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One major consequence of the presence of the nematode parasites in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of ruminants appears to be an elevated flow of endogenous N component from the small intestine, leading to adverse changes in host productivity (MacRae, 1993). However, many of these aspects have remained speculative because of a lack of appropriate methodology to quantify the influence of parasites on GIT protein metabolism. In the present study oxidation of leucine sequestrated from arterial blood and digesta-derived leucine during “first pass” metabolism in the GIT of lambs subjected to subclinical T. colubriformis infection were quantified directly, using trans-organ catheterisation procedures coupled with stable isotope tracer kinetics.
In previous studies where sheep were subjected to experimental subclinical Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections, protein metabolism was seriously impaired during both the initial infection (5-7 weeks at early dosing) and the subsequent immune response (11-13 weeks of dosing) periods (see MacRae, 1993). Symonds and Jones (1983) reported that T. colubriformis infection increased the rates of protein synthesis in the small and large intestines of guinea pigs by 24 and 70% respectively, however there are no equivalent data in farm animals. In the present study trans-organ catheterisation procedures have been coupled with mass isotope tracer kinetics to examine leucine metabolism across the gastrointestinal (g.i.) tract of lambs subjected to subclinical T. colubriformis infection.
We have developed a new numerical method for obtaining self-consistent structures of rapidly rotating stars. We obtained self-consistent equilibrium structures of rapidly rotating massive stars with shellular rotation by using the method. These equilibrium structures might be useful for both evolution of rapidly rotating massive stars and progenitor models of core-collapse supernovae simulations.
In this paper, we present our recent work on the evolution of abundance gradients along the Milky Way disk based on the Geneva Copenhagen Survey (GCS) and Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) data. We will also discuss the role of the LAMOST Milky Way disk survey in clarifying the properties of metallicity breaks observed through open clusters and young tracers along the Milky Way disk. It is believed that the Galactic disk forms inside-out, in which the stellar population at increasing radii is younger and more metal poor. This picture is consistent with most Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE) models which also predict a tight correlation between the metallicity and age of stars at a given radius. However, it is only a result of “steady state" and no dynamical evolution effects were taken into account. We have selected two stellar samples from GCS and RAVE, each sample contains about 10,000 local thin-disk, main-sequence stars. We use the guiding radius which is determined by the conservation of z-direction angular momentum, to eliminate the blurring effects. And also use the effective temperature of the main sequence stars as a proxy of stellar age. It is shown that the metallicity gradient flattens as the age increases. This is not consistent with our previous GCE prediction, but can be explained by radial mixing effects. In order to further demonstrate the abundance breaks observed in the Galactic disk we have proposed, and have been carrying out, an open cluster survey project based on LAMOST. We plan to observe at least 400 open clusters in the northern Galactic sky. From the observations, we will get uniform parameters for those clusters with radial velocity and metallicities. We anticipate that this uniform open cluster sample could clarify the observed abundance break around the Milky Way disk corotation radius and also give a more robust result concerning the evolution of the abundance gradient.
Two LaBS glasses containing 9.5 wt.% (#1) and 5.0 wt.% PuO2 (#2) were prepared by melting in Pt ampoules at 1500 C and examined by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The bulk of sample #1, both as-prepared and stored for 3 yrs, was amorphous with homogeneous PuO2 distribution. Sample #2, especially after storage for 2-3 yrs, was partly devitrified primarily in the near-surface area. As followed from X-ray elemental maps, the vitreous phase was enriched with Al and Si whereas larger elongated and smaller dendrite crystals strongly enriched with rare earths (La, Nd, Gd) and Si and minor amounts of Hf may be attributed to britholite. A minor concentration of Pu was also observed in this phase. Moreover, relatively minor amounts of white regular crystals with high PuO2 and lower HfO2 contents were observed in the samples and are probably associated with PuO2 and a PuO2-HfO2 cubic solid solution phase. Nevertheless, even in devitrified areas of the samples, the majority of the Pu remained in the vitreous phase where it was homogeneously distributed.
Measurements are presented of the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling of nontoxic lead-free multiferroic composites 0.4CoFe2O4-0.6[0.948(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-0.052LiSbO3]. The composites are found to exhibit an interesting dielectric response under a dc magnetic bias field. The positive magnetodielectric behavior and its strong frequency dependence in the composite could be related to magnetoresistance and the Maxwell-Wagner effect. The ME effects are strongly dependent on the driving field frequency and dc magnetic bias field. The frequency and magnetic field dependence of direct and converse ME coefficients are related to the relative dielectric constant and the variation in the piezomagnetic coupling with magnetic field, respectively. In addition, the dependence of direct and converse ME coefficients on frequency and magnetic field is quite similar in this multiferroic particulate composite.
