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Despite lithium has been used for the last 50 years as a maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder during pregnancy, there is limited information about perinatal clinical outcomes from fetal exposure to lithium.
1. To quantify the rate of lithium placental passage
2. To assess any association between plasma concentration of lithium at delivery and perinatal outcome.
Observational and prospective study. Subjects: Women in maintenance treatment with lithium, being attended during pregnancy at the Perinatal Psychiatry Programme of Hospital Clínic (Barcelona, Spain) between 2007 and 2009. Procedure: We assessed sociodemographical data; dose/day of lithium carbonate; other drugs doses; plasmatic concentration of lithium carbonate in maternal blood intrapartum and in the umbilical cord; obstetrical maternal complications; gestational age at delivery; weight at delivery; Apgar scores; congenital malformations; hospital stays, infant serum concetrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Eight mother-child diads. Mean age of the mother (SD): 32.1 (4,7); 100% caucasian and married. Mean dose of maternal lithium (SD): 675mg (237,5mg). Premature rupture of membranes (%):25. Gestational mean age (in weeks) (SD): 39,9 (1). Birth weight (SD) : 3625gr (451,2gr); Mean Apgar1min (SD): 8,38 (1,1); Mean Apgar5min (SD): 9,75 (0,4). Loss of fetal intrapartum wellness (%): 12,5. Days of hospitalization (mean) (SD):9,5(16,6). Lithium plasmatic concentration (mEq/L), mean (SD): maternal 0,45(0,1), umbilical cord 0,33(0,1), lithium ratio uc/m 0,93 (0,3); infant TSH μU/mL mean (SD): 4,9(4,6).
Lithium placental passsage was 0,93 (0,63-1,07). ≤At umbilical cord lithium levels ≤ 0.60 mEq/L, we didn't have any preterm deliveries, low birth weight newborns, nor neonatal complications.
To identify factors associated with visits by patients with schizophrenia and related disorders to community mental health services, under the Mental Health Department of Carlos Haya Hospital in Malaga, Spain.
We undertook a cross-sectional study. Data on demographic and clinical factors and service use were obtained from the public mental health services database and centralized in the “Malaga Schizophrenia Case Register (RESMA)”. The outcome measure, defined as the total number of outpatient consultations during one year, was analyzed by multilevel multivariate linear regression.
The analysis included 1097 patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia and related disorders (F20-F29, ICD-10).The adjusted model explained 46.35% of the variance. Patients who contacted both types of professional (nurses and psychiatrists) had a higher number of visits compared to patients who only contacted a psychiatrist (p< 0.001), and the individual psychiatrist attending the patients was also associated with the number of visits (p< 0.001).Clinical variables, such as a higher global level of severity (p< 0.001), a diagnosis of a persistent delusion disorder and having an inpatient episode (p< 0.001), were also associated with a higher number of visits. Patients who were receiving welfare benefits or who had no formal education or were illiterate had a higher number of visits. Patients living alone, living outside the study area and living in more rural municipalities was associated with fewer ambulatory contacts.
Among all variables, the role of psychiatrists and nurses in organized outpatient settings present the strongest association with the number of visits by similar patients.
To determine whether increased physiological arousal immediately after trauma or at emergency admission can predict post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors with physical injuries.
We included 119 MVA survivors with physical injuries. In this prospective cohort study, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were assessed during ambulance transport (T1) and at hospital admission (T2). One and four months after the accident, we assessed patients for PTSD (Davidson trauma scale, confirmed with the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders). Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the relationship between HR or BP and PTSD.
PTSD was diagnosed in 54 (45.4%) patients at 1 month and in 39 (32.8%) at 4 months. In the multivariate analysis, HR at T1 or at T2 predicted PTSD at 1 month (OR=1.156, 95% CI [1.094;1.221] p < 0.0001). Only HR at T1 (not at T2) predicted PTSD at 4 months (OR=1.059, 95% CI [1.013; 1.108] p = 0.012). Injury severity predicted PTSD at 4 months (OR=1.207, 95% CI [1.085; 1.342] p = 0.001). A cut-off of 84 beats per minute yielded a sensitivity of 62.5% and a specificity of 75.0% for PTSD.
