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To describe the pattern of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during 2 nosocomial outbreaks of COVID-19 with regard to the possibility of airborne transmission.
Contact investigations with active case finding were used to assess the pattern of spread from 2 COVID-19 index patients.
A community hospital and university medical center in the United States, in February and March, 2020, early in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Two index patients and 421 exposed health care workers.
Exposed staff were identified by analyzing the EMR and conducting active case finding in combination with structured interviews. Staff were tested for COVID-19 by obtaining oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal specimens, with RT-PCR testing to detect SARS-CoV-2.
Two separate index patients were admitted in February and March 2020, without initial suspicion for COVID-19 and without contact or droplet precautions in place; both patients underwent several aerosol generating procedures in this context. A total of 421 health care workers were exposed in total, and the results of the case contact investigations identified 8 secondary infections in health care workers. In all 8 cases, the staff had close contact with the index patients without sufficient personal protective equipment. Importantly, despite multiple aerosol generating procedures, there was no evidence of airborne transmission.
These observations suggest that, at least in a healthcare setting, a majority of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is likely to take place during close contact with infected patients through respiratory droplets, rather than by long-distance airborne transmission.
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient in livestock feed but can pollute waterways. In order for pig production to become less of a threat to the environment, excreta must contain as little P as possible or be efficiently used by plants. This must be achieved without decreasing the livestock performance. Phosphorus and calcium (Ca) deposition in the bones of growing pigs must be optimised without affecting the muscle gain. This requires precision feeding based on cutting-edge techniques of diet formulation throughout the animal growth phase. Modelling and data mining have become important tools in this quest. In this study, a mechanistic model taking into account the distribution of P between bone and soft tissues was compared to the established factorial models (INRA (Jondreville and Dourmad, 2005) and NRC (National Research Council, 2012)) that predict P (apparent total tract digestible, ATTD-P; or standardised total tract digestible, STTD-P) and Ca (total and STTD) requirements as a function of BW and protein deposition. The requirements for different bone mineralisation scenarios, namely, 100% and 85% of the genetic potential, were compared with these two models. Sobol indices were used to estimate the relative impact of growth-related parameters on mineral requirements at 30, 60 and 120 kg of BW. The INRA showed the highest value of ATTD-P requirement between 29 and 103 kg of BW (6%) and lower for lighter and higher BW. Similarly, the model for 85% bone mineralisation showed lower STTD-P requirement than NRC between 29 and 93 kg of BW (7%) and higher for lighter and higher BW. Contrary to other models, the Ca requirement of the proposed model is not fixed in relation to P. It increases from 95 kg of BW while the others decrease. The INRA showed the highest Ca requirements. The model Ca requirements for 100% bone mineralisation are higher than NRC from 20 to 38 kg of BW similar until 70 kg of BW and then higher again. For 85% objective, the model showed lower Ca requirements from 25 to 82 kg of BW and higher for lighter and higher BW. The potential Ca deposition in bones is the most sensitive parameter (84% to 100% of the variance) of both ATTD-P and Ca at 30, 60 and 120 kg. The second most sensitive parameter is the protein deposition, explaining 1% to 15% of the ATTD-P variance. Studies such as this one will help to usher in a new era of sustainable and eco-friendly livestock production.
Previous work led to the proposal that the precision feeding of a high-concentrate diet may represent a potential method with which to enhance feed efficiency (FE) when rearing dairy heifers. However, the physiological and metabolic mechanisms underlying this approach remain unclear. This study used metabolomics analysis to investigate the changes in plasma metabolites of heifers precision-fed diets containing a wide range of forage to concentrate ratios. Twenty-four half-sib Holstein heifers, with a similar body condition, were randomly assigned into four groups and precision fed with diets containing different proportions of concentrate (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% based on DM). After 28 days of feeding, blood samples were collected 6 h after morning feeding and gas chromatography time-of-ﬂight/MS was used to analyze the plasma samples. Parameters of oxidative status were also determined in the plasma. The FE (after being corrected for gut fill) increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing level of dietary concentrate. Significant changes were identified for 38 different metabolites in the plasma of heifers fed different dietary forage to concentrate ratios. The main pathways showing alterations were clustered into those relating to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism; all of which have been previously associated with FE changes in ruminants. Heifers fed with a high-concentrate diet had higher (P < 0.01) plasma total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase but lower (P ≤ 0.02) hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide than heifers fed with a low-concentrate diet, which might indicate a lower plasma oxidative status in the heifers fed a high-concentrate diet. Thus, heifers fed with a high-concentrate diet had higher FE and antioxidant capacity but a lower plasma oxidative status as well as changed carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Our findings provide a better understanding of how forage to concentrate ratios affect FE and metabolism in the precision-fed growing heifers.
