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Technology is transforming the way legal work is being delivered. It is influencing what law firms, clients and legal departments are expecting of their employees and what employees are expecting of their employers. It is reshaping legal education and careers; lawyers are becoming legal knowledge engineers, information professionals and knowledge managers are working closer than ever with IT teams. In this article, Ann Hemming and James Wilkinson will be considering lawyers’ training and BIALL members’ role in the landscape being reshaped by legal technology.
Sharp edged features have been observed by Malin and Carter (1980), Schweizer (1980) and others in the envelopes of many elliptical galaxies. the most promising of current models involves the disruption of a low mass galaxy penetrating close to the centre of a considerably larger ellipsoidal galaxy (Schweizer, 1980, Quinn, 1984, Hernquist and Quinn, 1986, Dupraz and Combes, 1986). the release of stars having a range of energies and with a definite relationship between velocity and position at the point of release generates sharp features by the “phase wrapping” mechanism.
Civil society organizations are often seen as playing a crucial role in helping to mitigate the exclusion of weaker states, giving voice to marginalized communities, and raising environmental and developmental concerns within the trade system. The politicization and demystification of the global trade agenda by civil society also opens up space for a more diverse set of actors to influence trade negotiations. This article examines the evolution of the WTO secretariat's engagement with civil society within this context and argues that the dominant mode of engagement, as manifest in WTO Public Forums and civil society participation in ministerial conferences, is no longer fit for purpose. Rather it reflects an outmoded strategy that once served to underscore the existence and value of the WTO as an international organization and works to neutralize political contestation and publicly promote the benefits of free trade. It is now in need of reform.
To devise a measure of diet quality from a short-form FFQ (SFFFQ) for population surveys. To validate the SFFFQ against an extensive FFQ and a 24 h diet recall.
Population-based cross-sectional survey.
East Leeds and Bolton in Northern England.
Adults (n 1999) were randomly selected from lists of those registered with a general practitioner in the study areas, contacted by mail and asked to complete the SFFFQ. Responders were sent a longer FFQ to complete and asked if they would take part in a telephone-based 24 h diet recall.
Results from 826 people completing the SFFFQ, 705 completing the FFQ and forty-seven completing the diet recall were included in the analyses. The dietary quality score (DQS), based on fruit, vegetable, oily fish, non-milk extrinsic sugar and fat intakes, showed significant agreement between the SFFFQ and the FFQ (κ=0·38, P<0·001). The DQS for the SFFFQ and the diet recall did not show significant agreement (κ=0·04, P=0·312). A number of single items on the SFFFQ predicted a ‘healthy’ DQS when calculated from the FFQ. The odds of having a healthy diet were increased by 27 % (95 % CI 9, 49 %, P<0·001) for an increase in fruit of 1 portion/d and decreased by 67 % (95 % CI 47, 79 %, P<0·001) for an increase in crisps of 1 portion/d.
The SFFFQ has been shown to be an effective method of assessing diet quality. It provides an important method for determining variations in diet quality within and across different populations.
Cardiomyopathy is a rare disorder of the heart muscle, affecting 1.13 cases per 100,000 children, from birth to 18 years of age. Cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of heart transplantation in children over the age of 1. The Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry funded in 1994 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute was established to examine the epidemiology of the disease in children below 18 years of age. More than 3500 children across the United States and Canada have been enrolled in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry, which has followed-up these patients until death, heart transplantation, or loss to follow-up. The Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry has provided the most in-depth illustration of this disease regarding its aetiology, clinical course, associated risk factors, and patient outcomes. Data from the registry have helped in guiding the clinical management of cardiomyopathy in children under 18 years of age; however, questions still remain regarding the most clinically effective diagnostic and treatment approaches for these patients. Future directions of the registry include the use of next-generation whole-exome sequencing and cardiac biomarkers to identify aetiology-specific treatments and improve diagnostic strategies. This article provides a brief synopsis of the work carried out by the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry since its inception, including the current knowledge on the aetiologies, outcomes, and treatments of cardiomyopathy in children.
