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Circumstellar envelopes of young and evolved stars are responsible for many important phenomena concerning the exchange of matter, angular momentum, energy and maybe magnetic field between the core structure of stars and the interstellar medium. In particular, it is through them that matter enriched in heavy elements flows from evolved stars towards the interstellar gas, submitted to complex ordinary chemistry or photochemistry and condensation into solid particles.
We investigated an outbreak of 396 Salmonella enterica serotype I 4,5,12:i:- infections to determine the source. After 7 weeks of extensive hypothesis-generation interviews, no refined hypothesis was formed. Nevertheless, a case-control study was initiated. Subsequently, an iterative hypothesis-generation approach used by a single interviewing team identified brand A not-ready-to-eat frozen pot pies as a likely vehicle. The case-control study, modified to assess this new hypothesis, along with product testing indicated that the turkey variety of pot pies was responsible. Review of product labels identified inconsistent language regarding preparation, and the cooking instructions included undefined microwave wattage categories. Surveys found that most patients did not follow the product's cooking instructions and did not know their oven's wattage. The manufacturer voluntarily recalled pot pies and improved the product's cooking instructions. This investigation highlights the value of careful hypothesis-generation and the risks posed by frozen not-ready-to-eat microwavable foods.
The different possible geometries for intersubband transitions in microcavities are discussed. A consequence of the selection rule governing intersubband transition is the vanishing interaction with the electromagnetic field inside a usual vertical cavity. The geometry of vertical planar cavities which has been used extensively with interband transitions is therefore useless in the case of intersubband transitions. Different solutions are reviewed to overcome this problem. The breakdown of the selection rule in a vertical cavity is first discussed. This can be done with the use of vertical quantum wells, or thanks to intracavity diffraction gratings. Second, the use of in plane cavities is discussed. Two solutions are here envisaged: Whispering gallery modes in microdisk cavities, and efficient etched air/GaAs Bragg mirrors. Concerning the latter attractive solution, the losses by diffraction into the substrate are evaluated theoretically and experimentally. The solution of the Maxwell equations by a finite element method in this three dimensional system shows the great importance of diffraction. These results are confirmed by waveguided Fourier transform spectroscopy. To overcome this difficulty, we propose the use of lower refractive index substrates, such as oxidized AlAs.
The inhomogeneous sheath that surrounds a probe immersed in a weakly collisional magnetized plasma is investigated from the microscopic point of view, in the case when the probe is cylindrical and parallel to the magnetic field. Arbitrary surface effects of the probe (such as absorption, reflexion and emission of particles) are taken into account. The sheath is described with a model based on the solution of a boundary-value problem for the self-consistent Boltzmann—Maxwell—Poisson equation. The spatial variation of the magnetic field is discussed. Typical results of numerical computations concerning the structure of the sheath and the currents collected by the probe are given and discussed.
In this article, we present a laboratory astrophysics experiment
on radiative shocks and its interpretation using simple modelization.
The experiment is performed with a 100-J laser (pulse duration of about
0.5 ns) which irradiates a 1-mm3 xenon gas-filled cell.
Descriptions of both the experiment and the associated diagnostics
are given. The apparition of a radiation precursor in the unshocked
material is evidenced from interferometry diagrams. A model
including self-similar solutions and numerical ones is derived
and fairly good agreements are obtained between the theoretical
and the experimental results.
The investigation of a large class of problems in physics and astrophysics requires the dtermination of the ranges of some parameters z, E, … for which inequations of the form F(r;z,E,…) ⩾ 0 are satisfied for all r in some interval)a,b(. The solution of this problem is given under the form of three general theorems and, resulting from them, a very simple numerical procedure. This can also be used to solve equations of the form df/dt = 0 where f is some function of variables and derivatives of these variables (functions of t) with respect to t, for instance Vlasov-type equations in dynamics of flat stellar disks.
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