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Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (tEPEC) infection is a major cause of diarrhoea and contributor to mortality in children <5 years old in developing countries. Data were analysed from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study examining children <5 years old seeking care for moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (MSD) in Kenya. Stool specimens were tested for enteric pathogens, including by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for gene targets of tEPEC. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected at enrolment and ~60-days later; multivariable logistic regressions were constructed. Of 1778 MSD cases enrolled from 2008 to 2012, 135 (7.6%) children tested positive for tEPEC. In a case-to-case comparison among MSD cases, tEPEC was independently associated with presentation at enrolment with a loss of skin turgor (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37–3.17), and convulsions (aOR 2.83, 95% CI 1.12–7.14). At follow-up, infants with tEPEC compared to those without were associated with being underweight (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.6) and wasted (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–4.6). Among MSD cases, tEPEC was associated with mortality (aOR 2.85, 95% CI 1.47–5.55). This study suggests that tEPEC contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Interventions aimed at defining and reducing the burden of tEPEC and its sequelae should be urgently investigated, prioritised and implemented.
Operators are mindful of the balloon-to-aortic annulus ratio when performing balloon aortic valvuloplasty. The method of measurement of the aortic valve annulus has not been standardised.
Methods and results:
Patients who underwent aortic valvuloplasty at two paediatric centres between 2007 and 2014 were included. The valve annulus measured by echocardiography and angiography was used to calculate the balloon-to-aortic annulus ratio and measurements were compared. The primary endpoint was an increase in aortic insufficiency by ≥2 degrees. Ninety-eight patients with a median age at valvuloplasty of 2.1 months (Interquartile range (IQR): 0.2–105.5) were included. The angiographic-based annulus was 8.2 mm (IQR: 6.8–16.0), which was greater than echocardiogram-based annulus of 7.5 mm (IQR: 6.1–14.8) (p < 0.001). This corresponded to a significantly lower angiographic balloon-to-aortic annulus ratio of 0.9 (IQR: 0.9–1.0), compared to an echocardiographic ratio of 1.1 (IQR: 1.0–1.1) (p < 0.001). The degree of discrepancy in measured diameter increased with smaller valve diameters (p = 0.041) and in neonates (p = 0.044). There was significant disagreement between angiographic and echocardiographic balloon-to-aortic annulus ratio measures regarding “High” ratio of >1.2, with angiographic ratio flagging only 2/12 (16.7%) of patients flagged by echocardiographic ratio as “High” (p = 0.012). Patients who had an increase in the degree of aortic insufficiency post valvuloplasty, only 3 (5.5%) had angiographic ratio > 1.1, while 21 (38%) had echocardiographic ratio >1.1 (p < 0.001). Patients with resultant ≥ moderate insufficiency more often had an echocardiographic ratio of >1.1 than angiographic ratio of >1.1 There was no association between increase in balloon-to-aortic annulus ratio and gradient reduction.
Angiographic measurement is associated with a greater measured aortic valve annulus and the development of aortic insufficiency. Operators should use caution when relying solely on angiographic measurement when performing balloon aortic valvuloplasty.
To conduct international comparisons of self-reports, collateral reports, and cross-informant agreement regarding older adult psychopathology.
We compared self-ratings of problems (e.g. I cry a lot) and personal strengths (e.g. I like to help others) for 10,686 adults aged 60–102 years from 19 societies and collateral ratings for 7,065 of these adults from 12 societies.
Data were obtained via the Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) and the Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL; Achenbach et al., 2004).
Cronbach’s alphas were .76 (OASR) and .80 (OABCL) averaged across societies. Across societies, 27 of the 30 problem items with the highest mean ratings and 28 of the 30 items with the lowest mean ratings were the same on the OASR and the OABCL. Q correlations between the means of the 0–1–2 ratings for the 113 problem items averaged across all pairs of societies yielded means of .77 (OASR) and .78 (OABCL). For the OASR and OABCL, respectively, analyses of variance (ANOVAs) yielded effect sizes (ESs) for society of 15% and 18% for Total Problems and 42% and 31% for Personal Strengths, respectively. For 5,584 cross-informant dyads in 12 societies, cross-informant correlations averaged across societies were .68 for Total Problems and .58 for Personal Strengths. Mixed-model ANOVAs yielded large effects for society on both Total Problems (ES = 17%) and Personal Strengths (ES = 36%).
The OASR and OABCL are efficient, low-cost, easily administered mental health assessments that can be used internationally to screen for many problems and strengths.