HR measured at the scene of MVA and severity of injury predicted PTSD 4 months later.
There is a high frequency of attendance at emergency medical service for suicide attempts.
Determine the type of urgency for suicide attempt in our country.
Material and methods
The present study treats of suicide attempts (n = 248) attended by the Psychiatric Emergency Service of Hospital in our city between 2004–2008. The diagnoses were made by clinical interview following ICD-10 criteria.
248 suicide attempts (60% women), with age between 15 and 88 years.There are equal proportions of singles and married (a 38%). 53% live with couple with/without children, 30%live with parents and a 10%live alone. >55% of patients have a middle education and socioeconomic level. The average time from suicide attempt until the assessment in the emergency department is 2.71 ± 3.64 hours. The day of the week with more assistance for this reason is Monday. Also it's observed an increase in the months between May and October. The cases are uniformly distributed throughout the month, although there is a decrease in the number of cases in the initial and final days of the month. 60% of patients haven’t history of previous attempts and use an only method that is drug overdose. Personality disorders are the most frequent diagnose and 44% patients need an internment in a psychiatric ward.
Profile of the patient who makes a suicide attempt and that is evaluated in the Psychiatric Emergency Service of our Hospital: woman 36 years old, married/with couple and lives with him/her. She comes to emergency department in the first 4 hours after the drug overdose. She hasn’t history of previous attempts.She is diagnosed of emotionally unstable personality disorder.
The high prevalence of those called “revolving-door patients” continue supposing a high sanitary cost. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with multiple admissions in a psychiatric unit.
The sample included all patients hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at the hospital “Virgen de las Nieves” in the city of Granada (southern Spain), during the time period between 1998 and 2006 (n=1873). There is no consensus in the literature with regard to the definition of the “revolving-door phenomenon”. Basing on prior studies (Woogh, 1990; Thornicroft et al., 1992), we defined "revolving-door patients” as those who had been hospitalized eight or more times in an eight-year period (an average of at least an admission per year).
The prevalence of revolving-door patients was 10% (186/1873). The condition of revolving-door patients was associated with male sex (OR=1.5; IC 95%: 1.1-2.1), with a marital status different from the married one (OR=1.8; IC 95%: 1.3-2.6), and with the diagnoses of schizophrenia (OR=3.3; IC 95%: 2.4-4.6), schizoaffective disorder (OR=3.8; IC 95%: 2.3-6.5), bipolar disorder (OR=2.1; IC 95%: 1.4-3.2) and personality disorder (OR=2.2; IC 95%: 1.3-3.5).
Male sex, marital status different from the married one and the diagnoses of schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia may be a risk factor of readmission in a psychiatric unit. A better comprehension about the characteristics of these patients may help to establish more effective strategies to board the psychiatric community.
Two studies to date have been published regarding the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients. The unadjusted prevalence rates reported were 30% and 32%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of 142 bipolar patients from Spain.
Bipolar patients (ICD-10 criteria) from 11 centres in Spain were assessed cross-sectionally for metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP ATP III criteria.
The mean age was 47.3 (SD 14.5), 51.1% were male. On average, patients were receiving 2.8 (SD 1.3) drugs for the treatment of their bipolar disorder. Ninety-one percent were receiving mood stabilizers, 63.4% antipsychotics and 29.6 antidepressants. Eighty-seven percent of the antipsychotics prescribed were atypicals. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our sample was 24.6% Fifty-seven percent of the sample met the criterion for abdominal obesity, 37.4% for met the criterion for hypertriglyceridemia, 36.4% for low HDL-cholesterol, 25.2% for high blood pressure and 12.5% for high fasting glucose. No statistically significant difference was found between with and without the metabolic syndrome for gender, illness status (acute versus in remission), CGI-S-BP scores and number of medications used. Patients taking tow mood stabilizers had significantly higher metabolic syndrome rates than patients taking one mood stabilizer and than patients without mood stabilizer treatment (40% versus 17.8% and 11.1% respectively, p .02).
