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The study of the petrogenesis of some magmatic rocks with special geochemical attributes provides effective information for us to explore the deep geodynamic background of their formation. A series of granitic porphyry dykes have been found in the mélange zone of the Asa region in southern Tibet, whose genesis may be closely related to the evolution of the Meso-Tethyan Ocean. Regional geodynamic evolution is investigated by whole-rock geochemical analysis, zircon U–Pb dating and Lu–Hf isotopic analysis of two porphyritic granites. The Asa porphyritic granites have high SiO2 (74.29–78.65 wt %) and alkalis (Na2O + K2O = 6.51–9.35 wt %) contents, and low Al2O3 (11.60–14.51 wt %), CaO (0.04–0.19 wt MgO (0.01–0.10 wt %) contents. They are enriched in Zr, Nb, Ce, Y and Hf and depleted in Ti, Ba, Sr and P, consistent with A-type granites. The samples are relatively rich in LREEs, with LREE/HREE ratios of 1.73–3.04. They display negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.24–0.28) and obvious Ce anomalies in some samples. Zircon U–Pb analyses show that the porphyritic granites formed in late Early Cretaceous time, 107.4 to 105.5 Ma. Zircon εHf(t) values are in the range of 6.9 to 12.0. These data indicate that the porphyritic granites were sourced from interaction between mantle-derived and juvenile lower crust-derived melts, with the addition of oceanic sediment-derived melts. This occurred when the subducting Bangong–Nujiang oceanic crust split to create a slab window. Rising asthenosphere triggered re-melting of lower crust basalts, resulting in the formation of the late Early Cretaceous A-type granites around Asa.
The present study aimed to investigate whether dietary choline can regulate lipid metabolism and suppress NFκB activation and, consequently, attenuate inflammation induced by a high-fat diet in black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii). An 8-week feeding trial was conducted on fish with an initial weight of 8·16 ± 0·01 g. Five diets were formulated: control, low-fat diet (11 %); HFD, high-fat diet (17 %); and HFD supplemented with graded levels of choline (3, 6 or 12 g/kg) termed HFD + C1, HFD + C2 and HFD + C3, respectively. Dietary choline decreased lipid content in whole body and tissues. Highest TAG and cholesterol concentrations in serum and liver were recorded in fish fed the HFD. Similarly, compared with fish fed the HFD, dietary choline reduced vacuolar fat drops and ameliorated HFD-induced pathological changes in liver. Expression of genes of lipolysis pathways were up-regulated, and genes of lipogenesis down-regulated, by dietary choline compared with fish fed the HFD. Expression of nfκb and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver and intestine was suppressed by choline supplementation, whereas expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines was promoted in fish fed choline-supplemented diets. In fish that received lipopolysaccharide to stimulate inflammatory responses, the expression of nfκb and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, intestine and kidney were all down-regulated by dietary choline compared with the HFD. Overall, the present study indicated that dietary choline had a lipid-lowering effect, which could protect the liver by regulating intrahepatic lipid metabolism, reducing lipid droplet accumulation and suppressing NFκB activation, consequently attenuating HFD-induced inflammation in A. schlegelii.
The regulation of lipogenesis and lipolysis mechanisms related to consumption of lipid has not been studied in swimming crab. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, enzymes activities and expression of genes of lipid metabolism in hepatopancreas of juvenile swimming crab. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain crude lipid levels at 5·8, 9·9 and 15·1 %. Crabs fed the diet containing 15·1 % lipid had significantly lower growth performance and feed utilisation than those fed the 5·8 and 9·9 % lipid diets. Crabs fed 5·8 % lipid had lower malondialdehyde concentrations in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas than those fed the other diets. Highest glutathione peroxidase in haemolymph and superoxide dismutase in hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed 5·8 % lipid. The lowest fatty acid synthase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed 15·1 % lipid, whereas crabs fed 5·8 % lipid had lower carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity than those fed the other diets. Crabs fed 15·1 % lipid showed lower hepatopancreas expression of genes involved in long-chain-PUFA biosynthesis, lipoprotein clearance, fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation, lipid anabolism and lipid catabolism than those fed the other diets, whereas expression of some genes of lipoprotein assembly and fatty acid oxidation was up-regulated compared with crabs fed 5·8 % lipid. Overall, high dietary lipid level can inhibit growth, reduce antioxidant enzyme activities and influence lipid metabolic pathways to regulate lipid deposition in crab.
