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Environment-induced epigenetics are involved in diapause regulation, but the molecular mechanism that epigenetically couples nutrient metabolism to diapause regulation remains unclear. In this study, we paid special attention to the significant differences in the level of N6-adenosine methylation (m6A) of dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (DHAPAT) and phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) genes in the lipid metabolism pathway of the bivoltine silkworm (Bombyx mori) strain Qiufeng developed from eggs incubated at a normal temperature (QFHT, diapause egg producer) compared to those from eggs incubated at a low temperature (QFLT, non-diapause egg producer). We knocked down DHAPAT in the pupal stage of the QFLT group, resulting in the non-diapause destined eggs becoming diapausing eggs. In the PAP knockdown group, the colour of the non-diapause destined eggs changed from light yellow to pink 3 days after oviposition, but they hatched as normal. Moreover, we validated that YTHDF3 binds to m6A-modified DHAPAT and PAP mRNAs to promote their stability and translation. These results suggest that RNA m6A methylation participates in the diapause regulation of silkworm by changing the expression levels of DHAPAT and PAP and reveal that m6A epigenetic modification can be combined with a lipid metabolism signal pathway to participate in the regulation of insect diapause traits, which provides a clearer image for exploring the physiological basis of insect diapause.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread worldwide due to high infectivity. The social sexual environment in rural areas of China and the weak basic medical facilities may affect the treatment and transmission of the disease. The aim of this study was to understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to COVID-19 among residents in rural areas experiencing the epidemic and the factors, to provide a basis for further epidemic prevention and control.
The COVID-19 KAP of rural residents in Hebei Province was collected by the snowball sampling method. The COVID-19 KAP questionnaire was distributed on social platforms such as WeChat and QQ through a network questionnaire.
The overall level of COVID-19 KAP in rural residents was good, but in terms of knowledge, the correct rate of isolation was 73.2%, the correct rates of 2 disinfection items were 72.3% and 77.4%, and the correct rate of hand-washing was 70.7%; 54.5% residents felt panic; 81.0% disinfected household items; and 84.9% washed their hands correctly. Residents still needed to strengthen these aspects. A binary logistic analysis showed that age, education, and participation in training were factors affecting the level of COVID-19 KAP.
This study found that rural residents had good levels of COVID-19 KAP, but there were gaps in specific issues that warrant attention. We advocate training on COVID-19 for rural residents.
Mechanistic studies have suggested that antioxidants have beneficial effects on age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study aimed to investigate the association between the types and sources of dietary vitamin and carotenoid intakes and AMD risk in China. A matched case–control study of 260 AMD cases and 260 matched controls was performed. The participants were interviewed for dietary information and potential confounders, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations were performed. Conditional logistic models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of specific vitamins and carotenoids and their main sources. When comparing the extreme quartiles, the ORs (95 % CI) were 0·30 (0·10, 0·88) for lutein and 0·28 (0·11, 0·74) for β-cryptoxanthin. The associations for other dietary vitamin and carotenoid intakes were generally weaker and non-significant. Higher intakes of spinach and egg, which are important sources of lutein, were associated with a reduced odds of AMD. ORs (95% CIs) comparing extreme categories were 0·42 (0·20, 0·88) for spinach and 0·52 (95% CI: 0·27, 0·98) for egg. Participants who were in the highest category of both egg intake and spinach intake had a much greater reduced odds of having AMD (OR: 0·23; 95% CI: 0·08, 0·71) than those in the lowest category of egg intake and spinach intake. In conclusion, a higher intake of lutein and lutein-rich foods was associated with a significantly decreased odds of AMD. These findings provide further evidence of the benefits of lutein and lutein-rich foods in the prevention of AMD.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major public health concern all over the world. Little is known about the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population. This study aimed to assess the mental health problems and associated factors among a large sample of college students during the COVID-19 outbreak in China.
This cross-sectional and nation-wide survey of college students was conducted in China from 3 to 10 February 2020. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess psychosocial factors, COVID-19 epidemic related factors and mental health problems. Acute stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by the Chinese versions of the impact of event scale-6, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, respectively. Univariate and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed to examine factors associated with mental health problems.
