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High-energy electron radiography (HEER) has been proposed for time-resolved imaging of materials, high-energy density matter, and for inertial confinement fusion. The areal-density resolution, determined by the image intensity information is critical for these types of diagnostics. Preliminary experimental studies for different materials with the same thickness and the same areal-density target have been imaged and analyzed. Although there are some discrepancies between experimental and theory analysis, the results show that the density distribution can indeed be attained from HEER. The reason for the discrepancies has been investigated and indicates the importance of the uniformity in the transverse distribution beam illuminating the target. Furthermore, the method for generating a uniform transverse distribution beam using octupole magnets was studied and verified by simulations. The simulations also confirm that the octupole field does not affect the angle-position correlation in the center part beam, a critical requirement for the imaging lens. A more practical method for HEER using collimators and octupoles for generating more uniform beams is also described. Detailed experimental results and simulation studies are presented in this paper.
Here a compact three orthogonal planes high-energy electron radiography system was proposed. One of the critical technologies, the ultra-fast beam bunches split from the bunch train are studied. The separated bunches could be transported to the three orthogonal planes of the target for dynamic radiography diagnostics. The key elements of the ultra-fast bunches split system are transverse deflecting cavity (TDC) and the twin septum magnet (TSM). The principle of TDC and TSM are briefly introduced. An example of the beam bunches split system for test experiment (40 MeV electron beam) with TDC and TSM is designed and studied by particle-tracking simulation and it confirms this method is valid and feasible. Especially with TSM, a compact three orthogonal planes radiography system can be realized. The evolution of the beam parameters along the beam line from simulation are investigated. The detailed design of the beam split system and beam dynamics simulation study are presented in this paper.
A new nematode species, Ortleppascaris sinensis sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea), is described from specimens found in the stomach and intestine of the Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis Fauvel, 1879 (Crocodilian: Alligatoridae) in the National Nature Reserve of Chinese Alligator (Chinese Crocodile Lake) in Anhui Province, China. This is the first description of O. sinensis sp. nov. in both China and this crocodile host, increasing its distribution in South Asia as well as expanding the number of helminths known to infect this crocodile. The detailed description of O. sinensis sp. nov., based on light and scanning electron microscopic examination, provides new taxonomic data for this species, and we also report sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS), small subunit DNA segments (18S) and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.
This study examined sequence variability in internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA among Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera isolates from laboratory mice from different geographical locations in China. ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA were amplified separately from adult S. obvelata and A. tetraptera individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The lengths of the sequences of ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA from both nematodes were 314 bp and 456 bp, 157 bp, and 273 bp and 419 bp, respectively. The intraspecific sequence variations in S. obvelata ITS1 were 0–0.3%. For A. tetraptera they were 0–0.7% in ITS1 and 0–1.0% in ITS2. However, the interspecific sequence differences among members of the infraorder Oxyuridomorpha were significantly higher, being 54.0–65.5% for ITS1 and 55.3–64.1% for ITS2. Phylogenetic analysis based on the combined partial sequences of ITS1 and ITS2 using three inference methods – Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony – revealed that all the S. obvelata and A. tetraptera samples formed independent monophyletic groups. Syphacia obvelata was closer to Syphacia muris than to A. tetraptera, consistent with morphological classification. These results demonstrate that ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA sequences are useful markers for population genetic studies of oxyurid nematodes.
An adaptive sliding mode guidance law guiding the line-of-sight angular rate to converge to zero was highly appraised. However, compared with the conventional proportional navigation law, adaptive sliding mode guidance law leads to large acceleration demand of the interceptor before the line-of-sight angular rate converging to zero, especially in a situation where the target has strong manoeuvrability as well as high velocity. In this paper, a strategy making the coefficients of the guidance law vary according to a fuzzy rule is proposed. Smaller guidance coefficients are selected at the beginning of the terminal guidance. Therefore, the guidance command is reduced and a smaller acceleration of the interceptor is incurred. As the coefficients grow to the fixed and desired values, the line-of-sight angular rate converges to zero rapidly, so that the convergence to the sliding surface is guaranteed. It is concluded that the fuzzy variable coefficients strategy is highly effective for tail-chase, head-on interception and head pursuit engagements as shown in the simulations.