Systematic collecting through the upper Wenlock (upper Homerian) and lower Ludlow (Gorstian and lowermost Ludfordian) Silurian rock succession of the Long Mountain, Powys, Wales, identifies some 48 chitinozoan species that distinguish four biozones, two subzones and an interregnum. Consideration of the chitinozoan biozones together with those of the graptolites enables a local three-fold subdivision of the late Homerian lundgreni graptolite Biozone, and the distinction of lower and upper intervals for the Gorstian incipiens graptolite Biozone. The base of the Ludlow Series in the Long Mountain more or less equates to the base of the Cingulochitina acme chitinozoan Biozone, although no key chitinozoan first or last appearance datums are associated with the series boundary itself. The new graptolite–chitinozoan biozonation allows enhanced correlation between upper Wenlock and lower Ludlow sedimentary deposits of the Lower Palaeozoic Welsh depositional basin and those of the palaeo-shelf in the stratotype Wenlock and Ludlow areas of Shropshire. Chitinozoans seem affected by the phenomena that caused the late Wenlock ‘Mulde extinction’ in graptolites but, with the final disappearance of 9 species and re-appearance of 11 species following an interval of overall low diversity, they seem to have suffered less severely than their macro-zooplanktonic contemporaries.
An archaeological evaluation and excavation were carried out prior to a housing development in 1992, at Bramcote Green, in the London Borough of Southwark. Up to 3 m of organic rich, alluvial clay silts were deposited during the late Glacial period between about 12,000 BP and 9000 BP. A wide, shallow channel flowing south towards the Thames cut through the clay silts during the early Holocene and was filled with a series of clay and peat layers. Between 6000 BP and 4000 BP fast moving water channels formed on the marshy ground on the east side of the site and broader channels on the sand and gravel outcrop on the west side of the site. A subsequent rise in water levels, possibly seasonal, deposited inorganic muds across most of the site until c. 3500 BP. Over the filled-in channel were laid two phases of a wooden trackway which may have been laid across the marsh between high ground to the south and Bermondsey Island to the north. The earlier trackway consisted of two parallel lines of alder logs held in place by alder stakes. The second consisted of a single line of oak logs with alder stakes along one side. Radiocarbon dating of the second trackway places it in the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. The site was covered by a thick layer of peat dated to the Late Bronze Age.
Dual-Polarization Radar and Twitter were analyzed to determine the impact on injuries sustained by the Hattiesburg EF-4 tornado.
Tracking data provided from the Dual-Pol radar systems in National Weather Service Jackson were reviewed. Twitter data from four local Twitter handles were obtained. The change in tweets and followers for the day of the storm were compared to historical averages. A Student t-test was utilized in determining statistical significance (p<0.05). Medical records from two local emergency departments were reviewed for patients treated up to 24 hours after the tornado. An Injury Severity Score (ISS) was calculated for trauma records related to the tornado.
Radar detection of the tornado gave approximately 30 minutes of advanced warning time. Statistical significance in follower growth was seen in all four Twitter handles. Out of 50 patients, the average ISS was 3.9 with a range of 1 to 29. There were zero fatalities.
An ISS average of 3.9 was significantly less than two previous tornadoes of similar strength that occurred prior to increased usage of Dual-pol radar and Twitter as a means for communicating severe weather information. Early detection from Dual-pol radar improved warning time. Tweets informed citizens to seek appropriate shelter. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;7:585-592)
The ‘ethnic density hypothesis' is a proposition that members of ethnic minority groups may have better mental health when they live in areas with higher proportions of people of the same ethnicity. Investigations into this hypothesis have resulted in a complex and sometimes disparate literature.
To systematically identify relevant studies, summarise their findings and discuss potential explanations of the associations found between ethnic density and mental disorders.
A narrative review of studies published up to January 2011, identified through a systematic search strategy. Studies included have a defined ethnic minority sample; some measure of ethnic density defined at a geographical scale smaller than a nation or a US state; and a measure ascertaining mental health or disorder.
