This study examines the association between contraception use and intimate partner violence (IPV) among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. The observational study of 10,996 women used the chi-squared test and logistic regressions to assess the associations. Almost 80% of all respondents had used contraceptives at some point in their lives. About half of the respondents (48%) were victims of physical violence, while 11% experienced sexual abuse from their husbands. Urban residents, higher educated women and women aged 20–44 were more likely to use contraceptives than their peers in rural areas, those with lower education and those in their late forties (45–49 years). Women exposed to physical violence were almost two times (OR 1.93, CI 1.55–2.41) more likely to use contraceptives compared with their non-abused peers. Sexual abuse had no significant association with contraceptive use. Physical violence is a predictor for higher levels of contraceptive use among women in Bangladesh. The findings emphasize the importance of screening for IPV at health care centres. The differences in urban and rural contraceptive use and IPV exposure identified by the study have policy implications for service delivery and planning.