This paper reports on the phytoplankton community, its composition, structure and distribution in Changjiang estuary from February 1999 to March 2000. Two hundred and eight species were identified in the dry and flood periods. Diatoms, with 143 species observed, was the most abundant phytoplankton group, accounting for 68.75% of the total phytoplankton species number. Skeletonema costatum was dominant among all the species. The phytoplankton of Changjiang estuary in China was divided into five ecological categories: freshwater species, estuary brackish water species, inshore low salinity species, inshore widespread species and off-sea high salinity species. During the dry period, the major phytoplankton populations in the surface layer were estuary inshore and offshore populations, distinguished from the composition of the bottom layer. The community structure was similar in the two layers during the flood period. The phytoplankton species diversity was calculated for Simpson, Shannon–Weaver diversity and evenness indices, and found to be higher in the dry period, due to the simple dominant species and low spatial heterogeneity in the flood period. Higher phytoplankton abundance was observed in the surface layer during the flood period. The phytoplankton species distribution, coinciding with the dominant species distribution, varied with salinity, and their abundance correlated significantly with nutrients and light.
With a wide band gap of greater than 3.0 eV and the ability to self-heal from radiation damage, icosahedral boron arsenide (B12As2) is an apt candidate for use in next-generation betavoltaics. By capturing and converting high energy electrons from radioisotopes into usable electricity, “nuclear batteries” made from B12As2 could potentially power devices for decades. Compared to bulk crystals or epitaxial films, B12As2 nanowires may have lower defect densities or may even be defect-free, leading to better electrical properties and device performance. In our study, B12As2 nanowires were synthesized via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth using platinum powder and nickel powder on silicon carbide and 20 nm thick nickel film on silicon substrates from 700 °C to 1200 °C. Platinum yielded the highest quality nanowires from 900 °C to 950 °C, resulting in platinum particles densely covered with wires formed by straight segments connected by sharp angular kinks. At these growth temperatures, diameters ranged from less than 30 nm to about 300 nm as determined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Growth temperatures of 850 °C or less produced curled wires 200-1000 nm in diameter. Transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction revealed excellent crystallinity in wires grown above 850 °C, while wires grown at or below 850 °C were partially amorphous. Wires grown from the 20 nm nickel film displayed similar morphologies at temperatures up to 850 °C; from 900 °C to 950 °C, straight, isolated wires were grown with diameters of 200-400 nm. Nickel powder only produced wires larger than 1 μm in diameter. The comparative quality and growth of B12As2nanowires will be discussed.
There is little information about seed dormancy release and germination behaviour in Vitis amurensis, which is one of the most important wild Vitis species. This work aimed to investigate the dormancy release and germination characteristics and their variation in V. amurensis seed. Seed dormancy was released by: (1) stratification at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 15/5°C, respectively; (2) stratification at 25°C followed by stratification at 5°C; (3) 5°C stratification before or after seed drying; and (4) stratification at a series of relative humidities (RHs) at 5 and 25°C. The freshly harvested and dormancy-released seeds were germinated at three fluctuating and four constant temperatures. In V. amurensis: (1) dormancy release could occur at temperature ≤ 25°C, but was maximal at 5°C for all varieties; (2) dormancy release and induction occurred simultaneously during stratification; (3) the rates of dormancy release and induction were dependent on temperature; (4) seed moisture content affected dormancy release with a temperature-dependent pattern; (5) seeds germinated better at fluctuating temperature than at constant temperature. However, the optimum condition for stratification and germination, the rates of dormancy release and induction, and the response of seeds to warm stratification, to drying and to germination temperature varied significantly among the V. amurensis varieties. Our data imply that seed dormancy and germination in V. amurensis not only have intra-species similarity, but also vary within species, which may be due to differences in environmental conditions at the original growth and cultivated sites.
