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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
We read with interest the recent editorial, “The Hennepin Ketamine Study,” by Dr. Samuel Stratton commenting on the research ethics, methodology, and the current public controversy surrounding this study.1 As researchers and investigators of this study, we strongly agree that prospective clinical research in the prehospital environment is necessary to advance the science of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and emergency medicine. We also agree that accomplishing this is challenging as the prehospital environment often encounters patient populations who cannot provide meaningful informed consent due to their emergent conditions. To ensure that fellow emergency medicine researchers understand the facts of our work so they may plan future studies, and to address some of the questions and concerns in Dr. Stratton’s editorial, the lay press, and in social media,2 we would like to call attention to some inaccuracies in Dr. Stratton’s editorial, and to the lay media stories on which it appears to be based.
Ho JD, Cole JB, Klein LR, Olives TD, Driver BE, Moore JC, Nystrom PC, Arens AM, Simpson NS, Hick JL, Chavez RA, Lynch WL, Miner JR. The Hennepin Ketamine Study investigators’ reply. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):111–113
Presenting new approaches to studying food webs, this book uses practical management and policy examples to demonstrate the theory behind ecosystem management decisions and the broader issue of sustainability. All the information that readers need to use food web analyses as a tool for understanding and quantifying transition processes is provided. Advancing the idea of food webs as complex adaptive systems, readers are challenged to rethink how changes in environmental conditions affect these systems. Beginning with the current state of thinking about community organisation, complexity and stability, the book moves on to focus on the traits of organisms, the adaptive nature of communities and their impacts on ecosystem function. The final section of the book addresses the applications to management and sustainability. By helping to understand the complexities of multispecies networks, this book provides insights into the evolution of organisms and the fate of ecosystems in a changing world.
The development of algorithms for agile science and autonomous exploration has been pursued in contexts ranging from spacecraft to planetary rovers to unmanned aerial vehicles to autonomous underwater vehicles. In situations where time, mission resources and communications are limited and the future state of the operating environment is unknown, the capability of a vehicle to dynamically respond to changing circumstances without human guidance can substantially improve science return. Such capabilities are difficult to achieve in practice, however, because they require intelligent reasoning to utilize limited resources in an inherently uncertain environment. Here we discuss the development, characterization and field performance of two algorithms for autonomously collecting water samples on VALKYRIE (Very deep Autonomous Laser-powered Kilowatt-class Yo-yoing Robotic Ice Explorer), a glacier-penetrating cryobot deployed to the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska (Mission Control location: 61°42′09.3″N 147°37′23.2″W). We show performance on par with human performance across a wide range of mission morphologies using simulated mission data, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithms at autonomously collecting samples with high relative cell concentration during field operation. The development of such algorithms will help enable autonomous science operations in environments where constant real-time human supervision is impractical, such as penetration of ice sheets on Earth and high-priority planetary science targets like Europa.
Detailed chemical analysis of the 122 m, relatively high-altitude and low-melt Lomonosovfonna ice core provides the best-dated record of nitrate from Svalbard. A very significant non-linear trend present in the record shows: (a) a rise in concentrations from the 12th to the mid-16th century, (b) reasonably stable concentrations until the mid-19th century, (c) a rise in concentrations into the 20th century, with (d) a rapid rise in the 1950s and (e) a decrease after the mid-1980s. Nitrate is well correlated with ammonium before 1920 and after 1960 but not in the intervening period. the correlation between ammonium and nitrate concentrations indicates that ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) has been common at Lomonosovfonna. There are also places in the core where nitrate is very closely associated with calcium.
Accumulation and ablation rates over an Antarctic blue-ice area spanning the 14year period 1988–2002 are presented. Data were obtained by direct stake measurements. Large spatial and temporal variations in the net balance were observed without any clear trend over the entire period. There are marginally significant increases in snow accumulation, and in ablation in the blue-ice area farthest from the equilibrium zone (both at the 95% confidence level). The snow/blue-ice transition zone shows no change over the entire period of observation,and the blue-ice area near the zone shows no change in ablation rate over the 14 year period. The mass-balance gradient in Scharffenbergbotnen may have increased during the period 1988–2002. However, the changes are small, especially when compared with the changes observed elsewhere in Antarctica even relatively close to the blue-ice area. This may indicate that the blue-ice areas are relatively stable to changes in accumulation rate, and possibly temperature.