The aeroelastic phenomenon of limit-cycle oscillations (LCOs) is analysed using a projection-based reduced-order model (PROM) and Navier–Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the time domain. The proposed approach employs incompressible Navier–Stokes CFD to construct the full-order model flow field. A proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the snapshot matrix is conducted to extract the POD modes and corresponding temporal coefficients. The POD modes are directly projected to the incompressible Navier–Stokes equation to reconstruct the flow field efficiently. The methodology is applied to a plunging cylinder and an aerofoil undergoing LCOs. This scheme decreases the computational time while preserving the capability to predict the flow field accurately. The ROM is capable of reducing the computational time by at least 70% while maintaining the discrepancy within 0.1%. The causes of LCOs are also investigated. The scheme can be used to analyse non-linear aeroelastic phenomena in the time domain with reduced computational time.
The aim of this study was to examine whether the presence of risk alleles of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) polymorphisms is associated with differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computerized tomography in a Korean sample of ADHD.
The present study included 24 children with ADHD (9.5±2.4 years), consisting of 20 boys and 4 girls, aged 6-16 years. We investigated the G1287A and -3081(A/T) polymorphisms of the SLC6A2. The rCBF was compared between the ADHD subjects with and without risk alleles at the G1287A polymorphism and at the -3081(A/T) polymorphism. Image analyses were performed with voxelwise t-statistics using SPM2.
1) The ADHD subjects with the A allele (risk allele) at the G1287A polymorphism showed reduced perfusion in the left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, precuneus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right superior parietal lobule as compared with ADHD subjects without the A allele (p< 0.001).
2) The ADHD subjects with the A allele at the G1287A polymorphism showed increased perfusion in the right middle frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right anterior lobe of cerebellum as compared with ADHD subjects without the A allele (p< 0.001).
3) No significant perfusion differences were found between ADHD subjects with and without the T allele (risk allele) at the -3081(A/T) polymorphism.
Our findings suggest that the SLC6A2 G1287A polymorphism might exert differential effects on rCBF in children with ADHD.
In this study, we want to evaluate the efficacy of a preventive weight management training. We hypothesize that this training will reduce weight gain, pathological metabolic parameters and will increase drug compliance and subjective well-being.
69 schizophrenic patients were included in this study, in all patients olanzapine was newly initiated. They were randomly assigned to verum and control group. Patients in the verum group attended the training every second week for 24 weeks. Physical and chemical parameters where measured regularly, and also eating behaviour, physical activity, quality of life, mental state and psychosocial adaptation.
28 patients dropped out during the first 4 weeks of intervention. The data of the remaining 41 patients (verum group N=21, control group N=20) was analysed. During the intervention there was no significant difference between the groups regarding weight-gain. Both groups gained weight slightly (verum group 3.02±4.06kg, control group 2.80±4.84kg). Concerning triglycerides we found an interaction effect of time and group (F(1)=6.697, p=.025), the same was found on the second scale of the questionnaire for eating behaviour (FEV), which measures to what degree eating behaviour is disturbed (F(1)=8,381, p=.013) and on the social functioning scale of the SF-36 (F(2,38)=3,34, p=.032). Regarding glucose tolerance challenge, there was a significant group effect at the first time of measure after intake of the glucose-dilution (F(1)=9.15, p=.016). Our results do not support the hypothesis that the intervention has the desired effects on body weight, but it influenced positively other metabolic parameters, eating behaviour and social functioning.
There is little data to indicate whether or not patients with chronic mental illness can provide self-report QOL data or if informant reports can substitute the patients’ ratings. We evaluated patient-proxy agreement in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and compared levels of agreement according to the relationship between patient-proxies.
WHOQOL-BREF and SF-36, two of the most popular quality of life instrument were administered to 82 schizophrenia-proxy and 50 bipolar disorder patient-proxy pairs.
Proxies of schizophrenia patients rated patients’ QOL lower than the patients themselves. Agreement between patients and proxies on the four main domains of QOL was moderate to good. Moreover, the agreement between patients’ and proxies’ ratings was higher when the proxy was a mother or spouse compared to father.
These findings suggest that proxy rating of QOL can be used as a reasonable estimate of the patients’ rating of QOL in schizophrenia and bipolar patients, at least in Korea. Knowing which domains of QoL are affected in specific psychiatric disorders can help clinicians focus on particular QoL domains during the diagnostic process and to define adequate treatment goals. Therefore, the assessment of QoL may be an important part of the diagnostic process because it can give insight into the areas of functioning in which a patient is suffering the most.
