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A sample of 38 southern peaked-spectrum radio sources from the Parkes Catalogue have been observed using single-baseline VLBI. Thirty three objects were successfully detected on baselines of > 30Mλ at 2.3 GHz. For 21 of these sources, the flux density in the compact components contributes more than half the total flux density of the radio emission. Twenty sources showed structure more complex than a point-source.
Centaurus A is the closest active extragalactic radio source, at a distance of approximately 3.5 Mpc, and is identified with the peculiar elliptical galaxy NGC 5128. As such it is a very important target for observations of the small-scale (sub-parsec) and large-scale (kpc) structures in extragalactic jets. Here we present Mk-II VLBI observations made at 8.4 GHz over a 4.3 year period from early 1991 until mid-1995, as well as a 4.8 GHz observation that was co-eval with one of the 8.4 GHz observations. All of the observations were made with the SHEVE array except for the last observation which was made with the VLBA. The dual-frequency observations identify the core of the radio source, while the multi-epoch observations show the complex structural evolution at a resolution of 0.1 pc. Subluminal motion of ≈ 0.15c is evident. Structural changes are observed on time scales shorter than four months.
Here we will describe briefly some of the VLBI observations we are making of low-redshift, compact radio sources in the southern hemisphere, using the Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE) array of telescopes (Jauncey et al., 1994).
The remarkably strong radio gravitational lens PKS 1830-211 consists of a one arcsecond diameter Einstein ring with two bright compact components located on opposite sides of the ring. We have obtained 22 GHz VLBA data on this source to determine the intrinsic angular sizes of the compact components. Previous VLBI observations at lower frequencies indicate that the brightness temperatures of these components are significantly lower than 1010 K (Jauncey et al. 1991), less than is typical for compact synchrotron radio sources and less than is implied by flux density variations. A possible explanation is that interstellar scattering is broadening the apparent angular size of the source and thereby reducing the observed brightness temperature. Our VLBA data support this hypothesis.
Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is the nearest giant radio galaxy. It is a Fanaroff-Riley type 1 (low luminosity) radio source, but the compact radio source in the nucleus is strong enough that VLBI imaging has been possible with both the SHEVE array and the VLBA at several frequencies. These observations have detected a sub-parsec scale counterjet. This shows that jet formation in at least some FR I sources is intrinsically two-sided over very small distances and the radio jets in Centaurus A are probably only moderately relativistic. We also find evidence that the center of activity in Centaurus A is partially obscured by a disk or torus of dense plasma.
As part of the Chandra GTO program we are monitoring and surveying M31 using the HRC and ACIS cameras. These observations have resolved the nuclear X-ray source into five separate sources, one of which is very soft and may (or may not!) be associated with the central super-massive black hole. In addition, the superb spatial resolution and low scattering of the Chandra telescope allows us to unambiguously resolve the diffuse emission from the point sources. This emission is clearly softer than the point sources, and also increases with temperature radially. The monitoring nature of the observations allows detailed study of the variability of the point sources.
We have been observing the sub-parsec-scale radio jet in the nucleus of Centaurus A, the closest active radio galaxy, at 8.4 GHz over the last 6 years with the SHEVE array and most recently with the VLBA at 8.4 and 22.2 GHz. In this paper we will review the results of these observations and give a brief summary of our interpretation, concentrating on the evolution of the sub-parsec-scale jet structure with time; subluminal component motions and rapid short timescale evolution. A full description of this work is soon to be published in a major journal article.
The link of the Hipparcos and VLBI extragalactic reference frames has been achieved with a precision of 0.0005″ in global orientation at the epoch of the catalogue (1991.25) and of 0.0003″/yr in rate of rotation by VLBI observations of 12 radio-emitting stars.
We have observed the nucleus of Centaurus A with the VLBA and the SHEVE arrays, individually and in combination. In sensitive experiments at 8.4 GHz which use both arrays together we have detected components in a sub-parsec-scale counterjet. The counterjet is also seen in 2.3 and 22 GHz images. The nuclear region appears to be partially obscured by a free-free absorbing structure of about 1 pc in extent. The jet axis appears to lie at a 50°–70° angle to our line of sight.
We present high-resolution radio observations of the second Galactic superluminal radio source GRO1655-40, which was detected as an X-ray transient on 1994 July 27. Our radio radio images reveal two components moving away from each other at an angular speed of 65±5 mas/day, corresponding to superluminal motion (υ/c = 1.4 ± 0.4) at the estimated distance of 3–5 kpc. The 12-day delay between the X-ray and radio outbursts suggests that the ejection of material at relativistic speeds occurs during a stable phase of accretion onto a black hole, which follows an unstable phase with a high accretion rate. A complete description and discussion of these observations can be found in Tingay et al 1995 (Nature, 374, pp 141–143).
We have undertaken VLBI observations of 8 Southern Hemisphere EGRET radio sources. Using our data as well as data obtained from the literature we have examined the difference in radio properties between gamma-ray loud and gamma-ray quiet radio sources. In particular, we find no evidence that gamma-ray loud radio sources lie preferentially in sources with straight radio jets as has been suggested.