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in bipolar patients is high. It appears to be higher than that estimated for the Spanish general population.
Interdigital 2D:4D ratio has been considered as an indicator of prenatal exposure to androgens, entailing then a smaller ratio more androgenisation. Although it has been related to systemizing and empathy dimensions in the general population, it has never been studied in parents of people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs).
Objectives and aims
To analyse the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and these psychological variables in this population.
The sample was composed by parents of both genders of people with (n = 46) or without (n = 42) ASDs. The ratio was calculated as the mean of 3 measurements of each hand evaluated by 3 different researchers. Psychological dimensions were evaluated by means of the Systemizing and Empathy Quotients (SQ and EQ, respectively).
Parents of ASDs persons showed lower scores in the EQ than controls, being these differences replicated only in men. No differences between groups for the 2D:4D ratio were found. Nevertheless, regression analyses indicated that in parents of ASDs a higher 2D:4D left ratio predicted a higher EQ. This result was also observed in men but not in women. In any case, the model was not significant in the control group.
Parents of ASDs persons showed lower EQ than controls, being this quotient predicted by the left 2D:4D ratio only in the former. When analysing in each gender, these results are only obtained in men. Among other parameters, the D2:D4 ratio (especially the left hand one) could be considered a valid indicator of the ASDs parent's idiosyncrasy.
There have been numerous studies that reveal attitudes of different social groups in relation to mental illness, but have not been developed none in other chronic diseases such as fibromyalgia.
Our hypothesis is to demonstrate that there are certain beliefs about the disease that determine attitudes, and these beliefs may be related to certain personality patterns.
To determine the relationship between personality dimensions and attribution of causes fibromyalgia.
Evaluation of a sample of medical students, which were administered the following tests: demographic data (age, sex, year of study), Zuckerman-Kuhlman's Questionnaire of personality, level of concern about the disease and survey of possible causes in fibromyalgia.
A total of 34 students were interviewed, between 3rd and 6th grade of Medicine, with a mean age of 24.8 years (sd 5.5). 70.6% were women. 20.6% had contact with the disease (which in most cases a family member diagnosed with fibromyalgia), no statistically significant differences with respect to the concern about the disease, compared with the rest. There is a high level of agreement in the sample in the attribution of cause of fibromyalgia to a genetic predisposition, personality or sleep disorders.
In our study, Neuroticism stands between personality dimension. High scores on this dimension are associated with statistically significant differences (t-student), to attribute the cause “attract attention” (p = 0.02) or the “Influence of the mass media” (p = 0,03) in fibromyalgia.
There are dimensions of personality such as neuroticism, which may influence the attribution of causes of the disease Fibromyalgia.
It has become increasingly clear over the last few years that the most effective treatments for patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a combined psychological and pharmacological approach, aiming to improve the symptoms, feelings and behaviours that are so distressing and damaging to their lives. On this poster we try to show our daily therapeutic practice with these patients through a complete review of the BPD patient's medical records available in our outpatients psychiatric clinic.
Systematic review of all BPD patients medical records, treated in our clinic with a particular reference to pharmacological, psychotherapeutic or both approaches stating the type of intervention in each case.
We found a mostly mixed approach to treating BPD patients in our clinic as clinical guidelines and other literature recommends. Being critical of our practice, we have observed a prolonged use of medication despite evidence suggesting a sometimes limited benefit for acute and chronic symptoms.
Although psychotherapeutic interventions are widely used in our Clinic, it is doubtful that the most accepted psychotherapies mentioned earlier are the ones implemented (Kernberg, Linehan….)
