Mar Chiquita, an irregularly shaped brackish-water coastal lagoon, is located in the Buenos Aires province of Argentina and considered since 1996 by the Coordination Council of the Man and Biosphere Program of UNESCO as a World Reserve of Biosphere. The present paper aims to study both the spatial and temporal variation of fish composition in this coastal lagoon and the influence of some environmental variables on the relative abundance of the main fish species. Monthly sampling surveys over a two-year period in three different areas were conducted, using a beach-seine net and three monofilament-gill nets with different mesh size. Twenty-eight species belonging to four bio-ecological categories were identified, five of them are new records for Mar Chiquita fish community. The correspondence analysis showed strong relationships between high salinity range and the abundance of Brevoortia aurea, Cynoscion guatucupa and Pomatomus saltatrix. Conversely, low salinity range corresponded to high abundance of Mugil platanus and Odontesthes argentinensis. High temperatures were corresponded with abundance of Micropogonias furnieri and Brevoortia aurea. In contrast, high abundance of both Odontesthes argentinensis and Oligosarcus jenynsii were corresponded to low temperatures. Brevoortia aurea, Mugil platanus and Odontesthes argentinensis were the most abundant species, representing more than 80% of the total capture. The group of estuarine-nondependent-marine fish presented the highest species richness. Estuarine-dependent-marine species presented for both juveniles and adults specimens the highest abundance values.