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Prediction of aeroengine exhaust plume near-field development requires knowledge of velocity and turbulence distributions at nozzle exit. The high Reynolds number nozzle inlet boundary layers of engineering practice are fully turbulent, but acceleration can induce re-laminarisation. Thus, to reproduce nozzle exit conditions accurately, large eddy simulation (LES) for plume prediction must be capable of capturing re-laminarisation and any subsequent boundary layer recovery. Validation is essential to establish a credible LES methodology, but previous studies have suffered from lack of nozzle inlet/exit measurements in the test cases selected. Validation data were here taken from an experiment on a convergent round nozzle with a parallel exit extension to allow boundary layer recovery. LES inlet condition generation applied a rescaling/recycling method (R2M), whose performance was validated against measurements of first and second moment statistics as well as the turbulence integral length scale. Simulations employed two sub-grid-scale (SGS) models; these produced similar predictions up to the end of the nozzle convergent section, but marked differences appeared for the nozzle exit turbulence field. The Smagorinsky model predicted much lower turbulence levels than measured, whereas the Piomelli and Geurts model revealed the presence of a small separation region at the convergence/parallel section corner, which led to higher exit turbulence and much better agreement with measured data.
AgNPs@g-C3N4 composite was synthesized from Ag-containing sol and g-C3N4 powder by the ultrasonic-assisted self-assembly method. The composite has hierarchical pore size distributions, which will be beneficial to the ion transport with different size. Ag nanoparticles with the size of 5 nm successfully adhere on the surface of g-C3N4. The AgNPs@g-C3N4 composite has excellent specific capacitance and specific power performance for the supercapacitors as an electrode material. The specific capacitance of composite is 4 times greater than that of g-C3N4. It can be ascribed to the introduction of Ag nanoparticles that the internal resistance of the composite is significantly decreased.
We compute the thermal X-ray emission from hydrodynamic simulations of the 30 Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars orbiting within a parsec of Sgr A*, with the aim of interpreting the Chandra X-ray observations of this region. The model well reproduces the spectral shape of the observations, indicating that the shocked WR winds are the dominant source of this thermal emission. The model X-ray flux is tied to the strength of the Sgr A* outflow, which clears out hot gas from the vicinity of Sgr A*. A moderate outflow best fits the present-day observations, even though this supermassive black hole (SMBH) outflow ended ~100 yr ago.
Substantial superheating of single-crystal Si films at and near the bottom Si/SiO2 interface was observed. This was accomplished via back-side irradiation of a (100) single-crystal Si film on a quartz substrate using an excimer-laser pulse. The spatiotemporal details of the melting transition were tracked in situ using surface-side and substrate-side transient reflectance measurements, and the one-dimensional thermal profile evolution within the solid film during the heating period was numerically computed using the experimentally extracted temporal profile of the incident beam and temperature-dependent optical and thermal parameters of the materials. A simple lower-bound estimation identifies that superheating in excess of 100 K was attained within Si along the bottom (100)-Si/SiO2 interface even at moderate beam energy densities.
Organic/inorganic heterojunctions have been fabricated by spin coating p-type poly (3, 4 ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) onto n-type zinc oxide (ZnO) films. The ZnO films were deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass by pulse laser deposition (PLD) technique. The current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of the PLD-ZnO/PEDOT:PSS junction based on as-deposited PLD-ZnO film shows a good rectifying behavior with a rectification ratio of 156 at ±1 V, indicating the formation of a diode between ZnO and PEDOT:PSS. Using thermionic emission model, the ideality factor (n=2.1) and barrier height (0.66 eV) of the heterojunction were obtained. Those diode parameters are better than those of the chemical vapor deposited ZnO/PEDOT:PSS heterojunction reported elsewhere, indicating that PLD may be a promising technique on fabricating high quality ZnO/polymer heterojunctions.
We use Raman scattering to study the spatially-resolved strain and stress in a complex zinc blende GaAs/GaP heterostructured nanowire which contains both axial and radial interfaces. The nanowires are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition in the  direction with Au nano particles as catalysts, High spatial resolution Raman scans along the nanowires show the GaAs/GaP interface is clearly identifiable. We interpret the phonon energy shifts in each material as one approaches the interface.
Optical control is a reversible and convenient technology, able to be measured in real-time, which makes it excellent for application to microfluidic, biomechanical, and electro-mechanical devices. These advantages are especially attractive for photo-responsive materials. In this study, we developed a new photo-responsive, electrostrictive material from a composite material made by mixing a dielectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) and an organic photoconductive material TiOPc. The photo-responsibility of the material has been validated by corresponding actuators. We found that under white light illumination, deformation will increase which can be attributed to a decrease in the TiOPc impedance. We identified that the optimal TiOPc concentration for actuator applications is 10% P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)/TiOPc. Moreover, controlling the fluid flow within the capillary tube through light illumination also validated the photo-responsive actuator. Our results show that the mechanism and the photo-responsive material can be used to pursue further study on light controlling microfluidic, and related electro-mechanical devices.