The evidence from the literature and prescribing guidelines, suggests that some of the main approaches to treating BPD patients are specific psychotherapies. However, without belittling the benefit of these psychotherapies, we found that the use of psychopharmacological treatments helps too with alleviating acute and more chronic symptoms; maybe improving the likelihood of psychotherapeutic engagement.
Borderline Personality disorder is a well recognised syndrome. These patients show a clear emotional unstability, lack of control impulse, unpredictible auto and heteroaggresive behaviour, poor interpersonal realitionships and self image as well as brief psychotic episodes.The unspecific symtomatology and diagnostic difficulty derived from different nosographic frames makes their diagnosis and treatment a challenge. Through the analysis of their medical records we aim to know the age they sought specialized help, the symptomatology at first consultation, the treatment given and the outcome after years of therapy.
Systematic review of all BPD patient's medical records treated in our Unit with a particular reference to age and symptoms at the start of treatment and at present. Medical records from the Childhood and Adolescence Psychiatric Unit were also reviewed to determine the most prominent symptoms at that time.
We found that the vast majority of cases contacted the psychiatric services in their adolescence and early adulthood, probably in relation to demands of daily life at that age. The most relevant symptoms at onset of illness were depressive mood and anxiety. As time went on depressive symptoms were the main complaint. The clinical state remained fairly stable over time.
There is a clear early onset of symptoms, in particular, affective ones (depression and anxiety) being prominent in childhood and preadolescence. Also there is a stable psychopathology over time which keep the patients on long term follow ups. This medical demand seemed to diminish at their fifth decade.
Andalusia is the most highly populated (7,849,799 hab.) region of the Spanish State. It has all the sanitary domains under its own Health Service (Consejería de Salud), and it has undertaken a deep reorganization of the psychiatric services, establishing a new model based on the mental health communitarian alternative that is already completely implanted. Rates of readmission are a method to assess the quality of care and an important tool in the planning of services of mental health.
The aim of this study is to establish if readmission rates are influenced by Human Resources in Psychiatric Community Devices.
Part of FIS Project PI05/90061 ‘Patterns of General Hospital Psychiatric Units Overuse’.
MBDS is a system of hospital register that gathers all the discharges produced in the andalusian hospitals. It is totally trustworthy from 1995, and we have processed data up to 2004.
Our Data Set register 101234 hospital admissions of psychiatric patients.
The number of admissions from patients who enter three times or more throughout the year has been: 22.66%(1995); 24.66% (1996); 31.01%(1997); 30.72%(1998); 34.07%(1999); 35.35%(2000); 36.92%(2001); 32.93%(2002); 31.20%(2003) and 29.36%(2004).
On the other hand, it has been an increase in Mental Health Human Resources Rates: 24.23-100.000 inhab-(1998); 24.19 (1999); 26.01(2000); 28.04(2001); 29.83(2002); 29.16(2003); 29.34(2004) and 29.90(2005).
Increasing human resources in psychiatric community devices do not change revolving-door rates in general hospital acute psychiatric units in a community mental health system.
Adoption, twin and family studies suggest that suicide behavior is familial and heritable. Both completed and attempted suicide appear to be transmitted in a familial form. Genetics and environment influences had been detected in various studies. But suicidal behavior suggests to be inherited independently from the mental disorders usually associated with it. While traditional statistics emphasizes inference and estimations, data mining emphasizes the fulfillment of a task such as classification, estimation, or knowledge discovery.
The goal of this study was to determine in a large sample of suicide attempts which variables are associated with family history of attempted suicide.
In an emergency room, 539 adult suicide attempters were recruited. The two dichotomous dependent variables were family history of suicide attempt (10%) and of completed suicide (4%). Independent variables were 101 clinical variables explored with two data mining techniques: Random Forest and Forward Selection.
