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Previous studies have highlighted the role of the brain reward and cognitive control systems in the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). In an attempt to disentangle the relative contribution of these systems to the disorder, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate hemodynamic responses to reward-related stimuli presented both subliminally and supraliminally in acutely underweight AN patients and age-matched healthy controls (HC).
fMRI data were collected from a total of 35 AN patients and 35 HC, while they passively viewed subliminally and supraliminally presented streams of food, positive social, and neutral stimuli. Activation patterns of the group×stimulation condition×stimulus type interaction were interrogated to investigate potential group differences in processing different stimulus types under the two stimulation conditions. Moreover, changes in functional connectivity were investigated using generalized psychophysiological interaction analysis.
AN patients showed a generally increased response to supraliminally presented stimuli in the inferior frontal junction (IFJ), but no alterations within the reward system. Increased activation during supraliminal stimulation with food stimuli was observed in the AN group in visual regions including superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus/parahippocampal gyrus. No group difference was found with respect to the subliminal stimulation condition and functional connectivity.
Increased IFJ activation in AN during supraliminal stimulation may indicate hyperactive cognitive control, which resonates with clinical presentation of excessive self-control in AN patients. Increased activation to food stimuli in visual regions may be interpreted in light of an attentional food bias in AN.
Six radio telescopes were operated as the first southern hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 Ghz. This array produced VLBI images of 28 southern hemisphere radio sources, high accuracy VLBI geodesy between southern hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination −45 degrees. This paper discusses only the astrophysical aspects of the experiment.
VLBI observations of the nucleus of Centaurus A were made in April, 1982 at two frequencies with an array of five Australian radio antennas as part of the Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE). Observations were undertaken at 2.29 GHz with all five antennas, while only two were operational at 8.42 GHz. The 2.29 GHz data yielded significant information on the structure of the nuclear jet. At 8.42 GHz a compact unresolved core was detected as well.
The synthesis telescopes at Fleurs and Molonglo have been used to map 50 supernova remnants. Additional specialized software to process the maps has been developed, and Parkes observations have been used to supply short spacing information missing from the maps.
The Molonglo Observatory synthesis telescope (MOST) of the University of Sydney (Mills 1981) produces maps of the 843 MHz continuum emission from fields of width 23′, 46′ or 70′ arc. The telescope comprises two co-linear east-west cylindrical paraboloids each 2186λ in length and separated by a gap of 43λ. For each paraboloid a phasing network (Durdin et al. 1984) generates a comb of 64 contiguous fan beams. Mapping is accomplished in real time during a 12-h observation by overlaying, in the map plane, the instantaneous cross-correlations of corresponding beams. The synthesized point-source response (beam) produced by this method has a width of 43″ (E-W) by 43″ cosec δ (N-S).
8.4 GHz linear polarization maps, obtained with the Parkes radio telescope, are presented for six southern supernova remnants. These results are compared with published and unpublished polarization maps at 5 GHz to derive the magnetic field direction and Faraday rotation measure distribution.
These results are part of a program to map the magnetic fields in galactic supernova remnants and complement our program to obtain high-resolution maps of galactic SNRs using the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope; five new Molonglo maps are presented here.
We present preliminary results from a number of deep radio polarization surveys being made of the Magellanic Clouds at 2.3 GHz, 4.75 GHz and 8.55 GHz. Extended and linearly polarized radio emission has been found at 2.3 and 4.75 GHz from both the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). However, as the analysis of these data is not yet complete we present only some of the 4.75 GHz results at this time.
Several extragalactic HI surveys using a λ21 cm 13-beam focal plane array will begin in early 1997 using the Parkes 64 m telescope. These surveys are designed to detect efficiently nearby galaxies that have failed to be identified optically because of low optical surface brightness or high optical extinction. We discuss scientific and technical aspects of the multibeam receiver, including astronomical objectives, feed, receiver and correlator design and data acquisition. A comparison with other telescopes shows that the Parkes multibeam receiver has significant speed advantages for any large-area λ21 cm galaxy survey in the velocity range range 0–14000 km s−1.