A Pickering emulsion was prepared via synergistic stabilization of a lipase and palygorskite particles. The optimum conditions for the stabilization of the Pickering emulsion, such as the concentrations of the palygorskite particles and lipase, were explored. The morphology of emulsion droplets was examined using digital optical microscopy and polarizing optical microscopy. The palygorskite–lipase co-stabilized Pickering emulsions were investigated by determination of the adsorption rate, pH and zeta potential of the aqueous dispersion, as well as by determining the contact angle values of the lipase solution on a palygorskite disc that was immersed in toluene. The catalytic performance of the immobilized lipase in the Pickering emulsion was studied via the investigation of its thermal stability, storage stability and reusability. The immobilized lipase showed greater stability than the free lipase. The lipase immobilized by Pickering emulsion retained a high level of activity even after seven periods of recycling.
Owing to lack of a definitive correlation between carbon supports and catalytic activity of single-atom Fe-active sites, rational design and preparation of single-atom Fe catalysts have so far been elusive. Herein we designed and prepared one-dimensional core–shell nanostructured single-atom Fe catalysts, in which carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes with different crystallinities and electrical conductivities were used as supports to host single-atom Fe-active sites. It was found that the carbon supports with higher electrical conductivity accelerate charge transfer and enhance the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of single-atom Fe-active sites as well as the ORR durability of the final catalyst.
We study an affine two-factor model introduced by Barczy et al. (2014). One component of this two-dimensional model is the so-called α-root process, which generalizes the well-known Cox–Ingersoll–Ross process. In the α = 2 case, this two-factor model was used by Chen and Joslin (2012) to price defaultable bonds with stochastic recovery rates. In this paper we prove exponential ergodicity of this two-factor model when α ∈ (1, 2). As a possible application, our result can be used to study the parameter estimation problem of the model.
The present study examines the characteristics of clay minerals in shale gas reservoirs and their influence on reservoir properties based on X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. These analyses were combined with optical microscopy observations and core and well-log data to investigate the genesis, distribution characteristics, main controlling factors and pore features of clay minerals of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation in the East Sichuan area, China. The clay mineral assemblage consists of illite + mixed-layer illite-smectite (I-S) + chlorite. This assemblage includes three sources of clay minerals: detrital, authigenic and diagenetic minerals. The lower section of the Longmaxi Formation in the Jiaoshiba area has sealing ability which resulted in abnormal high pressures during hydrocarbon generation which inhibited illitization. Therefore, an anomalous transformation sequence is present in which the mixed-layer I-S content increases with depth. This anomalous transformation sequence can be used to infer the existence of abnormal high pressures. The detrital components of the formation also affect the clay-minerals content indirectly, especially the abundance of K-feldspar. The transformation of mixed-layer I-S to illite is limited due to the limited availability of K+, which determines the extent of transformation. Three types of pores were observed in the shale reservoir rocks of the Longmaxi Formation: interparticle (interP) pores, intraparticle (intraP) pores and organic-matter pores. The clay-mineral content controls the development of intraP pores, which are dominated by pores within clay particles. For a given clay mineral content, smectite and mixed-layer I-S were more conducive to the development of shale-gas reservoirs than other clay minerals.