We present the elements required to construct two devices used in an undergraduate plasma physics laboratory. The materials and construction costs of the sources, the vacuum systems and probe drives and electrical circuits are presented in detail in the text and the first appendix. We also provide the software for probe motion and data acquisition as well as the electrical schematics for key components. Experiments which have been performed are listed and two (resonance cones and whistler waves) are described in greater detail. The machines are flexible and original research is possible.
Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) can improve the growth performance of bulls. This study investigated the influences of GAA addition on growth, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation and serum metabolites in bulls. Forty-eight Angus bulls were randomly allocated to experimental treatments, that is, control, low-GAA (LGAA), medium-GAA (MGAA) and high-GAA (HGAA), with GAA supplementation at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 g/kg DM, respectively. Bulls were fed a basal diet containing 500 g/kg DM concentrate and 500 g/kg DM roughage. The experimental period was 104 days, with 14 days for adaptation and 90 days for data collection. Bulls in the MGAA and HGAA groups had higher DM intake and average daily gain than bulls in the LGAA and control groups. The feed conversion ratio was lowest in MGAA and highest in the control. Bulls receiving 0.9 g/kg DM GAA addition had higher digestibility of DM, organic matter, NDF and ADF than bulls in other groups. The digestibility of CP was higher for HGAA than for LGAA and control. The ruminal pH was lower for MGAA, and the total volatile fatty acid concentration was greater for MGAA and HGAA than for the control. The acetate proportion and acetate-to-propionate ratio were lower for MGAA than for LGAA and control. The propionate proportion was higher for MGAA than for control. Bulls receiving GAA addition showed decreased ruminal ammonia N. Bulls in MGAA and HGAA had higher cellobiase, pectinase and protease activities and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus populations than bulls in LGAA and control. However, the total protozoan population was lower for MGAA and HGAA than for LGAA and control. The total bacterial and Ruminococcus flavefaciens populations increased with GAA addition. The blood level of creatine was higher for HGAA, and the activity of l-arginine glycine amidine transferase was lower for MGAA and HGAA, than for control. The blood activity of guanidine acetate N-methyltransferase and the level of folate decreased in the GAA addition groups. The results indicated that dietary addition of 0.6 or 0.9 g/kg DM GAA improved growth performance, nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation in bulls.
Phytase has long been used to decrease the inorganic phosphorus (Pi) input in poultry diet. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of Pi supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and phosphate–calcium metabolism in Hy-Line Brown laying hens fed phytase. Layers (n = 504, 29 weeks old) were randomly assigned to seven treatments with six replicates of 12 birds. The corn–soybean meal-based diet contained 0.12% non-phytate phosphorus (nPP), 3.8% calcium, 2415 IU/kg vitamin D3 and 2000 FTU/kg phytase. Inorganic phosphorus (in the form of mono-dicalcium phosphate) was added into the basal diet to construct seven experimental diets; the final dietary nPP levels were 0.12%, 0.17%, 0.22%, 0.27%, 0.32%, 0.37% and 0.42%. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks (hens from 29 to 40 weeks of age). Laying performance (housed laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio) was weekly calculated. Egg quality (egg shape index, shell strength, shell thickness, albumen height, yolk colour and Haugh units), serum parameters (calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D), tibia quality (breaking strength, and calcium, phosphorus and ash contents), intestinal gene expression (type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, NaPi-IIb) and phosphorus excretion were determined at the end of the trial. No differences were observed on laying performance, egg quality, serum parameters and tibia quality. Hens fed 0.17% nPP had increased (P < 0.01) duodenum NaPi-IIb expression compared to all other treatments. Phosphorus excretion linearly increased with an increase in dietary nPP (phosphorus excretion = 1.7916 × nPP + 0.2157; R2 = 0.9609, P = 0.001). In conclusion, corn–soybean meal-based diets containing 0.12% nPP, 3.8% calcium, 2415 IU/kg vitamin D3 and 2000 FTU/kg phytase would meet the requirements for egg production in Hy-Line Brown laying hens (29 to 40 weeks of age).