A model for family history of completed suicide could not be developed. A classificatory model for family history of attempted suicide included the use of alcohol in the intent and family history of completed suicide, provide a sensitivity of 78.4%, a specificity of 98.7% and accuracy of 96.6%.
A classificatory model for family history of completed suicide could not be developed using data mining techniques. But it suggested that the use of alcohol in the intent and family history of completed suicide may be associated with familial attempted suicide.
To determinate the prevalence of several mental disorders and its relationship with sex among patients admitted in a Psychiatric Unit.
The sample included all patients hospitalized in a Psychiatric Unit at the Hospital “Virgen de las Nieves” in the city of Granada (southern Spain), during the time period between 1998 and 2006 (n=1873). The tenth version of international classification diseases (ICD-10) was used to classify the mental disorders.
The principal diagnoses were psychotic disorders (36%), affective disorders (30%), substance-related disorder (8%) and personality disorder (7%). The prevalence of men was 57% and the prevalence of women was 43%. Male sex was significantly associated with substance-related disorder (OR=3.2; IC 95 %: 2.1-4.9), schizophrenia (OR=3.7; IC 95 %: 2.7-4.9) and mental retardation (OR=1.2; IC 95 %: 2.4-4.0). Female sex was significantly associated with bipolar disorder (OR=1.7; IC 95 %: 1.3-2.3), dysthymia and other depressive disorders (OR=2.4; IC 95 %: 1.9-3.1) and neurotic disorders (OR=2.3; IC 95 %: 1.4-3.7).
According with literature (Vogel et al, 1997) the principal diagnoses among patients hospitalized were psychotic disorders, followed by affective disorders. Previous epidemiological studies have shown similar prevalence of bipolar disorder among both sexes (Kessler et al, 1997; Kawa et al, 2005). Nevertheless, among patients with bipolar disorder who need hospitalization may be more women.
Antipsychotic treatment is known to be associated with secondary sexual dysfunction (SD). Recognition and treatment of this adverse effect has received growing attention. Until now, all antipsychotic agents were thought to potentially cause SD mediated by increased prolactin. Our aim was to observe whether aripiprazole modifies SD in patients with schizophrenia after 3 months of treatment.
Material and Methods:
Multicenter, observational, open-label, prospective, three-month study with single group of aripiprazole treated patients. Sexual activity was assessed using CGI-S and CGI-I for SD; SALSEX scale, validated for Spanish, 3 times after initiating study drug. Patient's clinical status was evaluated by CGI-S and CGI-I for psychotic disorders, and by BPRS Scale.
Result: 42 patients (70% men), 38 completed the study. Incidence of SD at 3 months was null for all patients studied. As period of treatment advanced, the Salsex score decreased, showing a mean overall reduction of –5 points (SD 3.6). Largest reduction was observed in subgroup of patients with SD in baseline visit, who exhibited a mean reduction of –6 points (SD 3.1).
Men with SD in baseline evaluation showed more marked improvement than women at 40 days of treatment (p=0.0447). However, recovery was similar for both groups at 90 days of treatment.
In schizophrenia, SD secondary studies to antipsychotics are important in establishing effectiveness of these agents in chronic treatment. After 3 months of aripiprazole treatment, no SD was observed in patients. Patients who presented SD at study initiation improved over course of 3 months treatment with aripiprazole.
Trazodone is a Serotonin-2A Antagonist/Reuptake Inhibitor (SARI) that combines its ability as a 5/HT2A receptor antagonist with some serotonin reuptake blockade actions. Studies support its use in the treatment of behavioral disturbances in patients with Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia.
To evaluate the effectiveness of trazodone in behavioral symptoms and caregiver burden in elderly patients with dementia.
In 49 patients (males and females) older than 65 years with dementia (DSM-IV), trazodone was associated to the standard treatment in a single night variable dose (50–200 mg). On days 0, 14 and 42 neuropsychiatric disorders and caregiver burden (Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version, NPI-NH) were assessed. On days 0 and 42 cognitive impairment was measured by the test Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The Clinical Global Impression (CGI) was administered on the last visit. Statistical evaluation was done by SPSS 17®.