Sensory information plays an important role to determine psycho-emotional behaviors of individuals. in this study, we have examined psycho-emotional behaviors of rats after disrupting the oral sensory relay to brain with bilateral transection of the chorda tympami and lingual nerve (LNX). LNX rats are expected to lose their sensory information from the anterior two thirds of the tongue. Two weeks after the nerve transections or sham operations, rats were subjected to behavioral sessions to examine anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and the brain monoamine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Initial weight loss after the surgery was bigger in LNX rats and this effect remained during the whole experimental period, although daily food intake per 100 g body weight became greater in LNX rats. Ambulatory activity was decreased, anxiety-related behaviors during the activity test increased, time spent in the open arms during elevated plus maze test decreased, and immobility duration during Porsolt swim test increased in LNX rats compared with sham rats. LNX rats showed anhedonia with decreased sucrose consumption compared to sham rats. Serotonin levels in the hippocampus were decreased in LNX rats compared with sham rats. Results suggest that disruption of oral sensory relay to brain may lead to the development of depression- and anxiety-related disorders, and decreased serotonergic activity in the hippocampus play a role in its underlying mechanism.
Supported by the NRF (2010-0003642) funded by MOEST
: Human impulsivity is a complex multidimensional construct encompassing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Previous animal studies have suggested that striatal dopamine receptors play a critical role in impulsivity. in this study, we investigated the relationship between self-reported cognitive impulsiveness and dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subdivisions in healthy subjects using high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]raclopride.
Twenty-one participants completed 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution PET scans with [11C]raclopride. The trait of impulsiveness was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Partial correlation analysis was performed between BIS-11 scores and D2/3 receptor availability in striatal subregions, controlling for the confounding effects of temperament characteristics that are conceptually or empirically related to dopamine, which were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory.
The analysis revealed that the non-planning (p = 0.004) and attentional (p = 0.007) impulsiveness subscale scores on the BIS-11 had significant positive correlations with D2/3 receptor availability in the pre-commissural dorsal caudate. There was a tendency toward positive correlation between non-planning impulsiveness score and D2/3 receptor availability in the post-commissural caudate.
These results suggest that cognitive subtrait of impulsivity is associated with D2/3 receptor availability in the associative striatum that plays a critical role in cognitive processes involving attention to detail, judgment of alternative outcomes, and inhibitory control.
This research aimed to identify the effects of depressive mood of female high school students on dysmenorrhea and sleep quality.
This research was conducted for 2 months from September 2015 to October 2015. A total of 3 types of self-reported questionnaire were adopted for the research. Control group was separated by Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Each group adopted a self-made questionnaire for research on menstruation and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for research on sleep. Chi2 test and AVOVA analysis through SPSS-21 were used as statistics methods.
Analysis was made on 72 female students who submitted clear answers to the questionnaire. There were 34 students from normal mood group and 38 from depressive mood group. Depressive group presented meaningful results on regularity, pain severity, and drug treatment history of menstruation. Particularly, depressive group had 51.4% among subjects having severe menstrual pain of grade 3 by VMS (verbal multidimensional scoring system), way higher than 27.6% among subjects in the normal group. PSQI for sleep showed a meaningful result that 20.8% of those in the normal group were diagnosed with sleep disorder compared to 86.8% for the depressive group. A meaningful difference was seen in sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep disturbance, use of sleep medication, daytime functional disturbance among 7 items of PSQI.
This research showed that female high school students with depressive mood had high frequency and severity in dysmenorrhea and sleep quality disturbance.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This research examined gender variations in depressive mood for high school students affected by emotional upset and how such depressive mood affect their sleep quality.
Research was conducted from September 2015 to October 2015. Both males and females were divided into normal group and depressive group by Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Each group adopted the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure sleep quality.
Analysis was made on a total of 155 students, which were 83 male students and 72 female. The average ZSDS for all high school students was 43.38 and the average PSQI was 5.39. The number of male students in the normal and depressive group who were diagnosed with sleep disorder were 2 (3.8%) and 9 (29.0%), respectively (P < 0.05). But the number of female students in the normal and depressive group who were diagnosed with sleep disorder were 11 (32.4%) and 33 (86.8%), respectively (P < 0.05). Both males and females shared a meaningful result over sleep latency, sleep disturbance, use of sleep medication, and daytime functional disturbance among 7 items of PSQI for sleep quality, and female students had a significantly meaningful result over sleep duration, habitual sleep effects (P < 0.05).
