The European bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus Boerner, carries fungi in puncture pits located on the proximal part of each mandible, the sides of the pronotum, and the elytra.
On the pronotum, each mycangium corresponds to the cup-shaped depression surrounding each seta. Several type III gland cells are associated with each mycangium. The general organization of these cells, commonly found in the epidermis, corresponds to those described by other authors. Their finely granular secretions probably protect the fungi, assure spore adhesion, and also may temporarily inhibit their germination. Similar gland cells were scattered under unspecialized pronotal integument where fungi were not detected.
Thus, it appears that this beetle has evolved a mechanism for the protection or dissemination, or both, of yeasts and fungi such as Ceratocystis sp. This relatively simple system seems to be as efficient as the more evolved mycangia of other species.