Flexible electronics and microsystems are an emerging technology with a tremedous impact to the future electronics and information technology and widespread applications. Various devices and microsystems have been developed. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are a type of essential device for electronics, microsensors and microsystems; however there is no activity on the development of flexible SAW devices yet. This paper reports the development of flexible SAW devices on cheap, bendable and disposable plastic films. Flexible SAW devices with resonant frequency of 198.1 MHz and 447 MHz for the Rayleigh and Lamb waves respectively have been obtained with a large transmission signal up to 18dB. The flexible SAW devices have also demonstrated their ability for acoustic streaming with a velocity up to 3.4 cm/s and for particle concentration. The results have clearly demonstrated that the flexible SAW devices have great potential for applications in electronics and microsystems.
Assembly of nanowires into ordered macroscopic structures has attracted great scientific interests in the past decade. In this work, we report a rapid low-cost scalable oil-water interfacial self assembly process for fabricating aligned Ag nanowires (AgNWs) films on solid substrates. This process is much simpler than the traditional Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) techniques and allows the assembly of one–dimensional Ag nanowires onto any solid substrates without extra pretreatment of the surface of silver nanowires or the solid substrate. The present aligned AgNW films can serve as robust surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors for chemical and bimolecular detection with improved spectra quality and demonstrated uniformity of SERS signal using R6G dye as probe.
Flexible surface acoustic wave (SAW) based temperature and humidity sensors were fabricated and characterized. ZnO piezoelectric films were deposited on polyimide substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. ZnO films possess (0002) crystal orientation with large grain sizes of 50∼70 nm. SAW devices showed two wave modes, namely the Rayleigh and Lamb modes, with the frequencies at fR ∼132MHz and fL∼427MHz respectively for a wavelength of 12 μm device. The two resonant frequencies have a temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of −423ppm/K and −258ppm/K for the Rayleigh and Lamb waves, respectively. The SAW sensors exhibited a good repeatability in responding to cyclic change of humidity. The responses of the sensors increase with the increase in humidity, and the sensitivity increases with the decrease in wavelength. A high sensitivity of 34.7 kHz/10%RH has been obtained from a SAW device without any surface treatment, demonstrated that the flexible SAW humidity sensors are very promising for application in flexible sensors and microsystems.
The transition metal fluorides KMF3 (M = Mn, Co, and Ni) were synthesized through a simple solution route. The crystal structure, morphology and electrical transport property of the resulting products were investigated. The compound KMF3 crystallizes in a cubic perovskite structure with space group Pm-3m (No. 221). A crystal structure of KMF3 was refined by the Rietveld method based on the X-ray powder diffraction data. The unit-cell parameters are 4.189 46(4), 4.075 58(4), and 4.025 70(2) for KMnF3, KCoF3 and KNiF3, respectively. A metal–insulator transition was observed in temperature-dependent electrical transport characterization in the temperature range from 250 to 280 K for these three compounds, which is considered to be related to spin-exchange in this kind of material.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO), which will be launched onboard the
Lomonosov spacecraft, contains two crucial instruments: UFFO Burst
Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) for detection and localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts
(GRBs) and the fast-response Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) designed for the observation
of the prompt optical/UV counterparts. Here we discuss the in-space calibrations of the
UBAT detector and SMT telescope. After the launch, the observations of the standard X-ray
sources such as pulsar in Crab nebula will provide data for necessary calibrations of
UBAT. Several standard stars will be used for the photometric calibration of SMT. The
celestial X-ray sources, e.g. X-ray binaries with bright optical sources
in their close angular vicinity will serve for the cross-calibration of UBAT and SMT.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) Pathfinder for Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) consists
of two telescopes. The UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope (UBAT) handles the
detection and localization of GRBs, and the Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) conducts the
measurement of the UV/optical afterglow. UBAT is equipped with an X-ray detector, analog
and digital signal readout electronics that detects X-rays from GRBs and determines the
location. SMT is equipped with a stepping motor and the associated electronics to rotate
the slewing mirror targeting the GRBs identified by UBAT. First the slewing mirror points
to a GRB, then SMT obtains the optical image of the GRB using the intensified CCD and its
readout electronics. The UFFO Data Acquisition system (UDAQ) is responsible for the
overall function and operation of the observatory and the communication with the satellite
main processor. In this paper we present the design and implementation of the electronics
of UBAT and SMT as well as the architecture and implementation of UDAQ.