At the centre of the Parkes 64—m radio telescope a region of diameter 17 m has recently been resurfaced to improve its efficiency at high frequencies. The first measurements using this section have been made at 22 GHz, in observations of both continuum sources and water tfapour masers. For these observations the receiver front-end used a mixer cooled in liquid nitrogen, followed by a 5 GHz cryogenic parametric amplifier as a second stage. The option of switching against an offset horn was available and the total system
noise temperature was ∽ 750 K.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Conditions at Dome C are known to be exceptional for astronomy. The seeing (above ∼30 m height), coherence time, and isoplanatic angle are all twice as good as at typical mid-latitude sites, while the water-vapour column, and the atmosphere and telescope thermal emission are all an order of magnitude better. These conditions enable a unique scientific capability for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents an overview of the optical and instrumentation suite for PILOT and its expected performance, a summary of the key science goals and observational approach for the facility, a discussion of the synergies between the science goals for PILOT and other telescopes, and a discussion of the future of Antarctic astronomy. Paper II and Paper III present details of the science projects divided, respectively, between the distant Universe (i.e. studies of first light, and the assembly and evolution of structure) and the nearby Universe (i.e. studies of Local Group galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Solar System).
The incidence of myocardial infarctions and influenza follow similar seasonal patterns. To determine if acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs) and ischaemic strokes are associated with influenza activity, we built time-series models using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. In these models, we used influenza activity to predict the incidence of AMI and ischaemic stroke. We fitted national models as well as models based on four geographical regions and five age groups. Across all models, we found consistent significant associations between AMIs and influenza activity, but not between ischaemic strokes and influenza. Associations between influenza and AMI increased with age, were greatest in those aged >80 years, and were present in all geographical regions. In addition, the natural experiment provided by the second wave of the influenza pandemic in 2009 provided further evidence of the relationship between influenza and AMI, because both series peaked in the same non-winter month.
Wafer bonding of SiC and GaN may prove important in the formation of high power heterojunction devices. Results of bonding SiC (C or Si surface) onto GaN (Ga surface) are presented. The samples were n-type 6H SiC and epitaxial n-type 2H(wurzite) GaN grown on SiC. The results demonstrate bonding for both possibilities, but the bonding of the C surface SiC to Ga surface GaN is more readily accomplished. A lower resistance was found for the C-face SiC/Ga-face GaN. The results indicate that the polarity of the interface is important for bonding of these materials.
Direct waferbonding is an appropriate technology to join two or more wafers of the same or of different materials. Waferbonding can be used to stiffen thin wafers during fabrication. However, conventional fabrication processes lead to an increase of the bond strength, which inhibits the required de-bonding. The propagation of cracks, which is based on a subcritical crack growth in the bonded interface, was used to cleave the bonded wafers. The subcritical crack growth is limited to the bonded interface, since the adjacent bulk semiconductor materials are inherently resistant to subcritical crack growth. The process allows the separation of Si-Si and Si-GaAs wafers after annealing. Wafer-bonded SOI wafers can also be separated with this technology even if they were annealed at 1100°C. The first examples for wafer stiffening during fabrication and wafer transfer using the developed approach will be presented.
It has been shown recently that Au labeling can be used to profile vacancy-type defects located near half the projected range (½Rp) in MeV-implanted Si. In this work we have quantified the technique by determining the ratio of vacancies annihilated to decrease in the number of Au atoms trapped (calibration factor ‘k’) for the Au labeling technique. The 3 step experiment involved: 1) a high-energy Si-self implant (HEI) followed by an anneal to form stable vacancy clusters, 2) a controlled removal of vacancies via a medium energy Si self implant and interstitial-cluster dissolution anneal, and finally 3) Au labeling to count the change in vacancy concentration in the near surface region (0.1-1.6μm). It is seen that the Au concentration decreases linearly with increasing interstitial injection and the slope of this decrease determined the number of vacancies per trapped Au atom. The value of k was determined to be 1.2±0.2 vacancies per trapped Au atom.
