Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica severely affects the efficiency of livestock production systems worldwide. In addition to the economic impact inflicted on livestock farmers, fasciolosis is an emergent zoonosis. This review emphasizes different aspects of the disease in South America. Available data on epidemiology in bovines and ovines in different countries, as well as a growing body of information on other domestic and wildlife definitive hosts, are summarized. The issue of drug resistance that compromises the long-term sustainability of current pharmacological strategies is examined from a regional perspective. Finally, efforts to develop a single-antigen recombinant vaccine in ruminants are reviewed, focusing on the cases of leucine aminopeptidase or thioredoxin glutathione reductase.