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Asia Minor bluegrass (Polypogon fugax Nees ex Steud.) is a problem grass weed of winter crops in China, where a population has become resistant to aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP) herbicides. The mechanism of resistance is due to an Ile-2041-Asn mutation of the ACCase gene. Screen house experiments were conducted to study the growth, fecundity characteristics, and competitive ability of this aryloxyphenoxypropionate-resistant (APP-R) biotype compared with a susceptible (APP-S) biotype. When grown under noncompetitive conditions, the APP-R P. fugax developed more rapidly than the APP-S plants, with earlier tiller and panicle emergence and seed shedding; the APP-R P. fugax set seeds nearly 12 d earlier than the APP-S biotype. APP-R and APP-S biotypes had similar aboveground dry weight before the flowering stage. Fecundity of the APP-R biotype was similar to the APP-S biotype (8.57 g seeds plant−1 and 0.17 g seeds panicle−1 versus 8.22 g seeds plant−1 and 0.13 g seeds panicle−1, respectively). Ultimately, the relatively slower-developing APP-S P. fugax had 50% more shoot dry weight than the APP-R plants. Relative competitiveness among the APP-R and APP-S P. fugax biotypes was investigated through replacement series experiments. No difference in competitive ability was measured between APP-R and APP-S biotypes on the basis of shoot dry weight before the tillering stage. These results indicate that there is no apparent fitness penalty for the APP-R P. fugax. The shorter growth cycle of APP-R with no apparent fitness penalty suggests that growers will need begin weed control earlier and possibly include vegetative crops with an even shorter growth cycle in their rotations.
We assessed inheritance of resistance to sugarcane brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) in selfing F1 populations of wild sugarcane germplasm Erianthus rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’. We tested parent and selfing F1 individuals for the brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, that has been shown to confer resistance to brown rust in sugarcane. The Bru1 gene was not detected in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’, E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ or their selfing F1 individuals, and we found there was segregation of resistance in the two selfing F1 populations (segregation ratio: 3:1). The results confirmed resistance in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ to sugarcane brown rust is controlled by a novel, single dominant gene.
We construct a multiply Xiong chaotic set with full Hausdorff dimension everywhere that is contained in some multiply proximal cell for the full shift over finite symbols and the Gauss system, respectively.
The aim of the study was to investigate how maternal dietary patterns and maternal/fetal cytokines are associated with birth weight and whether cytokines mediate the association. A total of 469 pregnant women and their children were recruited for this prospective study. Dietary patterns in pregnancy were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Maternal and umbilical blood serum cytokines (adiponectin (APN), IL-6 and interferon-γ) were measured via ELISA. Path analysis was used to explore the relationships between maternal diet, cytokines and birth weight. Four dietary patterns were identified: a mainly fruit, dairy products and poultry diet (FDP); a mainly vegetables, beans and pork diet (VBP); a mainly fish, shrimp and soup diet (FS) and a mainly tuber and egg diet (TE). Path analysis showed the order of effects of dietary patterns on birth weight was FS>FDP>TE>VBP (β=0·130, 0·109, –0·094 and 0·046, respectively). Only the TE pattern’s effect was negative. Maternal and fetal APN were positively associated with birth weight (β=0·045 and 0·226, respectively), and they mediated the association between the TE pattern and birth weight (indirect effect was 5·3 %). Maternal IL-6 was negatively associated with birth weight (β=–0·067) and mediated the association between maternal FDP and VBP patterns and birth weight (indirect effects were 10·1 and 100·0 %, respectively). All variables in the path explained 33·6 % of variation. These results suggested that maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy are associated with birth weight and mediated directly and indirectly through some maternal/fetal serum cytokines.
Ceramics are strong but brittle. According to the classical theories, ceramics are brittle mainly because dislocations are suppressed by cracks. Here, the authors report the combined elastic and plastic deformation measurements of nanoceramics, in which dislocation-mediated stiff and ductile behaviors were detected at room temperature. In the synchrotron-based deformation experiments, a marked slope change is observed in the stress–strain relationship of MgAl2O4 nanoceramics at high pressures, indicating that a deformation mechanism shift occurs in the compression and that the nanoceramics sample is elastically stiffer than its bulk counterpart. The bulk-sized MgAl2O4 shows no texturing at pressures up to 37 GPa, which is compatible with the brittle behaviors of ceramics. Surprisingly, substantial texturing is seen in nanoceramic MgAl2O4 at pressures above 4 GPa. The observed stiffening and texturing indicate that dislocation-mediated mechanisms, usually suppressed in bulk-sized ceramics at low temperature, become operative in nanoceramics. This makes nanoceramics stiff and ductile.
