Two dimensional (2D) carbon nanomaterials such as few graphite layers or graphene are extensively studied due to their unique properties suitable to be exploiting in a wide range of technological applications. Recently, the growth of high quality graphene monolayers using insects and waste as carbon precursors was reported in the literature. This methodology opened a new way to convert the waste carbon into a high-value-added product. In the present work coconut coir dust, an agroindustrial biomass, was used as biotemplate for preparing carbonaceous materials. Carbon structures were synthesized through pyrolysis under nitrogen atmosphere (100mL/min) at 500, 1000, and 1500°C during 2 hours. Starting materials were coconut coir dust in natura and coconut coir dust hydrothermally treated. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Raman spectra showed the D band for all samples, related to the presence of defects in sp2 carbon structure and G band, indicative of graphite crystallites. It was also observed that the sample carbonized at 1500°C from coconut coir dust treated by hydrothermal method showed G’ band at 2685cm-1 associated with the stacking order along the c-axis. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a broad peak around 2θ= 22° related to the presence of amorphous carbon. By increasing the pyrolysis temperature changes in XRD diffractograms were observed and the sample which was pyrolysed at 1500°C from coconut coir dust hydrothermally treated showed peaks at 2θ= 26.5°, 43° e 45° assigned to (002), (100) (101) graphite plans, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the presence of overlapping sheets and plates. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images of coconut coir dust in natura unveiled the formation of amorphous sheet. Coconut coir dust in natura and treated by the hydrothermal method pyrolysed at 1500°C, lead to the formation of some graphitic domains and few graphene layers.