The UFFO (Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory) is a GRB detector on board the Lomonosov
satellite, to be launched in 2013. The GRB trigger is provided by an X-ray detector,
called UBAT (UFFO Burst Alarm & Trigger Telescope), which detects X-rays from the GRB
and then triggers to determine the direction of the GRB and then alerts the Slewing Mirror
Telescope (SMT) to turn in the direction of the GRB and record the optical photon fluxes.
This report details the calibration of the two components: the MAPMTs and the YSO crystals
and simulations of the UBAT. The results shows that this design can observe a GRB within a
field of view of ±35° and can trigger in a time scale as short as 0.2 – 1.0 s
after the appearance of a GRB X-ray spike.
W UMa-type contact binaries are composed of two late-type main-sequence stars, where both components are filling their critical Roche Lobes and sharing a common convective envelope. Their formation and evolution are unsolved problems in stellar astrophysics. This kind of binary systems have the lowest angular momentum and shortest orbital periods among main-sequence binaries. One of the possibilities for their origin is that the angular momentums of binary stars are transferred from the central binaries to close-in companions. In this paper, we will summarize some of our recent progresses on searching for close-in companions to contact binary stars, including the closest stellar companion to a contact binary at an orbital separation of about 0.8 AU. Then, based on the observational properties of those close-in companions, the formation and the evolution of contact binaries will be discussed.
The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) is a space observatory for optical follow-ups of
gamma ray bursts (GRBs), aiming to explore the first 60 seconds of GRBs optical emission.
UFFO is utilized to catch early optical emissions from GRBs within few sec after trigger
using a Gimbal mirror which redirects the optical path rather than slewing entire
spacecraft. We have developed a 15 cm two-axis Gimbal mirror stage for the UFFO-Pathfinder
which is going to be on board the Lomonosov satellite which is to be launched in 2013. The
stage is designed for fast and accurate motion with given budgets of 3 kg of mass and 3
Watt of power. By employing stepping motors, the slewing mirror can rotate faster than 15
deg/sec so that objects in the UFFO coverage (60 deg × 60 deg) can be targeted in
~1 sec. The obtained targeting resolution is better 2 arcmin using a close-loop
control with high precision rotary encoder. In this presentation, we will discuss details
of design, manufacturing, space qualification tests, as well as performance tests.
One of the key aspects of the upcoming Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) pathfinder for
Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) identification is the UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope
(UBAT). The scientific propose of UBAT is to detect and locate as fast as possible the
GRBs in the sky. This is achieved by using a coded mask aperture camera scheme with a wide
field of view (FOV) and selecting a X-ray detector of high quantum efficiency and large
detection area. This X-ray detector of high quantum efficiency and large detection area is
called the UBAT detector. The UBAT detector consists of 48 × 48 Yttrium Oxyorthosilicate
(YSO) scintillator crystal arrays and Multi Anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MAPMTs), analog
electronics equipped with ASIC chips, digital electronics equipped with Field Programmable
Gate Array (FPGA) chips, and a mechanical structure that supports all components of the
UBAT detector. The total number of the pixels in the UBAT detector is 2304, and the total
effective detection area is 191 cm2. We will present the design and
construction, and performance of the UBAT detector including the responses of the UBAT
detector to X-ray sources.
Acoustic external cloak is an important device, which can cloak an object without encircling it but allows the object to exchange information with the outer region. By choosing appropriate spatial transformation, we design a cylindrical acoustic external cloak with only spatially varying bulk modulus in this paper. The general expressions of material parameters are derived, and then the performance of the external cloak is simulated based on full-wave simulations. The advantage of the cloak is that mass density elements are constants, and only bulk modulus is a function of radius, which make it easier to realize in practice. Besides, the effects of perturbations of parameters on the performance of the cloak are also investigated. This work provides a feasible way for the fabrication of the metamaterial-assisted acoustic external cloak.
We report an interesting property of carbon dots: they emit light under charge injection. We synthesized carbon dots in diameter about 20 nm using wet chemistry methods. The photoluminescence quantum efficiency of the carbon dots dissolved in water was about 11%. We observed strong electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) from the sample. This observation of ECL from carbon dots indicates that they could be a good candidate material for carbon-based electroluminescent devices.
In this paper, we report the characterization of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays synthesized by metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition. The growth mechanism of ZnO NWs may be related to vapor-solid-nucleation. Morphological, structural, optical and field emission characteristics can be modified by varying the growth time. For growth time reaches 120 min, the length and the diameter of ZnO NWs are 1.5 μm and 350 nm, and they also show preferential growth orientation along the c-axis. Moreover, strong alignment and uniform distribution of ZnO NWs can effectively enhance the antireflection to reach the average reflectance of 5.7% in the visible region as well. Field emission measurement indicated that the growth time play an important role in density- and morphology-controlled ZnO NWs, and thus ZnO NWs are expected to be used in versatile optoelectronic devices.