The development of advanced fuel fabrication technologies is important for developing accident-tolerant fuels and engineering fuels for safer and more effective nuclear energy systems. In this work, commercial-size uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel pellets with a theoretical density of 95% were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1600°C for 5 min. Systematic investigations suggest uniform densification and stoichiometric UO2 with an ideal fluorite structure across the commercial-size fuel pellet, but with a distributed grain structure because of non-uniform distribution of temperature during sintering. This work demonstrates a great potential of using SPS for fabricating nuclear fuels at a cost-effective manner.
We establish a dynamical version of the Kuratowski–Mycielski theorem on the existence of ‘large’ invariant dependent sets. We apply this result to the study of invariant chaotic sets in topological dynamical systems, simplify many known results on this topic and also obtain some new results.
The transition metal compound catalysts have been taken a great part in renewable energy conversion and storage systems. Herein, we report the uniform CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with abundant oxygen vacancies and specific active surface exposed through the simple hydrothermal reaction for improving the electrocatalytic performance and stability. They show good electrocatalytic performance for hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H2SO4 with an onset potential of 20 mV, the overpotential of 45 mV (at j = 10 mA/cm2), and remarkable long-term stability more than 100 h at different current densities and better oxygen reduction reaction activity with lower overpotential in 0.1 M KOH. Moreover, the home-made primary Zn–air batteries, using CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as an air–cathode display the high open-circuit voltage of 1.47 V and the maximum power density of 142 mW/cm2. The two-series-connected batteries fabricated by CoFe2O4 nanoparticles can support a light-emitting diode to work for more than 48 h.
The resolution of the electron microscope is now largely limited by the performance of its electron source when various aberrations in the electron imaging system, especially spherical aberrations, are corrected. A nanowire tip could be an ideal point electron source, where electrons are emitted from a small physical area. In this article, we review recent advances in electric-field-induced electron emission using a single nanowire, specifically, single-crystalline lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) nanowire, compared to the state-of-the-art contemporary tungsten cold-field electron emitter W(310) as well as single atom tip and single-carbon nanotube emitters. Owing to its low work function, improved emission stability, and high emission brightness, the LaB6 nanowire as a cold-field-emission electron source offers a new and exciting opportunity for developing the next generation of electron microscopes.
InAlN films and InAlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures were demonstrated on 150mm <111> Si using Veeco’s Propel single wafer metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. Smooth surfaces with root mean square (rms) roughness of 0.68 nm were observed in a 5x5 μm2 atomic force microscope (AFM) scan. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows well-defined layer peaks and fringes, indicating good structural quality and abrupt layer interfaces. Thickness uniformity of InAlN is 0.87%, 1σ, for a 7-point XRD measurement across the 150 mm wafer. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis confirms the uniform indium depth profile and the presence of abrupt layer interfaces. Negligible Ga (< 100 ppm, atomic) incorporation was detected in the InAlN bulk film. Film sheet resistance of 230Ω/sq, charge of 2.1×1013/cm2, and mobility of 1270 cm2/V.s were measured on a prototypical InAlN/GaN HEMT structure comprising a 10 nm-thick, 17% indium, InAlN barrier.
Triquetrous murdannia is an annual weed commonly found in rice fields in China. Laboratory and screenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the effect of light, temperature, osmotic and salt stress, seed burial depth, amount of rice residue, and depth of flooding on seed germination and seedling emergence of triquetrous murdannia and to evaluate the response of this weed to commonly available POST herbicides in China. Germination was greater than 93% under a wide day/night temperature range of 20/10 to 30/20 C in the light/dark regime. The time to onset of germination decreased as temperature increased. Germination was slightly stimulated when seeds were placed in light/dark conditions compared with seeds placed in the dark. The osmotic potential and NaCl concentration required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were −0.5 MPa and 122 mM, respectively. The highest germination (68%) was observed from seeds sown on the soil surface, but decreased with increasing burial depth. Only 7% of seedlings emerged from a depth of 4 cm, and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried deeper than 6 cm. Seedling emergence decreased from 93 to 35% with increasing quantity of rice residue (1 to 6 103 kg ha−1) applied on the soil surface. Seedling emergence was reduced by 40, 48, 64, and 70% at flooding depths of 1, 2, 4, and 6 cm, respectively, for the seeds sown on the soil surface. Fluroxypyr and MCPA herbicides provided 100% control of triquetrous murdannia at the 2- to 6-leaf stages; however, to achieve 100% control with bispyribac-sodium, MCPA+bentazone or MCPA+fluroxypyr, herbicides had to be applied by the 4-leaf stage. The results of this study could help in developing more sustainable and effective integrated weed management strategies for the control of triquetrous murdannia in rice fields in China.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
Continuous repetitive upsetting and extrusion (CRUE) processing was performed to investigate its effects on microstructures, mechanical properties and texture characteristics of a 2A66 Al–Li alloy. The results show that the average grain size is effectively refined from initial as-extruded ∼140 µm to ∼4 µm after 3 CRUE passes. The grain refinement is the combined effect of continuous dynamic recrystallization and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization. The texture intensity tends to be weaker and new cube texture is gradually developed with increasing CRUE passes. In addition, the fraction of high angle grain boundaries increases to 86.37% after 3 CRUE passes. Tensile test results reveal that the ductility is greatly enhanced with modest reduction in strength after CRUE processing. The variation in mechanical properties may be mainly due to the decrease of dislocation density and weakening of texture.