We use the upper 81 mof the record of stable isotopes of water from a 122m long ice core from Lomonosovfonna, central Spitsbergen, Svalbard, to construct an ice-core chronology and the annual accumulation rates over the icefield. the isotope cycles are counted in the ice-core record using a model that neglects short-wavelength and low-amplitude cycles. We find approximately the same number of δ18O cycles as years between known reference horizons, and assume these cycles represent annual cycles. Testing the validity of this assumption using cycles in δD shows that both records give similar numbers of cycles. Using the δ18O chronology, and decompressing the accumulation records using the Nye flow model, we calculate the annual accumulation for the ice-core site back to AD 1715. We find that the average accumulation rate from 1715 to 1950 was on average 0.30 mw.e. Accumulation rates increased about 25% during the later part of the 20th century to an average of 0.41 mw.e. for the period 1950–97. the accumulation rates show highly significant 2.1 and 21 year periodicities, which gives credibility to our time-scale.
A medium-length ice core was drilled at the ice divide on the Lomonosovfonna plateau (1230 m a.s.l.), Svalbard, in May 1997. As part of this project, temperature measurements were performed in the 120m deep borehole. At this site the ice thickness based on radar measurements is 126.5 m and the mean annual accumulation rate is 380 kg m–3. the measurements over the 15–120m depth interval show a nearly isothermal profile with a mean value of –2.8˚C and a standard deviation of 0.2˚C. the measurements reveal a temperature minimum at approximately 70m depth and a temperature gradient of 0.011 ±0.004˚Cm–1 near the bottom. the temperature minimum and relatively low temperature gradient cannot be explained in terms of a steady-state climate. Numerical calculations with a simple one-dimensional diffusion–advection model show that the temperature increased at a maximum rate of 0.02–0.025Ka–1 over the last 100 years, the total temperature increase amounting to 2.0–3.0K. Forcing the model with the observed record at Svalbard airport revealed that in the 19th century the surface temperature was at most 2.5 K lower, and that the instrumental observations started during a period with temperatures comparable to the end of the 19th century. the data are of particular interest for historical simulations since often no other temperature data are available in polar areas.
High-resolution ground-penetrating radar surveys at 50 MHz on the polythermal glaciers Hornbreen, Hambergbreen and several surrounding glaciers in southern Spitsbergen, Svalbard, are presented and interpreted. Accurate positioning was obtained using differential global positioning system (DGPS). Digital elevation models (DEMs) of the bedrock and surface were constructed. Comparison of DGPS data and surface DEMs with data from the topographic mappings from 1936 oblique stereoscopic aerial photographs and from Mission Russe in 1899–1901 shows that the Hornbreen and Hambergbreen surfaces are about 60–100 m thinner today in the upper part than at the beginning of the 20th century. Hornbreen has retreated by 13.5 km from the central part of the front, and Hambergbreen by 16 km. All the fronts of the nearby east-coast glaciers in this area have retreated. The bedrock DEM shows that the Hornbreen and Hambergbreen beds lie at –25 to 25 m a.s.l. The combination of sub-sea-level fronts and increasing steepness of the glaciers suggests that the low-lying glaciated valley filled by Hornbreen and Hambergbreen may become a partially inundated ice-free isthmus within perhaps 100 years.
Detailed ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys on the firn–ice transition zones of Kongsvegen, Nordenskjoldbreen, Hansbreen and Werenskioldbreen, Svalbard, are presented. We discuss features seen in GPR radargrams in all polythermal glaciers down-glacier of the firn line. The firn line of a polythermal glacier in GPR data is easily detected with both 50 and 200 MHz radar. By comparison with satellite images, characteristic patterns of reflection are shown to be caused by superimposed ice, but the reflections from the interface between the superimposed ice and the underlying glacier ice are of unknown origin. Layered reflections within the superimposed ice and firn area are likely from layers of ice lenses and relatively low-density firn in the firn area, and from bubble-rich and bubble-poor ice in the superimposed-ice zone. Dipping foliations in the glacier ice down-glacier of the firn line show that the layered reflections from the firn line are preserved, though in much weaker form, even when the firn has been transformed to solid ice.