Change mode and effects analysis (CMEA) is a powerful technique for measuring product flexibility toward future changes and diminishing the cost of redesign as well as shortening time to market. As a systematic methodology, it provides an in-depth view for the investigation of potential changes, causes, and effects in designs, products, and processes. Traditional CMEA determines the risk priorities of change modes by using change potential number, which requires the risk factors of design flexibility, occurrence, and readiness to be precisely evaluated. However, this is not always possible in real applications due to the uncertainty and subjectivity involved in the early design stages. It has been criticized much for its deficiencies in criteria weighting of the risk factors, change potential number calculation, and risk priorities determination of the change modes. This paper presents a systematic evaluation approach for determining a more rational rank of change modes by combining with the entropy weight method, rough number, and grey relational analysis. In this study, the entropy weight method is adopted to calculate the relative importance of risk factors. Rough number is presented to aggregate individual weights and preferences, and to manipulate the vagueness in the evaluation process. Then a rough number enhanced grey relational analysis is proposed to evaluate the risk ranking of change modes. Finally, a practical example is put forward to validate the performance of the proposed method. The result shows that the proposed change mode evaluation method can effectively overcome the shortcomings of traditional CMEA and strengthen the objectivity of product flexibility measurement.
We report on the growth and characterization of molecular mixed thin films of α-sexithiophene (6T), a well-known organic p-type semiconductor with high hole mobility, together with its perfluorinated counterpart, the so far rarely studied tetradecafluoro-α-sexithiophene (PF6T). Pure and blended thin films of these two molecules with different mixing ratios were grown on silicon oxide in ultrahigh vacuum by coevaporation. The effect of perfluorination and mixing on crystal structure, morphology, electronic, and optical properties was examined. The evolution of the PF6T crystal structure was followed in situ in real time by X-ray scattering. We found a new thin film structure different from the reported bulk phase with molecules either standing-up or lying-down depending on the growth temperature. The different morphologies of pure films and blends were investigated with atomic force microscopy. The impact of mixing on the core-levels and on the highest occupied molecular orbitals of 6T and PF6T is discussed.
The skeleton of a new vauxiid sponge (Order Verongida), Angulosuspongia sinensis gen. et sp. nov., described on the basis of material from calcareous mudstones of the Kaili Formation (Cambrian Stage 5), Jianhe area, Guizhou, South China, is composed of two layers of fused spicules outlining hexagonal or polygonal openings. These vauxiid remains are the first reported from outside Laurentia, and represent only the second genus attributed to the family. Its age is close to but still slightly older than the Burgess Shale Biota, and it appears to be a primitive relative of other members of the Vauxiidae. The morphological differences between Chinese and Laurentian vauxiid sponges may be a result of vicariance. These specimens not only extend the geographic distribution of vauxiids, but also help to fill a chronostratigraphical gap between North Greenland and North American material and provide additional evidence for understanding the evolutionary history of the Demospongiae.
Previous studies have thoroughly investigated the prevalence and risk factors for completed suicide. In marked contrast is the lack of a better understanding of attempted suicide in the elderly. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of attempted suicide in the elderly and examine the associated factors.
Using a multi-stage cluster sampling approach, a cross-sectional survey of 8,399 elderly house-dwelling residents was conducted in Shanghai, China.
The two-week prevalence of attempted suicide in the elderly was 0.75%. In the bivariate analysis, having no caregivers, depressive, anxiety, sad, fear, obsessive-compulsive and anger symptom, and lower scores on the Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living and the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale were significantly associated with an increased risk of attempted suicide in the elderly. In the multivariate analysis, sad and fear symptoms were significantly and independently associated with a higher risk of attempted suicide in the elderly.
The two-week prevalence of attempted suicide in the elderly is relatively high when compared with the annualized or lifetime prevalence reported in China and foreign settings. Elderly individuals with certain mental symptoms should be targeted for suicide prevention and provided with timely mental health support.
The new Vancouver Chest Pain (VCP) Rule recommends early discharge for chest pain patients who are at low risk of developing acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and thus can be discharged within 2 hours of arrival at the emergency department (ED). This study aimed to assess the performance of the new VCP Rule for Asian patients presenting with chest pain at the ED.
