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The Virginia School's economics of natural equals makes consent critical for policy. Democracy is understood as government by discussion, not majority rule. The claim of efficiency unsupported by consent, as common in orthodox economics, appeals to social hierarchy. Politics becomes an act of exchange among equals where the economist is only entitled to offer advice to citizens, not to dictators. The foundation of natural equality and consent explains the common themes of James Buchanan and John Rawls as well as Ronald Coase and the Fabian socialists. What orthodox economics treats as efficient racial discrimination violates the fair chance entitlement to which people consent in a market economy. The importance of replication stressed by Gordon Tullock, developing themes from Karl Popper, is another expression of natural equality since the foresight of replication induces care into research. The publication of previously unpublished correspondence and documentation allows the reader to judge recent controversy.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Uncontrolled bleeding is a leading cause of preventable death in trauma. The “Stop the Bleed” campaign has trained over 130,000 lay people in the US to act to control bleeding. Current hemorrhage control courses, the most well-known being the American College of Surgeon’s Basic Bleeding Control (ACS B-con) course, require in-person training. Scaling this course nationwide is time and resource intensive. Furthermore, groups have advocated that young people, who are disproportionately affected by physical trauma, be universally trained in hemorrhage control.
Compare the effectiveness of teaching the ACS B-con course to high school (HS) students utilizing three different delivery mechanisms: in-person live, video-recorded, and virtual-live training.
432 students (aged 15-18) will be recruited from two HS settings: 300 from a local HS and 132 from a national online HS platform. Local HS students will be randomized into two arms: a control arm (in-person live training) and virtual training through a pre-recorded lecture. Online HS students will undergo virtual-live training. The primary outcome is correct tourniquet application following training. Secondary outcomes are the acquisition of personal resilience-associated traits using a validated instrument, motivation for further training, and perception of the importance of live training. Tourniquet application data will be assessed using a non-inferiority design using two pairwise comparisons of the intervention arms to the control (in-person). Pre- to post-training survey data will be assessed using paired univariates tests. Sub-analysis of the impact of demographic variables on these relationships will be assessed.
In addition to integration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation courses into HS curricula, there is momentum to develop effective programs to educate HS students to provide care for the injured and control bleeding before first responders arrive. This trial will help determine the most effective delivery mechanism to teach a hemorrhage control course to HS students at scale.
Transoral laser microsurgery is an increasingly common treatment modality for glottic carcinoma. This study aimed to determine the effect of age, gender, stage and time on voice-related quality of life using the Voice Handicap Index-10.
Primary early glottic carcinoma patients treated with transoral laser microsurgery were included in the study. Self-reported Voice Handicap Index testing was completed pre-operatively, three months post-operatively, and yearly at follow-up appointments.
Voice Handicap Index improvement was found to be dependent on age and tumour stage, while no significant differences were found in Voice Handicap Index for gender. Voice Handicap Index score was significantly improved at 12 months and 24 months. Time versus Voice Handicap Index modelling revealed a preference for non-linear over linear regression.
Age and stage are important factors, as younger patients with more advanced tumours show greater voice improvement post-operatively. Patient's Voice Handicap Index is predicted to have 95 per cent of maximal improvement by 5.5 months post-operatively.
We have explored the merits of using a Hgl2 spectrometer as a detector in x-ray diffraction systems instead of a proportional gas counter, or a scintillation counter. The full width at half maximum energy resolution of the HgI2 spectrometer used was about 1.1 keV for the CuKα line (8.1 keV), and about 1.5 keV for the MoKα line (17.4 keV), The energy resolution was utilised to eliminate x-ray fluorescence background from powder diffraction spectra. We demonstrate the suppression of Fe x-ray fluorescence in diffraction patterns of ErFe03 obtained with a Cu x-ray tube, and of Y x-ray fluorescence in diffraction patterns of Y2O3 obtained with a Mo x-ray tube. The peak height to background ratios were improved by about an order of magnitude in both cases.
As part of the evaluation of the French plan for the elimination of measles and rubella, we conducted a seroprevalence survey in 2013, aimed at updating seroprevalence data for people 18–32 years old. A secondary objective was to estimate measles incidence in this population during the 2009–2011 outbreak, and thus estimate the exhaustiveness of measles mandatory reporting. We used a cross-sectional survey design, targeting blood donors 18–32 years old, living in France since 2009, who came to give blood in a blood collecting site. We included 4647 people in metropolitan France, 806 people in Réunion Island and 496 in the French Caribbean. A further 3942 individuals were interviewed in the south-east region of metropolitan France to estimate the exhaustiveness of measles mandatory reporting. One of the main findings of this survey is that the proportion of people 18–32 years old susceptible to both measles and rubella infections remained high in France in 2013, 9.2% and 5.4%, respectively, in metropolitan France, even after the promotion campaigns about vaccination catch-up during and following the major measles epidemic in 2009–2011. Applying our results to French census data would suggest that around 1 million people aged 18–32 years old are currently susceptible to measles in France, despite this age group being one of the vaccination targets of the national measles elimination plan. Another important finding is that only an estimated 45% of the true number of cases in this age group was actually notified, despite notification being mandatory.