Among 821 218 students who participated in the survey, 746 217 (90.9%) were included for the analysis. In total, 414 604 (55.6%) of the students were female. About 45% of the participants had mental health problems. The prevalence rates of probable acute stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms were 34.9%, 21.1% and 11.0%, respectively. COVID-19 epidemic factors that were associated with increased risk of mental health problems were having relatives or friends being infected (adjusted odds ratio = 1.72–2.33). Students with exposure to media coverage of the COVID-19 ≥3 h/day were 2.13 times more likely than students with media exposure <1 h/day to have acute stress symptoms. Individuals with low perceived social support were 4.84–5.98 times more likely than individuals with high perceived social support to have anxiety and depressive symptoms. In addition, senior year and prior mental health problems were also significantly associated with anxiety or/and depressive symptoms.
In this large-scale survey of college students in China, acute stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms are prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multiple epidemic and psychosocial factors, such as family members being infected, massive media exposure, low social support, senior year and prior mental health problems were associated with increased risk of mental health problems. Psychosocial support and mental health services should be provided to those students at risk.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
True ileal digestibility (TID) values of amino acid (AA) obtained using growing rats are often used for the characterisation of protein quality in different foods and acquisition of digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) in adult humans. Here, we conducted an experiment to determine the TID values of AA obtained from nine cooked cereal grains (brown rice, polished rice, buckwheat, oats, proso millet, foxtail millet, tartary buckwheat, adlay and whole wheat) fed to growing Sprague–Dawley male rats. All rats were fed a standard basal diet for 7 d and then received each diet for 7 d. Ileal contents were collected from the terminal 20 cm of ileum. Among the TID values obtained, whole wheat had the highest values (P<0·05), and polished rice, proso millet and tartary buckwheat had relatively low values. The TID indispensable AA concentrations in whole wheat were greater than those of brown rice or polished rice (P<0·05), and polished rice was the lowest total TID concentrations among the other cereal grains. The DIAAS was 68 for buckwheat, 47 for tartary buckwheat, 43 for oats, 42 for brown rice, 37 for polished rice, 20 for whole wheat, 13 for adlay, 10 for foxtail millet and 7 for proso millet. In this study, the TID values of the nine cooked cereal grains commonly consumed in China were used for the creation of a DIAAS database and thus gained public health outcomes.
Chitooligosaccharides (COS) are multi-functional foods and nutrients and environmentally friendly biological abiotic-resistance inducing agents for plants. In the current study, the effects and possible mechanisms of COS on improving the cold resistance of rice (II YOU 1259) seedlings were investigated. Compared with the control, a COS pre-soaking treatment enhanced photosynthesis, reduced oxidation damage and led to accumulation of more osmotic regulation substances under chilling treatment. In addition, a novel Deg/HtrA family serine endopeptidase (DegQ) gene, related to COS enhanced rice cold resistance, was identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that transcription of DegQ and psbA (D1 protein encoding gene) were up-regulated in a time-dependent manner by COS treatment under cold stress. With increasing expression of the D1 protein, chlorophyll b content was enhanced correspondingly. The current results suggest that COS could enhance cold stress tolerance of rice by repairing the photodamaged photosystem II, altering osmotic regulation and reducing oxidation damage.
This work was aimed to use the peak separation method to directly measure the critical temperatures and phase transition fractions of austenite decomposition products based on experimental dilatometric curves in hypo-eutectoid steels. The results indicated that pearlite transformation start temperature and ferrite transformation finish temperature could be clearly obtained through peak separation processing, which were generally hidden in the overlapped peaks of the linear thermal expansion coefficient curve. Moreover, four critical temperatures of austenite decomposition were retarded to lower temperature with cooling rate increasing. The phase transition fraction for austenite decomposition was quantitated by measuring the area of the corresponding phase transformation peak. The final ferrite phase fraction after austenite decomposition decreased with cooling rate increasing. On the contrary, the final pearlite phase fraction increased with cooling rate increasing. Compared with the lever rule, the calculation result using peak area method can accurately reflect the actual phase fraction change versus the temperature during austenite decomposition.
We aimed to investigate the prevalence of grade 1, 2 and 3 thinness among Chinese children and to explore their associations with socio-economic status (SES).
A population, school-based cross-sectional study using multistage, stratified cluster random sampling. Grade 1, 2 and 3 thinness, overweight, obesity and severe obesity were defined by the International Obesity Task Force BMI cut-offs.
Seven districts of Shanghai, China.
Chinese children aged 3–12 years (n 84 075).
In boys and girls, respectively, the prevalence of grade 1 thinness was 8·89 % and 11·78 %, of grade 2 thinness was 2·80 % and 3·74 %, and of grade 3 thinness was 2·23 % and 2·93 %. Compared with urban children, suburban children had higher prevalence of thinness. Children whose parent had low education had higher prevalence of grade 1, 2 and 3 thinness than those whose parent had high education. The prevalence of grade 2 and 3 thinness, obesity and severe obesity in low-SES children was higher than that in high-SES children, and the prevalence of grade 1 thinness was lower than that in high-SES children. Particular patterns of prevalence of grade 1, 2 and 3 thinness appeared in low-, middle- and high-SES children.
