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The objective of the present study was to determine the dietary patterns of a Mediterranean cohort and relate them to the observed patterns of beverage consumption.
Prospective cohort study. Dietary habits were assessed with a semi-quantitative FFQ validated in Spain. A principal components factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns and to classify subjects according to their adherence to these patterns. The association between adherence to each dietary pattern and beverage consumption was assessed cross-sectionally. In a longitudinal analysis (2-year follow-up), the relationship between adherence to the baseline dietary patterns and the likelihood of changing alcohol consumption was ascertained.
The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) study is conducted in Spain.
In total, 15 073 university graduates were included in the analyses.
Two major dietary patterns were identified. We labelled them as ‘Western dietary pattern’ (WDP) and ‘Mediterranean dietary pattern’ (MDP). Higher adherence to the WDP was associated with higher consumption of carbonated beverages and whole-fat milk (P for trend <0·001), while higher adherence to the MDP was associated with higher consumption of decaffeinated coffee, orange juice, other natural juices, diet carbonated drinks, low-fat milk and bottled water (P for trend <0·001). Participants with higher adherence to the WDP were less likely to decrease their alcohol consumption during follow-up (OR between extreme quintiles = 0·68; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·84). By contrast, participants with higher adherence to the MDP were less likely to increase their alcohol consumption (OR = 0·66, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·95).
In this cohort of university graduates, a healthier dietary pattern was associated with a healthier pattern of beverage consumption.
To compare the anthropometric, alimentary, nutritional and lipid profiles and global diet quality of Spanish children according to saturated fat intake.
This was a cross-sectional study. Food data were collected using a food-frequency questionnaire.
Subjects and methods
The sample included 1112 children of both sexes, aged between 6 and 7 years, selected by means of random cluster sampling in schools. The plasma lipid profile included measurements of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) and apolipoprotein B (apoB). Global diet quality was evaluated by the Dietary Variety Index (DVI) and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI).
Energy intake, DVI and HEI of children from the lower quartile of saturated fat intake (LL) were higher (P < 001) than in the remaining children (UL). However, there were no significant differences in average height or weight between groups. The UL children had lower intakes of meat, fish, vegetables, fruits and olive oil and a higher intake of dairy products (P < 0.001). The intakes of fibre, vitamins C, D, B6, E and folic acid were higher in the LL children, who had lower intakes of vitamin A and calcium. The ratios LDL-C/HDL-C and apoB/apoA1 were lower (P = 0.04) in the LL children (1.87 and 0.52, respectively) than in the UL children (2.02 and 0.54, respectively).
The growth rate of children does not seem to be affected by the level of saturated fat intake. Furthermore, at the levels of intake observed in this study, diets with less saturated fat are associated with better alimentary, nutritional and plasma lipid profiles.
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