Patient-reported outcomes and preferences rely on reports of the status of a patient’s health condition that comes directly from the patient, without interpretation or qualification by clinicians or investigators. Patient-reported outcomes and preferences have become an accepted approach in drug development. As part of this effort, we assessed the relative importance to patients with schizophrenia of trying a new antipsychotic that might improve symptoms in the context of common antipsychotic side effects, especially weight gain. Information from surveys such as this one can provide pilot guidance about what might be acceptable versus unacceptable trade-offs when considering new therapies for schizophrenia.
We prospectively administered a cross-sectional survey to 250 patients with clinical diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, aged ≥18 years, from five US outpatient community clinics, regarding the importance of efficacy and side effects on treatment decisions involving medications. Sixty-four percent (n=160) of the patients were male; mean age was 43 years (range: 18–72 years); mean weight was 91 kg (range: 49–182 kg); and mean body mass index was 30.3 kg/m2 (range: 15.3–63.3 kg/m2).
Patients rated both efficacy and side effects as important attributes of medication for schizophrenia treatment, with 88.5% identifying the ability to think more clearly as an important property of their medication. Patients identified efficacy and side effects as important drivers to take their prescribed medicine (endorsed as very or most important by 94.3% and 84.0% of patients, respectively). Patients identified weight gain, physical restlessness and somnolence as significant side effects of current treatments for schizophrenia (very/most important by 61.5%, 60.4%, and 58.9%, respectively). When asked about willingness to change antipsychotics, anticipated weight gain had a strong negative influence on willingness to try a new antipsychotic, with 44.9% of patients declining to try a medication that would lead to a weight gain of 3–5 kg, and 70.8% of patients declining for an anticipated weight gain of 5–9kg.
Patients living with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder are influenced by many factors when considering whether to take their prescribed medication, including efficacy and side effects. It is important for clinicians to assess patient-specific concerns and develop a comprehensive treatment plan to maximize adherence to prescribed therapies.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was funded by Alkermes, Inc.
We define and study in this work a simple model designed for managing long-term market risk of financial institutions with long-term commitments. It allows the assessment of solvency capital requirements and the allocation of risk budgets. This model allows one to avoid over-assessment of solvency capital requirements specifically after market disruptions. It relies on a dampener component in charge of refining risk assessment after market failures. Rather than aiming at a realistic and thus complex description of equity prices movements, this model concentrates on minimal features enabling accurate computation of capital requirements. It is defined both in a discrete and continuous fashion. In the latter case, we prove the existence, uniqueness and stability of the solution of the stochastic functional differential equation that specifies the model. One difficulty is that the proposed underlying stochastic process has neither stationary nor independent increments. We are however able to perform statistical analyses in view of its validation. Numerical experiments show that our model outperforms more elaborate ones of common use as far as medium-term (between 6 months and 5 years) risk assessment is concerned.
Custody investigations by social workers of the home circumstances of children soon to be the subject of a custody order in a divorce case usually provide psychological and socioeconomic data about the family and other adults interested in the children's welfare. Reports of such investigations are used by judges in arriving at decisions about custody. The author's research has led him to conclude, however, that such institutionalized custody investigations can be defended only if they help spouses to resolve disputes that otherwise would be tried. Further, he suggests that safeguards be instituted to protect spouses from inaccurate and biased reporting.
To estimate the risk of transmission of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (RGNB) to gowns and gloves worn by healthcare personnel (HCP) when providing care to residents of community-based nursing facilities to identify the types of care and resident characteristics associated with transmission.
Prospective observational study.
Settings and participants
Residents and HCP from 13 community-based nursing facilities in Maryland and Michigan.
Perianal swabs were collected from residents and cultured to detect RGNB. HCP wore gowns and gloves during usual care activities, and at the end of each interaction, these were swabbed in a standardized manner. Transmission of RGNB from a colonized resident to gowns and gloves was estimated. Odds ratios (ORs) of transmission associated with type of care or resident characteristic were calculated.
We enrolled 403 residents and their HCP in this study. Overall, 19% of enrolled residents with a perianal swab (n=399) were colonized with at least 1 RGNB. RGNB transmission to either gloves or gowns occurred during 11% of the 584 interactions. Showering the resident, hygiene or toilet assistance, and wound dressing changes were associated with a high risk of transmission. Glucose monitoring and assistance with feeding or medication were associated with a low risk of transmission. Residents with a pressure ulcer were 3 times more likely to transmit RGNB than residents without one (OR, 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.1).
Gown and glove use in community nursing facilities should be prioritized for certain residents and care interactions that are deemed a high risk for transmission.