Many processes in nature and technology are based on the static and dynamic properties of solid–liquid interfaces. Prominent examples are crystal growth, melting, and recrystallization. These processes are strongly affected by the local structure at the solid–liquid interface. Therefore, it is mandatory to understand the change in the structure across the interface. The break of the translational symmetry at the interface induces ordering phenomena, and interactions between the liquid's molecules and the atomically corrugated solid surface may induce additional ordering effects. In the past decade, new techniques have been developed to investigate the structural properties of such (deeply) buried interfaces in their natural environment. These methods are based on deeply penetrating probes such as brilliant x-ray beams, providing full access to the structure parallel and perpendicular to the interface. Here, we review the results of a number of case studies including liquid metals in contact with Group IV elements (diamond and silicon), where charge transfer effects at the interface may come into play. Another particularly important liquid in our environment is water. The structural properties of water vary widely as it is brought in contact with other materials. We will then proceed from these seemingly simple cases to complex fluids such as colloids.