Vanadium pentoxide gels V205.nH20 are formed via the condensation of vanadic acid in aqueous solutions. They exhibit both ionic and electronic conductivity and could therefore be used as cathode materials in lithium batteries or electrochromic display devices. The polymerization process leads to ribbon-like vanadium pentoxide particles. In a given range of concentration, sols and gels exhibit a homogeneous lyotropic nematic phase in which the ribbons align in the same direction. Ordered fluid phases are thus obtained leading to oriented films when deposited onto flat substrates. Moreover, mixed oxides MxV205 (M = Na+, K+,Ba2+, Al3+, Fe3+,Fe3+,...) exhibiting some preferred orientation are obtained via ion exchange.These compounds exhibit improved lectrochemical properties (specific capacity, cycling properties) compared to usual mixed oxides prepared via solid state reactions.