38 patients completed the study. Global score NPI-NH was significantly reduced (p < 0.001). Sleep quality subscale improved significantly (p < 0.001). The MMSE was not modified. The caregiver burden showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) on each visit.
Trazodone was well tolerated (main adverse effects were: hypotension (4.1%) and somnolence (2%). Patients evolution was positive (CGI).
Results of this study suggest that trazodone is an effective treatment for behavioral symptoms of dementia. Trazodone reduces caregiver burden without modifying the patient’s cognitive function.
To explore different longitudinal patterns of social functioning before onset of psychotic illness and how they relate to clinical presentation, substance use and acute treatment response.
Inclusion criteria: Drug-naïve first-episode psychosis, 18-50 yo, criteria for Schizophrenia or Other Psychotic Disorders (DSM-IV), excluding Psychotic Disorder due to a General Medical Condition and Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder.
Mental Retardation, neurological disease, brain injury or drug dependence.
Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS).
Ward cluster analyses were carried out to differentiate three longitudinal patterns of social premorbid adjustment from childhood to late adolescence: stable good (N=75), stable bad (N=44) and deteriorating (N=35). Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used.
154 subjects (64.5% male, mean age 26.81, SD=6.98) participated in the study.
At baseline the socially stable good group had more positive symptoms, SAPS 13.85 (3.99), than the stable bad group, SAPS 11.82 (3.93) (p=0.023).
At six weeks post-treatment the socially deteriorating group had more negative symptoms, SANS 8 (4.89), than the stable good, SANS 3.85 (4.11), and the stable bad, SANS 5.23 (5.45) (p=0.000).
The stable good group had the highest rates of substance use, followed by the deteriorating group.
A good premorbid social life was related to higher substance use and more positive symptoms at presentation. A social deteriorating pattern was associated with more negative symptoms at baseline and six weeks post-treatment. These differences would argue for different pathogeneses of psychosis.
To investigate distinguishing features between bipolar I, II and unipolar depression, and impulsivity/aggression traits in particular.
Six hundred and eighty-five (n = 685) patients in a major depressive episode with lifetime Unipolar (UP) depression (n = 455), Bipolar I (BP-I) disorder (n = 151), and Bipolar II (BP-II) (n = 79) disorder were compared in terms of their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics.
Compared to unipolar patients, BP-I and BP-II depressed patients were significantly younger at onset of their first depressive episode, and were more likely to experience their first depressive episode before/at age of 15. They also had more previous affective episodes, more first- and second-degree relatives with history of mania, more current psychotic and subsyndromal manic symptoms, and received psychopharmacological and psychotherapy treatment at an earlier age. Furthermore, BP-I and BP-II depressed patients had higher lifetime impulsivity, aggression, and hostility scores. With regard to bipolar subtypes, BP-I patients had more trait-impulsivity and lifetime aggression than BP-II patients whereas the latter had more hostility than BP-I patients. As for co-morbid disorders, Cluster A and B Personality Disorders, alcohol and substance abuse/dependence and anxiety disorders were more prevalent in BP-I and BP-II than in unipolar patients. Whereas the three groups did not differ on other socio-demographic variables, BP-I patients were significantly more often unemployed that UP patients.
Our findings comport with major previous findings on differences between bipolar and unipolar depression. As for trait characteristics, bipolar I and II depressed patients had more life-time impulsivity and aggression/hostility than unipolar patients. In addition, bipolar I and II patients also differed on these trait characteristics.
Long-acting atypical antipsychotics have been widely used in the treatment of substance use disorders and comorbid psychosis.
To investigate the impact of long-acting injectable paliperidone palmitate (PPLAI) on craving and satisfaction levels in dual psychotic patients.