The interfacial fracture energies of flexible Cu/Cr/Polyimide system were deduced from the T peel test. The T peel strength and peel angle were strongly affected by the metal thickness and the biased rf plasma power density of the polyimide pretreatment. The plastic bending works of metal and polyimide dissipated during peel test were estimated from the direct measurement of maximum root curvatures using the elastoplastic beam analysis. The interfacial fracture energy between Cr and polyimide increased with the rf plasma power density and saturated, but was pretty much independent of the metal film thickness and the peel angle.
In order to establish a material system for packaging 500°C SiC microsystems, aluminum nitride (AlN) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were selected as packaging substrates, and gold (Au) thick-film materials were selected as substrate metallization material for electrical interconnection system (thick-film printed wires and thick-film metallization based wire-bond) and conductive die-attach interlayer. During a 1500-hour test in atmospheric oxygen with and without electrical bias, the electrical resistance of Au thick-film based interconnection system demonstrated low and stable electrical resistance at 500°C. The electrical interconnection system was also tested in extreme dynamic thermal environment. A silicon carbide (SiC) Schottky diode was attached to ceramic substrate using Au thick-film material as the conductive bonding layer and was successfully tested at 500°C in air for more than 1000 hours. In addition to the electrical test of die-attach in static thermal environments, nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) was used for thermal mechanical evaluation and optimization of the die-attach in a wide temperature range.
Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) (1, 2) is a useful tool to pre-screen metal barrier integrity for Si-based porous low-k dielectrics. Pore size of low-k, thickness of metal barrier Ta, positronium (Ps) leakage from PALS, trench sidewall morphology, electrical test from one level metal (1LM) pattern wafer and Cu diffusion analysis were all correlated. Macro-porous low-k (pore size >= 200A) and large scale meso-porous low-k (>50∼200A) encounter both Ps leakage and Cu diffusion into low-k dielectric in the 0.25μmL/0.3μmS structures when using SEMATECH in-house PVD Ta 250A as barrier layer. For small scale meso-porous (>20∼50A) and micro-porous (<=20A) low-k, no Ps leakage and no Cu diffusion into low-k were observed even with PVD Ta 50A, which is proved also owing to sidewall densification to seal all sidewall pores due to plasma etch and ash. For future technology, smaller pore size of porous Si-based low-k (=< 50A) will be preferential for dense low-k like trench sidewall to avoid metal barrier integrity due to coverage problems from sidewall pores.
Thermal properties characterization of Bi nanowires is critical in order to validate the predicted enhancement of their thermoelectric figure-of-merit. In this paper we report the effective thermal diffusivity of Bi nanowires array embedded in a-Al2O3 (alumina) template. The composite material consists of 85% alumina and approximately 15% Bi nanowires with a diameter of 40 nm and an average length of 40 [.proportional]m. Measurements are performed along the nanowire axis. A thermal wave is produced at the front side of the sample and it is monitored at the backside through a fast thermoelectric effect. A one-dimensional heat conduction model is used to extract the thermal diffusivity.
The Cr/Si bilayer cantilevers for an integrated multi-axis tactile sensor were fabricated by Si surface micromachining process. Among the cantilevers with various shapes, the rectangular and semicircular cantilevers can be deflected upward with good controllability. The maximum deflections are compared with those calculated by finite element method. Calculated deflections of Cr/Si cantilever agree considerably with the measured one. So, it is considered that the analysis by finite element method is useful as optimization of layer thickness and size to obtain the Cr/Si bilayer cantilevers with accurate deflection.
The study reported is about an integrated wireless physiological monitor module of the flexible patch type, used on a non-woven material to package this module by a hot press process. The module can monitor the body temperature and heart rate. Experimental results showed that the specification and accuracy should be 25-40 °C ± 0.5 °C and 50-200 bpm ± 2 bpm. The main advantage of the module is that the postural change can be monitored. At the same time, it has also a good adhesion between substrate and components, without crack of conductor trace line after bending the module repeatedly. Thickness is about 2 mm. The aim of this study is to speed up the physiological technology and to create more efficiency by miniaturization. In addition, the acceptance level of wearing it is increased by the small and ergonomic design.