Potassium titanyl phosphate crystals in both x-cut and z-cut were irradiated with 185 MeV Au ions. The morphology of the resulting ion tracks was investigated using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SAXS measurements indicate the presence of cylindrical ion tracks with abrupt boundaries and a density contrast of 1 ± 0.5% compared to the surrounding matrix, consistent with amorphous tracks. The track radius depends on the crystalline orientation, with 6.0 ± 0.1 nm measured for ion tracks along the x-axis and 6.3 ± 0.1 nm for those along the z-axis. TEM images in both cross-section and plan-view show amorphous ion tracks with radii comparable to those determined from SAXS analysis. The protruding hillocks covering the sample surface detected by AFM are consistent with a lower density of the amorphous material within the ion tracks compared to the surrounding matrix. Simulations using an inelastic thermal-spike model indicate that differences in the thermal conductivity along the z- and x-axis can partially explain the different track radii along these directions.
New material of Jiangxichelys ganzhouensis Tong & Mo, 2010, including four shells, is described, more fully documenting the morphology of the species. A partial skull associated with one of the shells is reported for the first time for that taxon. The new material reveals more similarities between J. ganzhouensis and ‘Zangerlia’ neimongolensis; the latter species is therefore included in the genus Jiangxichelys. The phylogenetic analyses continue to support the monophyly of the J. ganzhouensis, ‘Zangerlia’ neimongolensis, ‘Z.’ dzamynchondi and ‘Z.’ ukhaachelys clade and the separation of this clade from the type species of Zangerlia, Z. testudinimorpha as recently suggested. The close affinity between Jiangxichelys and ‘Zangerlia’ spp. provides new evidence for weak physical barriers against the dispersal of land vertebrates between southern China and northern China and Mongolia during latest Cretaceous times.
A defect in the intestinal barrier is one of the characteristics of Crohn's disease (CD). The tight junction (TJ) changes and death of epithelial cells caused by intestinal inflammation play an important role in the development of CD. DHA, a long-chain PUFA, has been shown to be helpful in treating inflammatory bowel disease in experimental models by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. The present study aimed at investigating the specific effect of DHA on the intestinal barrier function in IL-10-deficient mice. IL-10-deficient mice (IL-10− / −) at 16 weeks of age with established colitis were treated with DHA (i.g. 35·5 mg/kg per d) for 2 weeks. The severity of their colitis, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, epithelial gene expression, the distributions of TJ proteins (occludin and zona occludens (ZO)-1), and epithelial apoptosis in the proximal colon were measured at the end of the experiment. DHA treatment attenuated the established colitis and was associated with reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the colonic mucosa, lower mean histological scores and decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17, TNF-α and interferon-γ). Moreover, enhanced barrier function was observed in the DHA-treated mice that resulted from attenuated colonic permeability, rescued expression and corrected distributions of occludin and ZO-1. The results of the present study indicate that DHA therapy may ameliorate experimental colitis in IL-10− / − mice by improving the intestinal epithelial barrier function.
The People’s Republic of China’s dramatic transformation has not only benefited its people, but has also led it to become a major player in the world. Here we examine how deeply perceptions of China have penetrated into the public’s perceptions in a wide variety of nations around the world – the US, 11 nations in East Asia, and 22 in Latin America. We ask a series of questions: how much do people know? How do Americans evaluate China? And how do publics in East Asia and Latin America view China’s influence in their nations and around the world? We also examine some of the ways in which perceptions vary, both across nations and within nations, such as by partisanship. In addition, we report the results of an experiment using an advertisement the PRC ran in the US to assess how successful they were in shaping public opinion about China. We conclude that our studies, and those of others, provide a strong baseline for assessing the effect of an emerging superpower on citizens around the world.
The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults.