drummer soil and triallate degraded two to three times faster than the imidazolinones in either soil. 14C-imazaquin degradation products included 14CO2 and unextractable residues. The major product from 14C-imazethapyr degradation was 14CO2. Evolution of 14CO2 from an imazethapyr-treated Cisne soil, containing a serial dilution of activated charcoal, demonstrated that adsorption of herbicide was negatively correlated with degradation. Therefore imidazolinone microbial degradation is regulated by the amount of herbicide in soil solution as determined by soil characteristics.
This chapter sets out with two rather ambitious objectives. The first follows from an attempt to place international economic expansion in the twentieth century in its historical context. One aspect of this expansion has been the evolution of the multinational enterprise (MNE). The aim here is to distinguish four phases in the evolution of the international firm, corresponding to four different periods which appear to have characterised an emerging international economic system since around 1600.
The chosen division between periods consequently reflects an essentially macroeconomic rather than a business history perspective. In particular, the objective is to identify the major underlying forces behind international economic growth, and how they have changed as the world economy has become more integrated. It is suggested that the components comprising the mainspring of capital accumulation in each period were at the same time shaping the typical form of expansion of the firm.
It is argued that the MNE is representative of the type of international economy that has grown up since 1945, in the sense that the rise of new technologies and products, a wider international division of labour, and the greater integration of production and services across countries have all been associated with the rapid growth of MNEs. However, this argument is seen to suggest rejection rather than support for the commonly held view (especially prevalent among economic nationalists) that MNEs behave sufficiently differently from other firms to warrant an entirely separate kind of analysis.
IN NOVEMBER 1979 THE GOVERNMENT ABANDONED ITS PROtection of Official Information Bill within a fortnight of its second reading in the Lords. That it should have failed to survive its first encounter outside the departmental world in which it was conceived, came as no surprise to those familiar with what Dick Crossman, in reference to excessive secrecy, once described as the real English disease.
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