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The British Antarctic Survey Rapid Access Isotope Drill is an innovative new class of electromechanical ice drill, which has recently been used to drill the deepest dry hole drilled by an electromechanical auger drill. The record-breaking depth of 461.58 m was drilled in just over 104 hours at Little Dome C. The drill collects ice chippings, for water stable isotope analysis, rather than an ice core. By not collecting a core the winch can be geared for speed rather than core breaking and is lightweight. Furthermore, emptying of the chippings is performed by simply reversing the drill motor on the surface reducing the overall drilling time significantly. The borehole is then available for instrumentation. We describe the drill in its current state including modifications carried out since it was last deployed. Test seasons and the lessons learned from each are outlined. Finally, future developments for this class of drill are discussed.
In this paper, we propose a compact scheme to numerically study the coupled stochastic nonlinear Schrödinger equations. We prove that the compact scheme preserves the discrete stochastic multi-symplectic conservation law, discrete charge conservation law and discrete energy evolution law almost surely. Numerical experiments confirm well the theoretical analysis results. Furthermore, we present a detailed numerical investigation of the optical phenomena based on the compact scheme. By numerical experiments for various amplitudes of noise, we find that the noise accelerates the oscillation of the soliton and leads to the decay of the solution amplitudes with respect to time. In particular, if the noise is relatively strong, the soliton will be totally destroyed. Meanwhile, we observe that the phase shift is sensibly modified by the noise. Moreover, the numerical results present inelastic interaction which is different from the deterministic case.
We study the construction of symplectic Runge-Kutta methods for stochastic Hamiltonian systems (SHS). Three types of systems, SHS with multiplicative noise, special separable Hamiltonians and multiple additive noise, respectively, are considered in this paper. Stochastic Runge-Kutta (SRK) methods for these systems are investigated, and the corresponding conditions for SRK methods to preserve the symplectic property are given. Based on the weak/strong order and symplectic conditions, some effective schemes are derived. In particular, using the algebraic computation, we obtained two classes of high weak order symplectic Runge-Kutta methods for SHS with a single multiplicative noise, and two classes of high strong order symplectic Runge-Kutta methods for SHS with multiple multiplicative and additive noise, respectively. The numerical case studies confirm that the symplectic methods are efficient computational tools for long-term simulations.
In this paper we propose stochastic multi-symplectic conservation law for stochastic Hamiltonian partial differential equations, and develop a stochastic multi-symplectic method for numerically solving a kind of stochastic nonlinear Schrödinger equations. It is shown that the stochastic multi-symplectic method preserves the multi-symplectic structure, the discrete charge conservation law, and deduces the recurrence relation of the discrete energy. Numerical experiments are performed to verify the good behaviors of the stochastic multi-symplectic method in cases of both solitary wave and collision.
The local one-dimensional multisymplectic scheme (LOD-MS) is developed for the three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation in Bose-Einstein condensates. The idea is originated from the advantages of multisymplectic integrators and from the cheap computational cost of the local one-dimensional (LOD) method. The 3D GP equation is split into three linear LOD Schrödinger equations and an exactly solvable nonlinear Hamiltonian ODE. The three linear LOD Schrödinger equations are multisymplectic which can be approximated by multisymplectic integrator (MI). The conservative properties of the proposed scheme are investigated. It is mass-preserving. Surprisingly, the scheme preserves the discrete local energy conservation laws and global energy conservation law if the wave function is variable separable. This is impossible for conventional MIs in nonlinear Hamiltonian context. The numerical results show that the LOD-MS can simulate the original problems very well. They are consistent with the numerical analysis.
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