For obtaining good structural perfection, the molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of GexSi1−x on Si substrate should not only be kept in the pseudomorphic form but also in layer-by-layer growth stage. We found that the two dimensional layer-by-layer growth of GexSi1−x on Si could persist to a certain deposition thickness, beyond that the transition to islanding growth occurs. The transition thickness is significantly dependent on the growth temperature and germanium content, and is always smaller than the critical thickness of pseudomorphic growth. In order to obtain good crystalline quality in growing GexSi1−x superlattices on Si substrates, the thickness of GexSi1−x layers should be controlled below the transition thickness and lower growth temperature is favorable.
Grain boundary voiding has been identified as a diffusional creep mechanism that produces failure of narrow Al-based metallizations during thermal aging. It is considered to be a reliability concern for sub-micron metallizations because the resulting failure rate has been observed to be strongly line width dependent. This paper presents a theoretical model for stress-induced grain boundary voiding. The proposed model is shown to account for the experimentally observed temperature and time dependence of thermal aging-induced line failure data reported in the literature.
The glancing angle x-ray diffraction spectra of GexSi1−x/Si superlattices grown by MBE under different temperatures are investigated. Three different types of the intensity distributions of diffraction peaks are observed, which are believed to be corresponded with different situations of interfaces. If all the interfaces in superlattice structure are highly flat, up to 17 orders diffraction peaks are identified with their intensities modulated by a periodical envelope function, otherwise the distribution of diffraction intensities follows simply a decaying function. A quantitative analysis using computer simulation based on the modified Bragg's law and the optical multilayer theory is used to derive the structural parameters including the thicknesses of Si and GexSi1−x layers, superlattice period, Ge content x and the degree of interfacial roughness.
Stresses affect the structure and properties of the films significantly. In this paper, Co-Cr films were deposited by D.C. planar magnetron sputtering on rectangular glass plates of thickness varied from 0.18 to 2.00mam. The measurement of stress was performed by the bending plate technique with the detection of capacitance change. The temperature of the bending plate was measured by an Fe-Ni thin film thermocouple on the back side of the substrate. The experimental results showed that the stresses were all tensile, but in the films on the thicker substrates were smaller than that on the thinner ones. And apparently the temperature rise of the thicker substrates during deposition was lower than that of the thinner ones. The magnetic characteristics of the Co-Cr films related to the substrate thickness may be attributed to both stress and temperature difference in the films deposited on the substrates of different thickness.
Thermally stable alumina and zirconia pillared clays loaded with copper and cobalt cations and silver nanoparticles were synthesized. The structural and surface features of these nanosystems were studied and compared with those of bulk analogs -partially stabilized zirconias and γ-alumina loaded with the same active components. Specificity of the catalytic properties of nanocomposites in the reactions of nitrogen oxides reduction by propane, propylene and decane in the excess of oxygen appears to be determined both by the degree of interaction between pillars and active components and the type of reducing agent.
Amorphous silicon nanowires (a-SiNW's) with average diameter around 20 nm were synthesized at about 950° C under an Ar/H2 atmosphere on large area of a (11) Si substrate without supplying any gaseous or liquid Si sources. The Si substrate, deposited with a layer of Ni of about 40 nm thick, served itself as a silicon source for the growth of the a-SiNWs. Different from the well-known vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) for conventional whisker growth, it was found that growth of the a-SiNWs was controlled by a solid-liquid-solid mechanism, which is analogous to the VLS model.
Highly oriented silicon nanowires were grown on Si (111) substrate via a solid-liquid-solid (SLS) mechanism. Unlike the well known vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism of whisker growth, no gaseous or liquid Si source was supplied during growth. Ni was used as the liquid forming agent and mixture of H2 and Ar was introduced in the experiment. Oriented silicon nanowires grew at 950°C and the ambient pressure kept at about 200 Torr. The oriented silicon nanowires have a length around I il m and uniform diameter about 25nm. Selected area electron diffraction showed that silicon nanowires are completely amorphous. The approach used here is simple and controllable, and may be useful in large-scale synthesis of various nanowires.
Photoelastic optical waveguides using strain-compensated InAsP/InGaP multiplequantum-well (MQW) have been fabricated. Lateral light confinement for waveguiding is achieved by introducing stress into semiconductor heterostructures with stable WNi surface stressor stripes. The waveguides have been characterized at both 1.52 μm and 1.32 μm wavelength in term of TE/TM intensity ratio. At 1.52 μm, the waveguides favor the propagation of TE mode, and the TE/TM intensity ratio can be as large as 15 dB. At 1.32 μm, the TE and TM intensity can be comparable. Anisotropy of waveguides fabricated along  or  directions has also been observed in term of TE/TM intensity ratio, which suggests the presence of anisotropic property of the strain-compensated MQW.