The microstructure and compression response of a quaternary Mo-Nb-Si-B alloy has been examined in in the temperature interval 1200°C-1600°C and in the strain rate regime 10–4 s–1 to 10–6 s–1 and compared to earlier results on the ternary Mo-Si-B alloys The microstructure is composed of a three-phase microlamellar eutectic composed of the Mo-Nb solid solution phase, the T1 and the T2 intermetallic phases. Compression test confirm significantly superior creep resistance for the eutectic alloy compared to the ternary Mo-rich Mo-Si-B alloys with virtually no microstructural degradation.
Objective: To investigate the effects of various activation methods on freeze–thawed rabbit oocytes developmental potential. Methods: Rabbit oocytes were vitrified by cryoleafs and cryoprotected with ethylene glycol and propanediol. After thawing, the oocytes were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Surviving oocytes after ICSI were divided into five groups at random. Group 1: Oocytes (n = 30) activated 1 h after ICSI by calcium ionomycin (I0634); Group 2: Oocytes (n = 26) activated by strontium chloride an hour after ICSI; Group 3: Oocytes (n = 33) activated by I0634 twice; Group 4: Oocytes (n = 28) were activated by strontium chloride twice; Control Group: Inactivated oocytes (n = 39). Blastocysts derived from each group were transplanted to recipient rabbits. Results: Rates of fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst formation of Group 3 were higher than those of Group 1 and Group 2 (81.8% vs 33.3% vs 53.8%, 54.5% vs 16.7% vs 26.9%, p < 0.05; 15.2% vs 3.3% vs 7.7%, p > 0.05). The rabbit transplanted with embryos derived from Group 3 became pregnant. Embryos derived from double activation could implant into endometrium. Conclusion: Double activation may increase freeze–thawed oocytes developmental potential. After activation, oocytes cleavage velocity may be faster than that of oocytes without activation.
Previous work on YBa2Cu3O7−x (YBCO) + BaSnO3 (BSO) films with a single composition showed significant critical current density (Jc) improvements at higher fields but lowered Jc in low fields. A detailed study on BSO concentrations provided here demonstrates that significant Jc enhancement can occur even up to 20 mol% BSO inclusion, where typical particulate inclusions in these concentrations degrade the YBCO performance. YBCO + BSO films were processed on (100) LaAlO3 substrates using premixed targets of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) with additions of 2, 4, 10, and 20 mol% BSO. The critical transition temperature Tc of the films remained high (>87 K), even with large amounts (20 mol%) of BSO. YBCO + BSO films showed a gradual increase in Jc at high fields as the amount of BSO was increased. More than an order of magnitude increase in Jc was measured in YBCO + BSO samples as compared to regular YBCO at 4 T. YBCO + 10 mol% BSO films showed overall improvement at all the field ranges while YBCO + 20 mol% BSO was better only at high fields. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of ∼7–8-nm-diameter BSO nanocolumns, the density of which increased with increasing BSO content correlating well with the observed improvements in Jc.
The Pb(ZrxTi1–x)O3(PZT) films sputter deposited on LaNiO3(LNO)/Si(100) substrates were recrystallized to highly (l00)-oriented perovskite structure by high oxygen-pressure processing (HOPP) and high argon-pressure processing (HAPP), which were performed at a relatively low temperature 400 °C compared to the normally required temperature condition above 600 °C. Ferroelectricity of PZT films was investigated by a measurement of P-E hysteresis loop. The P-E hysteresis loops of the PZT(52/48) and PZT(30/70) films after HOPP showed better squareness and larger remnant polarization than those of as-sputtered ones prepared at a high temperature of 600 °C. Although the PZT films with HAPP also showed a high (l00)-oriented perovskite structure and obvious ferroelectricity, their P-E loops suggested relatively poor ferroelectricity compared to those of the PZT films with HOPP. This means that a further optimization for HAPP is needed to improve ferroelectricity of PZT films.
Glass-forming ability (GFA) in relation to microstructure evolution in the ternary Fe–Nb–B and Fe–Zr–B and quaternary Fe–(Nb,Zr)–B systems was systematically studied in a three-dimensional composition space. Through navigating, it was revealed that alloys with the optimum glass-forming ability (GFA) are coupled with composition regions surrounded by competing crystalline phases. Alloys Fe71Nb6B23, Fe77Zr4B19, and Fe71(Nb0.8Zr0.2)6B23 were illustrated to be the best glass formers in the ternary Fe–Nb–B and Fe–Zr–B systems and the quaternary Fe–(Nb,Zr)–B system, respectively, with a critical size for amorphous formation up to 2 mm. They were compared with the theoretical predictions on the basis of an efficient dense-packing model, and good agreements were obtained.