The study describes associations of SES with grade 1, 2 and 3 thinness, overweight, obesity and severe obesity in Shanghai children. The patterns of thinness and obesity in Shanghai provide further insights into BMI patterns in mega-cities in developing countries.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a lifestyle intervention programme, combined with a daily low-glycaemic index meal replacement, on body-weight and glycaemic control in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Subjects with IGR were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n 46) and a control group (n 42). Both groups received health counselling at baseline. The intervention group also received a daily meal replacement and intensive lifestyle intervention to promote healthy eating habits during the first 3 months of the study, and follow-up visits performed monthly until the end of the 1-year study. Outcome measurements included changes in plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), plasma lipids, body weight, blood pressure and body composition (such as body fat mass and visceral fat area). The results showed that body-weight loss after 1 year was significant in the intervention group compared with the control group ( − 1·8 (sem 0·35) v.− 0·6 (sem 0·40) 2·5 kg, P< 0·05). The 2 h plasma glucose concentration decreased 1·24 mmol/l in the intervention group and increased 0·85 mmol/l in the control group (P< 0·05) compared with their baseline, respectively. A 5 kg body-weight loss at 1 year was associated with a decrease of 1·49 mmol/l in 2 h plasma glucose (P< 0·01). The incidence of normal glucose regulation (NGR) in the two groups was significantly different (P= 0·001). In conclusion, the combination of regular contact, lifestyle advice and meal replacement is beneficial in promoting IGR to NGR.
This chapter describes the recently identified molecular, cellular, and brain circuits thought to be responsible for the phenotypic behaviors that characterize mood disorders. It is becoming increasingly clear that the neurochemical and structurally related abnormalities are closely associated with abnormalities in cellular plasticity. The chapter presents preclinical evidence and discusses the data obtained from relevant clinical studies. It provides an overview of the recent neuroimaging findings in mood disorders, highlighting how the extant data implicate a network formed by the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anatomically related areas of the striatum, thalamus, anterior temporal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and brain stem in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. The chapter helps readers make sense of the many novel findings presented, to extract integrated themes, and draw insight from the data. It is clear that genetic factors play a major role in the etiology of mood disorders.
Two in-vacuum undulators (IVU25) have been used since March 2009 at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Another small-gap in-vacuum undulator with a smaller period length of 20 mm was completed in July 2010. The mechanical system of IVU25 consists of support frame, driving and guiding system, taper mechanism, compensation spring system, suspending rods assembly, etc. We have attempted to manufacture IVU25 with high mechanical stability, rigidity and reproducible gap motion. A mechanical design study of IVU25 is carried out which includes finite-element calculations on the mechanical deformation of the girder. Some modifications have been made to the design of IVU20.
Nonsynaptic release of ATP from electrically stimulated dorsal root gangion (DRG) axons inhibits Schwann cell (SC) proliferation and arrests SC development at the premyelinating stage, but the specific types of purinergic receptor(s) and intracellular signaling pathways involved in this form of neuron–glia communication are not known. Recent research shows that adenosine is a neuron–glial transmitter between axons and myelinating glia of the CNS. The present study investigates the possibility that adenosine might have a similar function in communicating between axons and premyelinating SCs. Using a combination of pharmacological and molecular approaches, we found that mouse SCs in culture express functional adenosine receptors and ATP receptors, a far more complex array of purinergic receptors than thought previously. Adenosine, but not ATP, activates ERK/MAPK through stimulation of cAMP-linked A2A adenosine receptors. Both ATP and adenosine inhibit proliferation of SCs induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), via mechanisms that are partly independent. In contrast to ATP, adenosine failed to inhibit the differentiation of SCs to the O4+ stage. This indicates that, in addition to ATP, adenosine is an activity-dependent signaling molecule between axons and premyelinating Schwann cells, but that electrical activity, acting through adenosine, has opposite effects on the differentiation of myelinating glia in the PNS and CNS.
The strain relaxation and the misfit dislocation density in micron size windows with different mask materials were studied. Experiments showed that the misfit dislocation density and the strain in the SiGe films would be affected not only by the size of the windows but the mask material. Experiments also showed that after annealing the SiGe films grown in the micron size windows would be much more stable than films grown in the large area on the same wafer.
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