Laboratory tests with selected carbamate, organophosphorus, and pyrethroid insecticides demonstrated that the pyrethroid permethrin has the best potential for controlling newly hatched larvae of Zeiraphera canadensis Mut. and Free. Permethrin possessed high crawling contact toxicity (toxicity of insecticide deposits on foliage when contacted by crawling larvae) and direct contact toxicity to first-instar larvae and exhibited long residual effectiveness on potted, white spruce trees. Chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, mexacarbate, and methomyl had high crawling contact toxicity but short residual activity. Azinphos-methyl appeared to possess long residual effectiveness but relatively low crawling contact toxicity. Aminocarb and thiodicarb exhibited short residual effectiveness and relatively low toxicity. In field trials, an aerial application of permethrin (70 g/ha) at egg hatch resulted in an 81% population reduction and limited the destruction of tree leaders to 9%. Leader destruction was greater than 19% after treatments of permethrin at 35 g AI/ha or aminocarb at 180 g AI/ha or aminocarb twice at 90 g AI/ha. Leader destruction in an untreated plantation was 51%.