This prospective cohort study involved patients attended to at the ED of a large urban centre. Patients of at least 25 years old, presenting with stable chest pain and a non-diagnostic ECG, and with no history of active coronary artery disease were included in the study. The main outcome measures were cardiac events, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass within 30 days of enrolment.
The study included 1690 patients from 27 August 2000 to 1 May 2002, with 661 patients fulfilling the VCP criteria. Of those for early discharge, 24 had cardiac events and 13 had angioplasty or bypass at 30 days, compared to 91 and 41, respectively, for those unsuitable for discharge. This gave the rule a sensitivity of 78.1% for cardiac events, including angioplasty and bypass. Specificity was 41.0%, and negative predictive value (NPV) was 94.4%.
We found the new VCP Rule to have moderate sensitivity and poor specificity for adverse cardiac events in our population. With an NPV of less than 100%, this means that a small proportion of patients sent home with early discharge would still have adverse cardiac events.
The late Quaternary sedimentary sequence in the northwestern part of the Sichuan Basin consists of five lithological units and with increasing depth include the: Chengdu Clay; Brown Clay; Red Clay; Sandy Silt; and basal Muddy Gravel. The genesis, provenance and age of the sediments, as well as the possible presence of hiatuses within this sequence are debated. Measurements of grain-size, magnetic susceptibility, quartz content, quartz δ18O values, element composition, and Sr–Nd isotopic concentrations of samples from a typical sedimentary sequence in the area provides new insights into the genesis and history of the sequence. The new data confirm that the sediments in study site are alluvial–aeolian in origin, with basal alluvial deposits overlain by aeolian deposits. Like the uppermost Chengdu Clay, the underlying Brown Clay and Red Clay are aeolian in origin. In contrast, the Silty Sand, like the basal Muddy Gravel, is an alluvial deposit and not an aeolian deposit as previously thought. Moreover, the succession of the aeolian deposits very likely contains two significant sedimentary hiatuses. Sedimentological analysis demonstrates that the source materials for the aeolian deposits in the northwestern part of the Sichuan Basin and those on the eastern Tibetan Plateau are different. Furthermore, the loess deposits on the eastern Tibetan Plateau are derived from heterogeneous local sources.
Creative conceptual design requires significant previous design knowledge. Case-based reasoning enables learning from previous design experience and has a great potential in supporting creative conceptual design by means of seeking to retrieve, reuse, and revise most appropriate cases to generate inspired solutions. However, traditional case-based reasoning based creative conceptual design models focus on design strategies research, pay little attention to defining a consistent knowledge representation model, and neglect the research to make various types of knowledge retrieval tractable. Faced with such drawbacks, the expected design knowledge cannot be retrieved properly, especially in cases where multidisciplinary knowledge is concerned or exact query terms are absent. In order to solve these issues, this paper presents a combined approach to support creative conceptual design process. First, function–behavior–structure knowledge cell is introduced as a unified consistent design knowledge representation model. Second, a hybrid similarity measure is proposed to increase the overall possibility of obtaining useful design knowledge by considering semantic understanding ability. Third, an intelligent creative conceptual design system has been developed with a case study of a novel insulin pump design to demonstrate its usage, and two experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. The results show that the proposed approach outperforms other case-based reasoning based creative conceptual design models.
Wronascolex is a taxon of palaeoscolecids. It is commonly represented by isolated button-like microfossils or compressed individuals, which are found worldwide in strata ranging from the Cambrian Series 2 to Series 3. The earliest representative of Wronascolex is known from the Sinsk Formation of the lower Cambrian of the Siberian Platform. Other species occur in Burgess Shale-type biotas of Cambrian age from Australia, Spain and North America. New palaeoscolecid material from the Balang Fauna of the Cambrian Series 2 of eastern Guizhou represents a new species of Wronascolex, W. geyiensis sp. nov., and extends the geographic and stratigraphic distribution of Wronascolex, as well as providing additional evidence for understanding its morphology based upon correlation of body configuration and cuticular ornaments.