A total of 34 papers from 29 data-sets were identified. Protective associations between ethnic density and diagnosis of mental disorders were most consistent in older US ecological studies of admission rates. Among more recent multilevel studies, there was some evidence of ethnic density being protective against depression and anxiety for African American people and Hispanic adults in the USA. However, Hispanic, Asian–American and Canadian ‘visible minority’ adolescents have higher levels of depression at higher ethnic densities. Studies in the UK showed mixed results, with evidence for protective associations most consistent for psychoses.
The most consistent associations with ethnic density are found for psychoses. Ethnic density may also protect against other mental disorders, but presently, as most studies of ethnic density have limited statistical power, and given the heterogeneity of their study designs, our conclusions can only be tentative.
Although the directed energy and chemical reactivity of dry etching permits the fabrication of nanostructures with precise geometries, it also causes unwanted electrical and optical changes to the surface, changes generally referred to as “damage”.
This paper discusses the extent and the impact of dry-etching damage on rI-V and I[-VI compound semiconductors as assessed by a very wide range of techniques: the performance of devices such as MESFETs, and measurements of other properties - surface uniformly and precisely, Schottky junction characteristics, cut-off of epitaxial wire conductance, integrated photoluminescence, X-ray reflectivity, DLTS, TEM imaging and Raman scattering.
We distinguish an important difference between the nature of damage on sidewalls and on surfaces normal to the directed ions, and report on progress towards establishing a model of the nature of dry etching damage. This model is applied to indicate what kinds of processes are likely to give etching with low damage.
Two broad interpretations currently prevail in the literature on developing country participation in the GATT. The first suggests that developing countries spent most of their time in the GATT negotiating to be relieved of various commitments, focusing on the pursuit of industrialization through import substitution and/or free-riding on the commitments made by their industrial counterparts. The second interpretation suggests that developing countries spent the majority of their time in the GATT either as ‘quiet bystanders’ lacking the expertise or political representation to participate fully, or else attempting to redress biases in the institution's design. The problem with both of these interpretations is that while each has merit neither offers a sufficiently rounded account of developing country participation. Our purpose in this paper is to offer an alternative account of developing country participation that shows more accurately the extent and variation of that participation. We argue that throughout the development of the GATT developing countries were active participants that consistently sought to have an impact on the nature and direction of the multilateral trading system. We also argue that while the energy of developing countries was often directed towards negotiating more favourable treatment for themselves, this was a result more of the asymmetrical manner in which the GATT was deployed and a consequence of their relative underdevelopment than of a desire to free-ride on the favourable trading conditions created by the concession exchanging activities of others.
“When the history of congenital heart disease comes to be written, Brown will be given a high and honourable place along with Farre, Peacock, Fallot, Théremin, Vierordt, and Maude Abbott, as one whose labours have contributed vitally to the subject.”1
Little is known about the implications of left ventricular noncompaction in children with additional congenital cardiac malformations. With this in mind, we conducted a retrospective review of every left ventricular angiogram performed in a single tertiary referral centre for paediatric cardiology, in Melbourne, Australia, between 1994 and 2000 in children with congenital heart disease, looking specifically for patients with angiographic evidence of noncompaction of the left ventricle. The outcome of patients identified as having noncompaction was compared with that of patients from the same population, stratified by their primary congenital cardiac malformation.
Of 1515 children undergoing left ventricular angiography, 31, with 13 being male, were found to have angiographic evidence of left ventricular noncompaction, giving a prevalence of 2% (95% CI: 1.3%–2.8%). Of 69 (22%) children with a functionally single left ventricle, 15 fulfilled the criterions for noncompaction, compared to 16 of 1446 (1.1%) children with a balanced ventricular arrangement (p is less than 0.0001). The presence of noncompaction and a functionally single left ventricle were each associated with a doubling of mortality, the effect being cumulative. Of surviving patients with left ventricular noncompaction, 19% (4%–34%) have left ventricular dysfunction at their latest follow-up. We suggest that the important late sequels of noncompaction justify careful scrutiny for this entity in children with congenital cardiac disease.