In a previous study, we showed that access to willow fodder decreased somatic cell counts (SCC) in the milk of local Mamber goats grazing in brushland at the end of lactation. To test whether the consumption of willow affects the cells of the immune system, Alpine crossbred dairy goats grazing in the same environment were either offered free access to freshly cut willow fodder (W, n = 24) or not (C, n = 24) for 2 weeks. The willow fodder contained 7.5 g/kg DM of salicin. The other major secondary compounds were catechin, myricitrin, hyperin and chlorogenic acid (2.2, 2.6, 1.0 and 0.75 g/kg DM, respectively). Udder health status was determined before the experiment, and each of the two groups included five (W) or six (C) goats defined as infected, as established by microbial cfu in milk, and 19 (W) or 18 (C) non-infected goats. Goats ingested, on average, 600 g of DM from willow (25% of food intake), resulting in minor changes in dietary quality compared to the controls, as established by faecal near-IR spectrometry. Throughout the 2 weeks of experiment, differences between groups in dietary CP contents were minor and affected neither by infection nor by access to willow; the dietary percentage of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) decreased in C and increased in W; dietary acid detergent fibre (ADF) increased; and the dietary tannin contents decreased for both treatments. However, milking performance and milk quality attributes in both W and C goats were similar. Initial SCC and milk neutrophil (cluster of differentiation (CD)18+ and porcine granulocyte (PG)68) cell counts were higher in infected than in non-infected goats; counts decreased significantly in W but not in C uninfected goats. The percentage of CD8+ T-cells increased in all C goats, while in the W group, a significant increase was found only for infected goats. The consumption of willow mitigated an increase in CD8+ in blood and triggered an increase in CD8+ in milk, suggesting an immune-regulatory effect independent of udder status. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a direct nutraceutical effect of fodder ingestion on the immune status of goats.
X-ray reference powder patterns and structures have been determined for a series of cobalt- and tungsten-containing cubic alkaline-earth perovskites, (BaxSr1–x)2CoWO6 (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9). The structure of the end members of the series, Sr2CoWO6 and Ba2CoWO6, were tetragonal and cubic, respectively, agreeing with the literature data. From Rietveld refinements, it was found that when x = 0.1 and 0.2, the structure was tetragonal I4/m (a = 5.60481(6) and 5.62305(11) Å and c = 7.97989(12) and 7.9847(2) Å, respectively; Z = 2). When x > 0.2, the structure was cubic (Fm
m, No. 225; Z = 4) (from x = 0.3 to 0.9, a increases from 7.98399(13) to 8.08871(10) Å). This tetragonal series of compounds exhibit the characteristics of a distorted double-perovskite structure. The bond valence sum values for the alkaline-earth (Ba, Sr) sites in all (BaxSr1−x)2CoWO6 members are greater than the ideal value of 2.0, indicating over-bonding situation, whereas for the W sites, as x increases, a change from under-bonding to slightly over-bonding situation was observed. Density functional theory calculations revealed that while Sr2CoWO6 is a semiconductor, Ba2CoWO6 and SrBaCoWO6 are half-metals. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of this series of compounds (BaxSr1−x)2CoWO6, with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9, have been submitted to be included in the Powder Diffraction File.
Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is sometimes observed along with reduced milk fat synthesis. Inconsistent responses may be explained by dietary fat levels. Twelve ruminally cannulated cows were used in a Latin square design investigating the timing of metabolic and milk fat changes during Induction and Recovery from SARA by altering starch levels in low-fat diets. Treatments were (1) SARA Induction, (2) Recovery and (3) Control. Sub-acute ruminal acidosis was induced by feeding a diet containing 29.4% starch, 24.0% NDF and 2.8% fatty acids (FAs), whereas the Recovery and Control diets contained 19.9% starch, 31.0% NDF and 2.6% FA. Relative to Control, DM intake (DMI) and milk yield were higher in SARA from days 14 to 21 and from days 10 to 21, respectively (P < 0.05). Milk fat content was reduced from days 3 to 14 in SARA (P < 0.05) compared with Control, while greater protein and lactose contents were observed from days 14 to 21 and 3 to 21, respectively (P < 0.05). Milk fat yield was reduced by SARA on day 3 (P < 0.05), whereas both protein and lactose yields were higher on days 14 and 21 (P < 0.05). The ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio was lower, and the concentrations of propionate and lactate were higher in the SARA treatment compared with Control on day 21 (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin increased during SARA, whereas plasma non-esterified fatty acids and milk β-hydroxybutyrate decreased (P < 0.05). Similarly to fat yield, the yield of milk preformed FA (>16C) was lower on day 3 (P < 0.05) and tended to be lower on day 7 in SARA cows (P < 0.10), whereas yield of de novo FA (<16C) was higher on day 21 (P < 0.01) in the SARA group relative to Control. The t10- to t11-18:1 ratio increased during the SARA Induction period (P < 0.05), but the concentration of t10-18:1 remained below 0.5% of milk fat, and t10,c12 conjugated linoleic acid remained below detection levels. Odd-chain FA increased, whereas branched-chain FA was reduced during SARA Induction from days 3 to 21 (P < 0.05). Sub-acute ruminal acidosis reduced milk fat synthesis transiently. Such reduction was not associated with ruminal biohydrogenation intermediates but rather with a transient reduction in supply of preformed FA. Subsequent rescue of milk fat synthesis may be associated with higher availability of substrates due to increased DMI during SARA.
