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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder, characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of overactivity, inattention and impulsivity. Measuring inattention is a controversial question in ADHD diagnosis. Eye movement could provide a method to assess distractibility. Several studies have related visual attention and perceptual dominance in binocular rivalry.
To assess visual attention through the measurement of fixations in a binocular rivalry task in ADHD children and control groups.
We proposed a task for the assessment of distractibility and to enhance the diagnosis of attention disorders.
Forty children, 20 with ADHD-combined type and 20 controls, matched by gender, age and intelligence, were tested with a binocular rivalry task (i.e. an anaglyph image) with an exogenous distractor appearing regularly. The stimulus was divided in four Areas of Interest (AOI). Measurements of duration of the periods of exclusive dominance, perceptual alternations in dominance / suppression and fixations were taken by an eye tracker and a response box. Analysis of Variance was used to test differences between ADHD and control groups.
Significant differences between ADHD and control groups were found in dwells at the main AOI. Also, significant differences between groups in “Fixation over alternations ratio” were found.
ADHD participants looked at the relevant region (AOI_1) for a shorter time than the control group; they also looked at the no demanded regions (AOI_2, AOI_3, AOI_4) longer than the control group. Moreover, the ratio fixations/alternations were greater for the control group than the ADHD group.
Studies about Quality of Life (QOL) in schizophrenia usually involve the validation of questionnaires, the effects of treatments or its association with relevant variables but, so far, the literature about differences in QOL between groups of patients with schizophrenia is scarce.
Objectives and aims
This work aims to show differences in QOL between groups of patients with schizophrenia defined according to socio-demographic, clinical, psychosocial and use of services variables.
The sample comprised 241 patients that meet the following inclusion criteria: 1) International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia, 2) Global Assessment Functioning scores or GAF ≤ 50 and 3) Illness duration greater than 2 years. Patients were evaluated regarding socio-demographic, clinical, psychosocial and use of service variables. T-tests and analysis of variance tests were used.
There were no differences in QOL between groups of patients with schizophrenia established according to socio-demographic variables. There were significant differences in QOL between groups of patients with schizophrenia defined according to clinical, psychosocial and use of service variables. Patients with schizophrenia who were anxious, disabled, lacked social support and used more social services showed poorer levels of QOL.
Our results are consistent with previous studies that support that, in patients with schizophrenia, the association between socio-demographic characteristics and QOL cannot be considered significant and that QOL is associated with disability, social support, psychiatric symptoms and care needs. This work highlight differences between groups of patients with schizophrenia, which may be a useful information to tailor interventions to this sample population.
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