Spinal surgery is considered a high-risk surgery. To improve the accuracy, stability, and safety of such operations, we report the development of a novel six-degrees-of-freedom Robotic Spinal Surgical System that can assist surgeons in performing transpedicular surgery, one of the most common spinal surgeries. After optimization performed using Response Surface Methodology, the largest available workspace of the robot is determined and is found to easily cover the entire operation area. Cooperative control and navigation-based active control are implemented for different processes of the operation. We propose a hybrid control approach based on the speed and torque interface at the joint level. In this mode, the robot is compliant in Cartesian space, benefitting both the accuracy and efficiency of the operation. A comprehensive assessment index, combining the subjective and objective criteria in terms of positioning and operation efficiency, is proposed to compare the performance of cooperative control in speed mode, torque mode, and hybrid control mode. Active fine adjustment experiments are carried out to verify the positioning accuracy, and the results are found to satisfy the requirements of operation. As an application example, a pedicle screw insertion experiment is performed on a pig vertebral bone, demonstrating the effectiveness of our system.
First principle calculations are employed scheme to investigate the electronic structures and mechanical properties of AlCu3 with divacancy defects using the pseudopotential plane wave method. The defect crystal is constructed by removing the nearest Al or Cu atoms to form the double point vacancies. Calculated lattice constants agree well with the experimental data. Moreover, structural stabilities of crystals containing divacancy are reduced. Results reveal that the crystal with double Cu vacancy defects is more stable than that of Al. Calculations of defect formation energies indicate that the divacancy of Cu is easier to exist in AlCu3. Divacancy defects play an important role to improve the mechanical properties of AlCu3 and corresponding ductility, stiffness and plasticity are increased. Furthermore, chemical bonds become weaker since the divacancy are introduced. Hybridizations between orbits of crystals are analyzed to account for the interactions in perfect and defect structures. Accordingly, implications of these findings on the mechanism of divacancy are discussed.
In order to clarify the pattern of diversification and processes of biological activity during the Cambrian radiation, ichnofossils were comparatively studied in the early Cambrian sections of Newfoundland, South China and western Mongolia. Special attention was paid to size distributions of the most common ichnogenus, Planolites, and the densities of all the observed ichnofossils that preserve animal activity as expressed by bedding plane bioturbation indices (BPBI).
From the Fortune Head section in Newfoundland, a clear size increase in the ichnogenus Planolites is confirmed from the Treptichnus pedum Zone to the overlying Rusophycus avalonensis Zone. The BPBI also shows much stronger biological activity in the R. avalonensis Zone than in the T. pedum Zone. In Meishucun, South China and Gobi-Altai, Mongolia, however, a variety of Planolites sizes had already appeared in the T. pedum Zone, and the BPBI's on some bedding surfaces of the T. pedum Zone are already comparable to those in the R. avalonensis Zone in Newfoundland. In the earliest Cambrian, diversification and increase in the biological activity of the benthic fauna were diachronous in the wide geographic scale, starting earlier at lower latitudes (South China and western Mongolia) than at higher latitudes (Newfoundland), reflecting differences in the onset of Cambrian benthic animal activity under different climatic conditions.
Thiolate-gold nanoclusters exhibit unique optical, magnetic and chiral properties, which are attractive for novel applications in nanotechnology. A fundamental challenge facing these nanomaterials is being able to study and understand their physical properties in various experimental conditions. To overcome this, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy can be employed to probe the Au local structure of thiolate-gold nanoclusters in a variety of conditions, providing valuable structural information from multiple bonding environments (i.e. metal-metal and metal-ligand interactions). This study discusses a methodology for conducting a multishell EXAFS fitting analysis that can be implemented for thiolate-gold nanocluster systems. Specifically, experimental and simulated EXAFS data for Au36(SR)24 nanoclusters are examined with a total of 5 scattering paths fitted to the experimental data.