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Given the significance of strikes in the history of communist Poland, the strikes that occurred during the era of high Stalinism (1948-53) have received remarkably little scholarly attention. This article deals with one of the most significant strike waves of that period: the occupational strikes that broke out in the Dąbrowa basin after the regime extended the working day in the mines by one hour in April 1951. What lent additional salience to these strikes was that the Dąbrowa basin, nicknamed the “Red Basin” on account of its radical traditions of industrial protest, had been a communist stronghold in interwar Poland and that many card-carrying communists participated in the strikes. The article demonstrates that the strikes were the culmination of a process whereby the “aristocracy of labor” of seasoned activists turned against a regime that increasingly relied on younger migrants from the rural provinces in its campaigns to raise production. If the historical struggles of the miners in the Dąbrowa basin were instrumental in triggering the strikes, however, the article also makes clear how representatives of the regime could invoke these struggles to bring the strikes to an end.
This innovative pan-European history of post-war socialism challenges the East-West paradigm that still dominates accounts of post-war Europe. Jan De Graaf offers a comparative study of the ways in which the French, Italian and Polish socialist parties and the Czechoslovakian Social Democratic Party dealt with the problems of socio-economic and political reconstruction. Drawing on archival documents in seven languages, De Graaf reveals the profound divide which existed in all four countries between socialist elites and their grassroots as workers reacted hostilely to calls for industrial discipline and for further sacrifices towards the reconstruction effort. He also provides a fresh interpretation of the political weaknesses of socialist parties in post-war continental Europe by stressing the importance of political history and social structure. By placing the attitudes of the continental socialist parties in their proper socio-historical context he highlights the many similarities across and divergences within the two putative blocs.
This article explores the chasm between party leaders and rank-and-file workers within the postwar Italian Socialist Party and Polish Socialist Party between 1944 and 1947. So far only studied in the context of communist parties, existing historiography on this theme has observed a deep rift between the radicalization amongst grassroots activists defending the self-management workers had won during the final days of World War II and the moderation practised by party leaders desperate to demonstrate their trustworthiness as government partners. Based on an analysis of the sentiments amongst socialist workers in Łódż and Sesto San Giovanni, and of the visions espoused by provincial and national socialist leaders, this article argues that the dynamics within socialist parties were exactly the other way around. Whereas socialist leaders ascribed a crucial role to grassroots participatory structures in their efforts to teach the working classes democracy, socialist workers were more concerned with day-to-day survival than with participation, self-management, or any other question.
Little is known about the interrelationships between maternal and infant erythrocyte-DHA, milk-DHA and maternal adipose tissue (AT)-DHA contents. We studied these relationships in four tribes in Tanzania (Maasai, Pare, Sengerema and Ukerewe) differing in their lifetime intakes of fish. Cross-sectional samples were collected at delivery and after 3 d and 3 months of exclusive breast-feeding. We found that intra-uterine biomagnification is a sign of low maternal DHA status, that genuine biomagnification occurs during lactation, that lactating mothers with low DHA status cannot augment their infants' DHA status, and that lactating mothers lose DHA independent of their DHA status. A maternal erythrocyte-DHA content of 8 wt% was found to correspond with a mature milk-DHA content of 1·0 wt% and with subcutaneous and abdominal (omentum) AT-DHA contents of about 0·39 and 0·52 wt%, respectively. Consequently, 1 wt% DHA might be a target for Western human milk and infant formula that has milk arachidonic acid, EPA and linoleic acid contents of 0·55, 0·22 and 9·32 wt%, respectively. With increasing DHA status, the erythrocyte-DHA content reaches a plateau of about 9 wt%, and it plateaus more readily than milk-DHA and AT-DHA contents. Compared with the average Tanzanian-Ukerewe woman, the average US woman has four times lower AT-DHA content (0·4 v. 0·1 wt%) and five times lower mature milk-DHA output (301 v. 60 mg/d), which contrasts with her estimated 1·8–2·6 times lower mobilisable AT-DHA content (19 v. 35–50 g).