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The Canadian Burden of Illness Study Group reported that the quality of life (QoL) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients falls drastically, early in the disease. With disability progression, the physical functioning scales of the Short Form 36 (SF-36) showed further decreases in QoL. The objective of this study is to describe the QoL of MS patients treated with interferon beta-1b (IFNB-1b) and to compare it to the QoL observed in a group of patients who had not been treated with IFNB-1b.
Treated patients were prospectively recruited and were seen at their regular visit to the MS clinic. They self-completed the SF-36 questionnaire and their QoL was described and retrospectively compared to that of historical controls.
When IFNB-1b treated patients were compared to historical control patients with the same relapsing forms of MS, the treated patients with an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score lower than 3.0 had a significantly better QoL. This was significant for four of the eight SF-36 domains: Physical Function (+22%, p=0.0102), Role-Physical (+100%, p=0.0022), General Health (+27%, p=0.0070) and Social Function (+19%, p=0.0287). The average QoL difference was 8% in the EDSS 3.0-6.0 group and 10% in the EDSS >6 group.
Patients with relapsing forms of MS treated with IFNB-1b have better QoL than patients who are not treated, especially those with an EDSS < 3.0.
It is a pleasure to contribute to a volume honoring the late Academician Korzhinskii. He has made major advances to our knowledge of volatile components, not only in systems undergoing metasomatic changes, but in igneous systems as well. Although our understanding of melting and the role of fluids has increased noticeably in recent years, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the melting behaviors of the feldspars and most of the other rock-forming minerals, not only at high pressures, but at atmospheric pressure as well. Largely missing is a knowledge of the temperatures of the solidi and the liquidi. Also unknown in any detail are the structures, thermal properties, and physical properties of the liquids in equilibrium with crystals. Methods such as calorimetry and spectroscopy have not been used to study liquids in situ at elevated pressures. In this paper, we will consider our use of phase equilibria in chemically simple systems to shed light on the structural and thermal properties of magmas.
One sample of anorthite (sample B) was synthesized from gel, prepared using the method of W.C. Luth & Ingamells (1965) and crystallized hydrothermally at 5 kbar, 1050 °C for at least 48 hours. Another was crystallized from a glass synthesized from oxide reagents, the analysis of which is in Table 13.1 (sample Sc). Synthetic sanidine (sample Ss) was similarly prepared from glass and crystallized at 2 kbar, 700 °C for 30 days (see Table 13.1).
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