Fat metabolism is an important and complex biochemical reaction in vivo and is regulated by many factors. Recently, the findings on high expression of fibroblast growth factor-16 (FGF16) in brown adipose tissue have led to an interest in exploring its role in lipogenesis and lipid metabolism. The study cloned the goat’s FGF16 gene 624 bp long, including the complete open reading frame that encodes 207 amino acids. We found that FGF16 expression is highest in goat kidneys and hearts, followed by subcutaneous fat and triceps. Moreover, the expression of FGF16 reached its peak on the 2nd day of adipocyte differentiation (P < 0.01) and then decreased significantly. We used overexpression and interference to study the function of FGF16 gene in goat intramuscular preadipocytes. Silencing of FGF16 decreased adipocytes lipid droplet aggregation and triglyceride synthesis. This is in contrast to the situation where FGF16 is overexpressed. Furthermore, knockdown of FGF16 also caused down-regulated expression of genes associated with adipocyte differentiation including CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (P < 0.01), fatty acid-binding protein-2 (P < 0.01) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (P < 0.05), but the preadipocyte factor-1 was up-regulated. At the same time, the genes adipose triglyceride lipase (P < 0.01) and hormone-sensitive lipase (P < 0.05) associated with triglyceride breakdown were highly expressed. Next, we locked the fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 (FGFR4) through the protein interaction network and interfering with FGF16 to significantly reduce FGFR4 expression. It was found that the expression profile of FGFR4 in adipocyte differentiation was highly similar to that of FGF16. Overexpression and interference methods confirmed that FGFR4 and FGF16 have the same promoting function in adipocyte differentiation. Finally, using co-transfection technology, pc-FGF16 and siRNA-FGFR4, siRNA2-FGF16 and siRNA-FGFR4 were combined to treat adipocytes separately. It was found that in the case of overexpression of FGF16, cell lipid secretion and triglyceride synthesis showed a trend of first increase and then decrease with increasing interference concentration. In the case of interference with FGF16, lipid secretion and triglyceride synthesis showed a downward trend with the increase of interference concentration. These findings illustrated that FGF16 mediates adipocyte differentiation via receptor FGFR4 expression and contributed to further study of the functional role of FGF16 in goat fat formation.
As part of a multidisciplinary approach to study the relationship of viruses to the etiology of human prostate cancer, 42 (34 cases of cancer, and 8 cases of benign hyperplasia) specimens of prostate tumors have been examined by electron microscopy. Preliminary results of this ultrastructural study have been reported.
Intracisternal 150-200 nm viruslike particles (Figs. 1a,b) were found in epithelial cells of five cases of prostatic cancer. The particles were also seen budding from the cisternal walls (Fig. 2a). Some particles show two inner concentric layers (Figs. 2a,b) or an electron dense core (Figs. 1a,b). Dumbbellshaped particles (Fig. 2c) and elongated, probably virus-related structures (Fig. 2d) were also observed.
In parrallel with studies on human tissues, prostatic glands of normal young (6 weeks old) and adult (1 year old) mice from the high mammary cancer strains RIII/Dm, C3H/Dm and A/Dm and from C57/BL/6/Dm low mammary cancer strain have been examined to determine if prostate was a potential source of transmissible oncornaviruses in mice.
Recently it has been discovered by electron microscopy that even in medium carbon steels (Mf≳200°C) small quantities of interlath retained austenite (γ) is present in as-quenched structures. It is speculated that this small quantity of retained γ can have a profound influence on the mechanical properties of steel. This austenite is severely deformed and in most cases the amount is so small that detection by x-ray analysis becomes impossible. However, sophisticated electron microscopic techniques involving careful selected area diffraction, bright field and dark field imaging can unequivocally establish the presence of such small quantities of austentite. Extremely useful morphological and microstructural information on the austenite can also be obtained from the electron metallography.