An open-label, non-interventional, prospective study was conducted in 42 dual psychotic outpatients who received PPLAI in monotherapy. Craving and satisfaction levels in patients and relatives were assessed by using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). We used the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) to assess clinical severity and global improvement, and the GAF scale to assess global functioning. 35 patients completed the study and underwent a systematic assessment at baseline and after 3 and 6 months.
After 6 months of treatment, mean craving scores decreased in patients treated with PPLAI when compared to baseline scores (4.9 vs 2.3). Mean satisfaction levels in dual psychotic patients increased (6.0 vs 9.1), and satisfaction levels in their relatives improved after 6 months (5.2 vs 9.5). Patients receiving PPLAI showed a statistically significant decrease in consumption relapses, had lower scores in CGI for clinical severity (CGISI), higher scores in global improvement (CGI-GI), and higher scores in global functioning.
After 6 months of PPLAI treatment, psychotic patients with substance use had lower craving levels. Satisfaction levels were higher in patients and their relatives. Consumption relapses decrease and patients had higher scores in global functioning.
There is a lack of accurate screening tools for suicide risk in the patients presenting to emergency departments. The Personality and Life Event (PLE) Scale, a set of the 27 most discriminative items from a collection of questionnaires usually employed in the assessment of suicidal behavior, demostrated an elevated accuracy, sensibility, and specificity in classifying suicide attempters.
To validate the self-administered PLE Scale.
Material and methods:
In order to examine its psychometric properties, the PLE scale was administered to 59 suicide attempters, 48 psychiatric controls, and 69 medical patients attending the Puerta de Hierro emergency department. To examine its reliability, we used: 1) Cronbach's coefficient α to evaluate the internal consistency; 2) test-retest reliability to assess if the scale is stable over time. Interrater reliability is not relevant as the PLE is a self-report. To assess its construct validity, we used some of Beck's Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). All analyses were carried out using SPSS v.20 (Macintosh).
The most frequent criteria for suicide attempters were item 4 (‘I often feel empty inside’; 88.1%) and 20 (‘I act on impulse’; 79,7%). Mean (± SD) of the PLE Scale in suicide attempters, psychiatric controls, and medical controls was 74.49 (± 32.44), 57.19 (± 29.63), and 17.48 (± 21.15), respectively. The PLE had an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha =0,674).
Our preliminary findings support the reliability, construct validity, and ussefulness of the PLE to identify suicide attempters to those attending to emergency departments.
Lithium has been used in the treatment of pregnant women with bipolar disorder for many decades but information on the effects of its exposure on perinatal variables is scarce.
To determine the effects of in-utero exposure to lithium on neonatal outcomes among infants born to women with treatment with lithium during pregnancy.
Prospective and observational study including all consecutive cases of pregnant women with bipolar disorder type I or II (N = 22) and maintenance treatment with lithium monotherapy (n=13) or polytherapy (n=9), attended at the PERINATAL PSYCHIATRY PROGRAM CLÍNIC-BARCELONA between 2005 and 2012. We evaluated sociodemographic data, lithium plasma concentrations in maternal blood and umbilical cord, obstetric and neonatal variables.
No statistically significant differences were found regarding sociodemographic data between both groups. Rates for umbilical cord:maternal plasma lithium levels were higher in women treated with polytherapy than in women who received lithium alone (1.08 vs. 1.05). Neonates exposed to polytherapy had a higher weight percentile at birth (p70 vs p50) and greater gestational age (39.72 vs. 38.28 weeks), than those exposed to lithium alone. Acute neonatal complications were more frequently observed in infants that were exposed to lithium monotherapy (33.3% vs. 38.50), being all complications transitory and not severe.
The infants exposed to lithium polytherapy presented a higher weight at birth compared to those who received lithium monotherapy. However, no statistically significant differences were found between treatment groups. Further research is needed to better clarify safety of lithium and its effect on neonatal outcomes.