Allogeneic transplantation is one of the biggest medical breakthroughs of the 20th century. It has saved many patients’ lives and dramatically improved more. Rapidly developing progress in this area will undoubtedly improve safety and long-term results. Along with its success, transplantation offers more questions than answers in the area of medical ethics.
Kidneys for transplantation may come from live or deceased donors, and in the UK a third of kidneys come from live donors. Each type of kidney has different peri-operative considerations.
Live donor kidneys
Live donor kidney transplants may be conducted in parallel, with the donor in an adjacent theatre, or in tandem with the recipient procedure following the donor procedure. When in parallel there is often a period of time when the recipient is anaesthetised and ready to receive the donor kidney, and the donor kidney has yet to become available. In this case it is important to maintain muscle relaxation and anaesthesia, since the surgeons may have left the operative field while preparing the donor kidney.
ABO incompatible live donor kidneys
While it is usual to transplant blood group compatible kidneys, it is possible to pre-treat the recipient with plasmapheresis or antibody absorption columns to remove anti-blood group antibodies. This has two consequences. First, any blood products (e.g. fresh frozen plasma) need to be of donor type, and not recipient type. Second, plasmapheresis often removes clotting factors and it is common for patients to be depleted of fibrinogen. It is important to check fibrinogen and clotting before surgery since deficiency is readily treated by cryoprecipitate.
The classic image of Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers in Europe envisages them hunting large mammals in largely treeless landscapes. That is partly due to the nature of the surviving archaeological evidence, and the poor preservation of plant remains at such ancient sites. As this study illustrates, however, the potential of Upper Palaeolithic sites to yield macrofossil remains of plants gathered and processed by human groups has been underestimated. Large scale flotation of charred deposits from hearths such as that reported here at Dolní Vӗstonice II not only provides insight into the variety of flora that may have been locally available, but also suggests that some of it was being processed and consumed as food. The ability to exploit plant foods may have been a vital component in the successful colonisation of these cold European habitats.
Polarimetry at far-infrared wavelengths is a key tool for studying physical processes on size scales ranging from interstellar dust grains to entire galaxies. A multi-wavelength continuum polarimeter at these wavelengths will allow studies of thermal dust polarization in an effort to constrain the grains’ physical properties and test grain alignment theory. High spatial resolution (5–30 arcsec) and sensitive observations will measure the influence of magnetic fields on infrared cirrus clouds, the envelopes and disks of YSOs, outflows from both low- and high-mass star forming regions, and the relative strength of magnetic, gravitational, and turbulent effects in star- and cloud-formation.
The electronic structure of dislocations in GaN is controversial. Several experimental techniques such as carrier mobility studies and cathodoluminescence experiments have indicated that dislocations are charged while theoretical studies point to intrinsic states and/or point defect accumulation along the core as a source of electrical activity. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) studies have the ability to probe the electronic structure of extended defects. Here we report rst principles calculations of the EELS spectrum applied to edge dislocations in GaN. It is found that the electrostatic potential at N atoms in the vicinity of the dislocation varies by the order of a volt and casts doubt on any simple interpretation of core loss spectroscopy. On the other hand, low loss spectroscopy leads directly to detailed information about any gap states. The low loss spectrum obtained by the theory is in good agreement with recent experimental work and indicates that threading dislocations in p-type GaN possess acceptor levels in the upper half of the gap.
Amorphous GaN films have been deposited onto various substrates by ion-assisted deposition. The films were deposited at room temperature using nitrogen ion energies in the range 40-900 eV. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis show that the Ga:N atomic ratio is approximately one for films grown with ion energy near 500 eV; these films have the highest transparency. Films grown with ion energies below 300 eV are Ga rich, and show reduced transparency across the visible. Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy confirm the amorphous nature of the films. Annealing studies on a-GaN establish that the films begin to crystallise at a temperature of about 700 C. To investigate the local bonding environment of the Ga or N atoms, we have measured the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of the transparent GaN films. The EXAFS results indicate that the films are dominated by heteropolar tetrahedral bonding, with a low density of homopolar bonds.
Silicon multiquantum wells ranging in width from 3 to 15 nm were deposited on closely lattice-matched ZnS barriers. MOCVD was used to deposit the ZnS films using diethyl zinc and hydrogen sulfide as the precursors; disilane was used to deposit silicon layers at low temperatures. Single and multiple silicon nano-layers were observed by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Photoluminesence studies revealed emissions peaks which were blue-shifted with respect to the edge emission from bulk silicon substrates. The observation of emission from silicon nanostructures shifted to wavelengths as short as the 800-850 nm range is consistent with the effects of quantum confinement in silicon nanostructures.
Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) was used to characterize a 20 period GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As multiple quantum well structure, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The barriers were nominally 200 Å Al(.25)Ga(.75)As, and the well regions were grown to approximate a linearly graded composition, from x=0 to x=0.25, with total well width 200 Å. VASE data in the E1, E1,+Δ1. region were analyzed using four different models. It was founcЃ that the dielectric function of the cap GaAs layer was shifted to higher energy with respect to the bulk GaAs dielectric function.