By using a Castaing-Henry filtering device adapted on a Siemens Elmiskop I electron microscope, we have directly observed plasmon and inner shell excitations by 60 keV electrons on electron energy loss spectra. Inner shell excitation edges have been detected up to 1900 eV.
By comparing L and K inner shell excitation profiles in the case of Magnesium, Aluminium and Silicon, it is concluded that the optical selection rules, △1 = ±1, explain the shape of the spectrum after the edge in a first approximation.
Dietary chitosan (CS) supplementation could improve the growth rate, small intestinal morphology, nutrients apparent digestibility and digestive enzyme activities in pigs, broiler chickens, rats and fish, whereas no data has been reported about the effect of CS on the growing Huoyan geese. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of CS on growth rate, small intestinal morphology, nutrients apparent utilization and digestive enzyme activities of growing Huoyan geese. Three hundred and twenty (28 days of age, gender balance) Huoyan geese were randomly divided into control, CS100, CS200 and CS400 groups (based on BW) with 20 geese per pen and 4 replicates pen per group, and the feeding experiment lasted for 4 weeks. The 4 diets contained 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg CS per kg feed, respectively. The results showed that CS200 groups had higher average daily gain, final BW, apparent utilization of DM and CP, and lower feed/gain ratio compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, CS100 and CS200 groups had higher villus height, villus height/crypt depth ratio and lower crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The geese in CS100 and CS200 groups had higher villus height, villus height/crypt depth ratio and lower crypt depth of ileum compared with those in control and CS400 groups (P < 0.05). In addition, compared with the control group, CS200 group has higher trypsin activities and lower lipase activities in duodenal, jejunal and ileal contents (P < 0.05). The results suggested that addition of 200 mg/kg CS had positive effects on growth rate, small intestinal morphology, nutrients apparent utilization and digestive enzyme activities of growing Huoyan geese.
In response to advancing clinical practice guidelines regarding concussion management, service members, like athletes, complete a baseline assessment prior to participating in high-risk activities. While several studies have established test stability in athletes, no investigation to date has examined the stability of baseline assessment scores in military cadets. The objective of this study was to assess the test–retest reliability of a baseline concussion test battery in cadets at U.S. Service Academies.
All cadets participating in the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium investigation completed a standard baseline battery that included memory, balance, symptom, and neurocognitive assessments. Annual baseline testing was completed during the first 3 years of the study. A two-way mixed-model analysis of variance (intraclass correlation coefficent (ICC)3,1) and Kappa statistics were used to assess the stability of the metrics at 1-year and 2-year time intervals.
ICC values for the 1-year test interval ranged from 0.28 to 0.67 and from 0.15 to 0.57 for the 2-year interval. Kappa values ranged from 0.16 to 0.21 for the 1-year interval and from 0.29 to 0.31 for the 2-year test interval. Across all measures, the observed effects were small, ranging from 0.01 to 0.44.
This investigation noted less than optimal reliability for the most common concussion baseline assessments. While none of the assessments met or exceeded the accepted clinical threshold, the effect sizes were relatively small suggesting an overlap in performance from year-to-year. As such, baseline assessments beyond the initial evaluation in cadets are not essential but could aid concussion diagnosis.
Companies struggle with identifying relevant sustainability aspects strategically, assessing alternative solutions quantitatively, and making trade-offs. This paper reports results from a prescriptive study with an aerospace company, and presents the Sustainability Criteria And product life-cycle Data Simulation (SCADS) approach. Based on strategic integration of sustainability indicators, this approach aims to enable visualisation and comparison of the sustainability implications of different concepts in early design phases of product development.
Environmental issues such as climate change are leading to sustainability challenges for the aerospace industry. New materials such as composites allow significant weight reduction, which leads to a lower fuel consumption. However, composites involve complex processes and there is a lack of knowledge on their social and environmental consequences. Through two cases based on real aero-engines components, this paper shows that the weight savings provided by composites reduce significantly the CO2 emissions during flight which compensates the environmental drawbacks from production and recycling.
A testbed was developed aiming to contribute to further knowledge on what is required from a VR application in order to be useful for planning of assembly tasks. In a pilot study the testbed was tested on students. The focus of the study was to explore the users’ behaviour, and to gain a better understanding of their experience using VR. The students experienced a gap between the real world and VR, which confirms theories that VR is not a copy or twin of an object or environment.