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Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF) is used for many types of routine analysis in the paper industry. Examples of routine elemental analysis include analysis of pigments in papers and coatings, analysis of fuels, and analysis of paper-mill waste. In the central analytical laboratory, however, WDXRF is frequently called upon in unique problem-solving situations. In some cases, these problem-solving applications later develop into routine methods.
In this paper, three examples of WDXRF being used as a problem-solving technique are discussed. These situations are: the determination of the cause of ring formation in lime-kilns, failure analysis of ceramic limekiln linings, and the determination of pigment distributions in alkaline papers.
The deep ice-sheet coring (DISC) drill consists of four major mechanical drilling subsystems and four subsystems supporting on-surface activities. The mechanical drilling subsystems are a drill sonde, a drill cable, a tower and a winch. The drill sonde is the down-hole portion of the drill system and consists of six distinct sections: (1) the cutter head, (2) the core barrel, (3) the screen section, (4) the motor/pump section, (5) the instrument section and (6) the upper sonde, which includes anti-torques and drill cable terminations. The drill cable not only provides the means of supporting the drill sonde in the borehole, but also provides conduits for electrical power and data transmission. The tower tilts to allow the drill sonde to be serviced in the horizontal position without removing it from the tower. The winch provides a means of quickly raising the sonde from the borehole and providing the fine control necessary for coring operations.
The Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill developed by Ice Coring and Drilling Services under contract with the US National Science Foundation is an electromechanical ice-drill system designed to take 122mm ice cores to depths of 4000 m. The new drill system was field-tested near Summit camp in central Greenland during the spring/summer of 2006. Testing was conducted to verify the performance of the DISC drill system and its individual components and to determine the modifications required prior to the system’s planned deployment for coring at the WAIS Divide site in Antarctica in the following year. The experiments, results and the drill crew’s experiences with the DISC drill during testing are described and discussed.
Ice velocities observed in 2005/06 at three GPS stations along the Sermeq Avannarleq flowline, West Greenland, are used to characterize an observed annual velocity cycle. We attempt to reproduce this annual ice velocity cycle using a 1-D ice-flow model with longitudinal stresses coupled to a 1-D hydrology model that governs an empirical basal sliding rule. Seasonal basal sliding velocity is parameterized as a perturbation of prescribed winter sliding velocity that is proportional to the rate of change of glacier water storage. The coupled model reproduces the broad features of the annual basal sliding cycle observed along this flowline, namely a summer speed-up event followed by a fall slowdown event. We also evaluate the hypothesis that the observed annual velocity cycle is due to the annual calving cycle at the terminus. We demonstrate that the ice acceleration due to a catastrophic calving event takes an order of magnitude longer to reach CU/ETH (‘Swiss’) Camp (46 km upstream of the terminus) than is observed. The seasonal acceleration observed at Swiss Camp is therefore unlikely to be the result of velocity perturbations propagated upstream via longitudinal coupling. Instead we interpret this velocity cycle to reflect the local history of glacier water balance.
We apply a novel one-dimensional glacier hydrology model that calculates hydraulic head to the tidewater-terminating Sermeq Avannarleq flowline of the Greenland ice sheet. Within a plausible parameter space, the model achieves a quasi-steady-state annual cycle in which hydraulic head oscillates close to flotation throughout the ablation zone. Flotation is briefly achieved during the summer melt season along a ∼17 km stretch of the ∼50 km of flowline within the ablation zone. Beneath the majority of the flowline, subglacial conduit storage ‘closes’ (i.e. obtains minimum radius) during the winter and ‘opens’ (i.e. obtains maximum radius) during the summer. Along certain stretches of the flowline, the model predicts that subglacial conduit storage remains open throughout the year. A calculated mean glacier water residence time of ∼2.2 years implies that significant amounts of water are stored in the glacier throughout the year. We interpret this residence time as being indicative of the timescale over which the glacier hydrologic system is capable of adjusting to external surface meltwater forcings. Based on in situ ice velocity observations, we suggest that the summer speed-up event generally corresponds to conditions of increasing hydraulic head during inefficient subglacial drainage. Conversely, the slowdown during fall generally corresponds to conditions of decreasing hydraulic head during efficient subglacial drainage.
Nexus is the official publication of the biennial German Jewish Studies Workshop, which was inaugurated at Duke University in 2009, and is now held at the University of Notre Dame. Together, Nexus and the Workshop constitute the first ongoing forum in North America for German Jewish Studies. Nexus publishes innovative research in German Jewish Studies, introducing new directions, analyzing the development and definition of the field, and considering its place vis-à-vis both German Studies and Jewish Studies. Additionally, it examines issues of pedagogy and programming at the undergraduate, graduate, and community levels. Nexus 3 features special forum sections on Heinrich Heine and Karl Kraus. Renowned Heine scholar Jeffrey Sammons offers a magisterial critical retrospective on this towering "German Jewish" author, followed by a response from Ritchie Robertson, while the dean of Kraus scholarship, Edward Timms, reflects on the challenges and rewards oftranslating German Jewish dialect into English. Paul Reitter provides a thoughtful response.
Contributors: Angela Botelho, Jay Geller, Abigail Gillman, Jeffrey A. Grossman, Leo Lensing, Georg Mein, Paul Reitter, Ritchie Robertson, Jeffrey L. Sammons, Egon Schwarz, Edward Timms, Liliane Weissberg, Emma Woelk.
William Collins Donahue is the John J. Cavanaugh Professor of the Humanities at the University of Notre Dame, where he chairs the Department of German and Russian. Martha B. Helfer is Professor of German and an affiliate member of the Department of Jewish Studies at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
We have recently completed an analysis that examines in detail the spatial and temporal variations in global sea-ice coverage from 26 October 1978, through 20 August 1987. The sea-icemeasurements we analyzed are derived from data collected by a multispectral, dual-polarized, constant incidence-angle microwave imager, the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the NASA Nimbus 7 satellite. The characteristics of the SMMR have permitted a more accurate calculation of total sea-ice concentrations (fraction of ocean area covered by sea ice) than earlier single-channel instruments and, for the first time, a determination of both multiyear sea-ice concentrations and physical temperatures of the sea-ice pack. An estimate of the SMMR wintertime total ice concentration accuracy of ± 7% in both hemispheres has been obtained. As this is an improvement over the estimated accuracies of previous microwave sensors, we are able to present improved calculations of the sea-ice extents (areas enclosed by the 15% ice concentration boundaries), sea-ice concentrations, and open-water areas within the ice margins. This analysis will be published in a book, Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, 1978–1987: satellite passive microwave observations and analysis, due for publication in1992. Some highlights from the analysis are presented in this paper.
The field of mathematical psychology began in the 1950s and includes both psychological theorizing, in which mathematics plays a key role, and applied mathematics, motivated by substantive problems in psychology. Central to its success was the publication of the first Handbook of Mathematical Psychology in the 1960s. The psychological sciences have since expanded to include new areas of research, and significant advances have been made in both traditional psychological domains and in the applications of the computational sciences to psychology. Upholding the rigor of the first title in this field to be published, the New Handbook of Mathematical Psychology reflects the current state of the field by exploring the mathematical and computational foundations of new developments over the last half-century. This first volume focuses on select mathematical ideas, theories, and modeling approaches to form a foundational treatment of mathematical psychology.