This research showed that sleep quality of all high school students was not too bad but it can be problematic for those with depressive mood. Especially, female students were diagnosed with sleep disorder more than male students.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Although a number of studies have examined the relationship between depression and obesity, it is still insufficient to establish the specific pattern of relationship between depression and body mass index (BMI) categories. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the relationship between depression and BMI categories.
A cross-sectional study was conducted for a cohort of 159,390 Korean based on Kangbuk Samsung Health Study (KSHS). Study participants were classified into 5 groups by Asian-specific cut-off of BMI (18.5, 23, 25 and 30 kg/m2). The presence of depression was determined by Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scales (CES-D) = 16 and = 25. The adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for depression were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis, in which independent variable was 5 categories of BMI and dependent variable was depression. Subgroup analysis was conducted by gender and age.
When normal group was set as a reference, the adjusted ORs for depression formed U-shaped pattern of relationship with BMI categories [underweight: 1.31 (1.14–1.50), overweight: 0.94 (0.85–1.04), obese group: 1.01 (0.91–1.12), severe obese group: 1.28 (1.05–1.54)]. This pattern of relationship was more prominent in female and young age group than male and elderly subgroup. BMI level with the lowest likelihood of depression was 18.5 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in women and 23 kg/m2 to 25 kg/m2 in men.
There was a U-shaped relationship between depression and BMI categories. This finding suggests that both underweight and severe obesity are associated with the increased risk for depression.
The objective of this family-based whole exome sequencing (WES) is to examine genetic variants of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Korean population.
The probands with ASD and their biological parents were recruited in this study. We ascertained diagnosis based on DSM-5™ criteria, using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised. We selected probands with typical phenotypes of ASD both in social interaction/communication and repetitive behaviour/limited interest domains, with intellectual disability (IQ < 70), for attaining homogeneity of the phenotypes. First, we performed WES minimum 50× for 13 probands and high-coverage pooled sequencing for their parents. We performed additional WES for 38 trio families, at least 100× depth. De novo mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. All the sequence reads were mapped onto the human reference genome (hg19 without Y chromosome). Bioinformatics analyses were performed by BWA-MEM, Picard, GATK, and snpEff for variant annotation. We selected de novo mutation candidates from probands, which are neither detected in two pooled samples nor both parents.
Fifty-one subjects with ASD (5 females, 40∼175 months, mean IQ 42) and their families were included in this study. We discovered 109 de novo variants from 46 families. Twenty-nine variants are expected to be amino acid changing, potentially causing deleterious effects. We assume CELSR3, MYH1, ATXN1, IDUA, NFKB1, and C4A/C4B may have adverse effect on central nerve system.
We observed novel de novo variants which are assumed to contribute to development of ASD with typical phenotypes and low intelligence in WES study.
Disclosure of interest
This work has been supported by Healthcare Technology R&D project (No: A120029) by Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) consist of highly preserved stress proteins that are expressed in response to stress. Two studies were carried out to investigate whether HSP genes in hair follicles from beef calves can be suggested as indicators of heat stress (HS). In study 1, hair follicles were harvested from three male Hanwoo calves (aged 172.2 ± 7.20 days) on six dates over the period of 10 April to 9 August 2017. These days provided varying temperature–humidity indices (THIs). In study 2, 16 Hanwoo male calves (aged 169.6 ± 4.60 days, with a BW of 136.9 ± 6.23 kg) were maintained (4 calves per experiment) in environmentally controlled chambers. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement involving two periods (thermoneutral: TN; HS) and four THI treatment groups (threshold: THI = 68 to 70; mild: THI = 74 to 76; moderate THI = 81 to 83; severe: THI = 88 to 90). The calves in the different group were subjected to ambient temperature (22°C) for 7 days (TN) and subsequently to the temperature and humidity corresponding to the target THI level for 21 days (HS). Every three days (at 1400 h) during both the TN and HS periods, the heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (RT) of each individual were measured, and hair follicles were subsequently collected from the tails of each individual. In study 1, the high variation (P < 0.0001) in THI indicated that the external environment influenced the HS to different extents. The expression levels of the HSP70 and HSP90 genes at the high-THI level were higher (P = 0.0120, P = 0.0002) than those at the low-THI level. In study 2, no differences in the THI (P = 0.2638), HR (P = 0.2181) or RT (P = 0.3846) were found among the groups during the TN period, whereas differences in these indices (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) were observed during the HS period. The expression levels of the HSP70 (P = 0.0010, moderate; P = 0.0065, severe) and HSP90 (P = 0.0040, severe) genes were increased after rapid exposure to heat-stress conditions (moderate and severe levels). We conclude that HSP gene expression in hair follicles provides precise and accurate data for evaluating HS and can be considered a novel indicator of HS in Hanwoo calves maintained in both external and climatic chambers.
Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
To investigate the association between parity and the risk of incident dementia in women.
We pooled baseline and follow-up data for community-dwelling women aged 60 or older from six population-based, prospective cohort studies from four European and two Asian countries. We investigated the association between parity and incident dementia using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, educational level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cohort, with additional analysis by dementia subtype (Alzheimer dementia (AD) and non-Alzheimer dementia (NAD)).
Of 9756 women dementia-free at baseline, 7010 completed one or more follow-up assessments. The mean follow-up duration was 5.4 ± 3.1 years and dementia developed in 550 participants. The number of parities was associated with the risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.13). Grand multiparity (five or more parities) increased the risk of dementia by 30% compared to 1–4 parities (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02–1.67). The risk of NAD increased by 12% for every parity (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02–1.23) and by 60% for grand multiparity (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00–2.55), but the risk of AD was not significantly associated with parity.
Grand multiparity is a significant risk factor for dementia in women. This may have particularly important implications for women in low and middle-income countries where the fertility rate and prevalence of grand multiparity are high.
We aimed to investigate the heterogeneity of seasonal suicide patterns among multiple geographically, demographically and socioeconomically diverse populations.
Weekly time-series data of suicide counts for 354 communities in 12 countries during 1986–2016 were analysed. Two-stage analysis was performed. In the first stage, a generalised linear model, including cyclic splines, was used to estimate seasonal patterns of suicide for each community. In the second stage, the community-specific seasonal patterns were combined for each country using meta-regression. In addition, the community-specific seasonal patterns were regressed onto community-level socioeconomic, demographic and environmental indicators using meta-regression.
We observed seasonal patterns in suicide, with the counts peaking in spring and declining to a trough in winter in most of the countries. However, the shape of seasonal patterns varied among countries from bimodal to unimodal seasonality. The amplitude of seasonal patterns (i.e. the peak/trough relative risk) also varied from 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33–1.62) to 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01–1.1) among 12 countries. The subgroup difference in the seasonal pattern also varied over countries. In some countries, larger amplitude was shown for females and for the elderly population (≥65 years of age) than for males and for younger people, respectively. The subperiod difference also varied; some countries showed increasing seasonality while others showed a decrease or little change. Finally, the amplitude was larger for communities with colder climates, higher proportions of elderly people and lower unemployment rates (p-values < 0.05).
Despite the common features of a spring peak and a winter trough, seasonal suicide patterns were largely heterogeneous in shape, amplitude, subgroup differences and temporal changes among different populations, as influenced by climate, demographic and socioeconomic conditions. Our findings may help elucidate the underlying mechanisms of seasonal suicide patterns and aid in improving the design of population-specific suicide prevention programmes based on these patterns.
Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a primary sensor for autonomous vehicles to recognize surroundings. It detects near-infrared (NIR) light pulses, typically at 905nm, which is emitted and reflected by surrounding objects. Here, the fact of the matter is that conventional black or dark-tone cars with extremely low NIR reflection are hard to be detected by LiDAR and endanger the future highway. In this work, we propose to use platelet-shaped effect pigments with visible absorption and NIR reflectivity. Copper(Ⅱ) oxide and Silicon dioxide multilayer are theoretically investigated with different numbers of layers and thicknesses. The optimized structures appear various dark-tone colors with high NIR-reflectivity over 90%.
To ascertain the distribution of Ménière's disease phenotype subgroups in a US-based cohort, based on a recently introduced classification scheme utilising a Spanish and Portuguese cohort.
A retrospective, cross-sectional, single-institutional chart review was conducted. The electronic medical records of Ménière's disease patients were identified using International Classification of Diseases codes at a tertiary referral centre and reviewed to extract subgroup-defining features. Patients with definite Ménière's disease as per American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery criteria were categorised into one of five subgroups, for unilateral and bilateral Ménière's disease.
Eighty-one patients with definite Ménière's disease were identified. Seventy-two cases of unilateral Ménière's disease were observed: 52.8 per cent were type 1, 20.8 per cent were type 2, 4.2 per cent were type 3, 18.1 per cent were type 4, and 4.2 per cent were type 5. This cohort differed significantly in distribution to a comparison Mediterranean cohort (p < 0.01). Nine cases of bilateral Ménière's disease were observed.
The distribution of unilateral Ménière's disease subtypes in this US population was different from that observed in a European population.