An electron-beam accelerator based on spiral water pulse forming line which consists of a primary storage capacitor system, an air core spiral strip transformer, a spiral pulse forming line of water dielectric, and a field-emission diode, is described. The experimental results showed that the diode voltage is more than 500 kV, the electron beam current of diode is about 24 kA, and the pulse duration is about 200 ns. The main parameters of the accelerator were calculated theoretically. The distributions for electrical field in the pulse forming line were obtained by the simulations. In addition, the process of the accelerator charging a spiral pulse forming line was simulated through the Pspice software to get the waveforms of charging voltage of pulse forming line, the diode voltage and diode current of accelerator. The theoretical and simulated results agree with the experimental results. This accelerator is very compact and works stably and reliably.
We demonstrated a facile route based on the use of acetone and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to prepare polystyrene (PS)/Ag/TiO2 multilayered colloids with controllable shell thickness. In this route, PVP absorbed directly onto PS colloid surface, and the Ag seed shell composed of Ag nanoparticles was synthesized directly under the PVP shell by swelling the surface layer of the PS core. Because the PVP shell increased the affinity of the Ag shell to TiO2, the hydrolyzed titania particles could deposit directly onto the core to form the outer TiO2 shell. A seed growth technique and the controllable hydrolysis reaction of tetra-n-butyl titanate were developed to grow the shell thickness of Ag and TiO2, respectively. Studies of the absorption properties indicate that the optical properties of these multilayered composite colloids can be modified by changing the coating species and shell thickness.
We describe a two-step dealloying/compaction process to produce nanocrystalline Au. First, nanocrystalline/nanoporous Au foam was synthesized by electrochemically driven dealloying. The resulting Au foams exhibited porosities of ∼60% with pore sizes of 40 and 100 nm and a typical grain size of <50 nm. Second, the nanoporous foams were fully compacted to produce nanocrystalline monolithic Au. The compacted Au was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction and tested by depth-sensing nanoindentation. The compacted nanocrystalline Au exhibited an average grain size of <50 nm and hardness values ranging from 1.4 to 2.0 GPa, which were up to 4.5 times higher than the hardness values obtained from polycrystalline Au.
As an alternative to the magnetoimpedance (MI) devices made from amorphous ribbon or wire, this study proposed a thin film type MI device composed with Ag conductive core and soft ferromagnetic NiFeMo sandwich layers. Obtained optimum sandwich structure was Ta 5 nm/ NiFeMo 300 nm/ Ta 5 nm/ Ag 900 nm/ Ta 5 nm/ NiFeMo 300 nm/ Ta 5 nm, and the width of Ag as 20 µm and the width of NiFeMo as 100 µm. It was patterned by using photolithography and lift-off process. The sandwich structure showed the maximum MI ratio about 40% at the 15 MHz. The impedance change was linear and nearly reversible at the external magnetic field region below the anisotropy field.
Selective disassembly is an important issue in industrial and
mechanical engineering for environmentally conscious manufacturing.
This paper presents an intelligent selective disassembly approach based
on ant colony algorithms, which take inspiration from the behavior of
real ant colonies and are used to solve combinatorial optimization
problems. For diverse assemblies, the algorithm generates different
amounts of ants cooperating to find disassembly sequences for selected
components, minimizing the reorientation of assemblies and removal of
components. A candidate list that is composed of feasible disassembly
operations, which are derived from a disassembly matrix of products,
guides sequence construction in the implicit solution space and ensures
the geometric feasibility of sequences. Preliminary implementation
results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
The effects of helium implantation parameters and heating schemes on the formation of surface porosity have been studied. Confinement of the implanted helium by a coating on the metal leads to a prolonged development of the bubble structure. Finally, delamination and blistering occurs and rather open surface structures remain.