Controlled reactions have been undertaken between CO2 and polycrystalline YBa2Cu3O7‐σ in the temperature range 500°‐700°C. Typical reaction products are Y2BaCu05, BaC03 and CuO. Subsequent processing in O2 (e.g. sintering) results in the formation of liquid phases(s) by peritectic reaction at temperatures of 935‐975°C, well below the incongruent melting point of YBa2Cu3O7‐σ (∼1010°C). This “low temperature” liquid phase is shown to have a dramatic influence on the sintering process, and the resulting microstructures. The reactions are difficult to reverse even after extended times at temperatures >900°C. The results give an indication of the effect of adsorbed CO2 into YBa2Cu3O7‐σ powders, albeit on a more localized scale.
Extended defect formation is studied in ion implanted GaAs. A number of different species including Si+, Al+, Mg+, Ge+, As+, and Sn* have been investigated. Cross-sectional TEM studies have been done comparing the as-implanted structure (amorphous or crystalline) with the final defect location and morphology. The defects are identified by the same classification scheme used for implanted and annealed silicon. It is found that the threshold dose for type I defect formation is very sensitive to the implant energy for heavier ion masses. Type II, III and IV defects are unstable at annealing temperatures below 900°C. Type V defects are of a loop morphology for Si* and Ge* implants. The source of the interstitials may be a kickout process as the implanted species moves onto substitutional sites. Type V defects for Sn implants appear as precipitates which at the annealing temperature appear to be migrating in the liquid phase. Upon cooling the Sn precipitates, in many cases, solidify as grey (α) Sn.
Damage accumulation in Si-implanted GaAs has been characterized by ion channeling and Raman scattering as a function of implant temperature, dose, and dose rate. The damage was found to be extremely sensitive to temperature near room temperature (RT), such that an implant dose of 6×1014Si/cm2 which produced a peak damage fraction of 94% at 20°C gave only a 15% damage fraction at 30°C. Such a sharp damage transition obviously has important implications for controlling the activation of dopants implanted at RT. One consequence is a strong dependence of the damage on dose rate near RT: the damage increases with dose rate as the dose rate is increased over nearly two orders of magnitude. Comparison of Ion channeling results with Raman scattering measurements indicates that the morphologies of the dose-rafe-dependent and dose-dependent damage components in RT implants are distinct, ie‥ the rate-dependent component primarily consists of crystalline defects, while the dose-dependent damage nas a large amorphous contribution. These experimental observations are discussed in terms of the competition between different damage nucleation and growth mechanisms as a function of the implant parameters.
Ion-implantation and thermal-processing methods have been used to form nanophase magnetic precipitates of metallic cobalt that are embedded in the near-surface region of single crystals of Al2O3. The Co precipitates are isolated, single-crystal particles that are crystallographically oriented with respect to the host Al2O3 lattice. Embedded nanophase Co precipitates were formed by the implantation of Co+ at an energy of 140 keV and a dose of 8 × 1016 ions/cm2 followed by annealing in a reducing atmosphere. The implanted/annealed Co depth profile, particle size distributions and shapes, and the orientational relationship between the nanophase precipitates and the host crystal lattice were determined using RBS/channeling, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Magneto-optical effects arising from Co precipitates formed in the near-surface region of Al2O3 were observed and characterized using magnetic circular dichroism. Magnetic properties of the Co-particle/host nanocomposites were investigated in the temperature range of 77 to 295 K in applied fields of up to 10 kG using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Implantation of the Co particles by Pt or Xe ions produced a large anisotropic increase in their coercivity. Accordingly, these magnetic nanoparticle systems may be of interest for magnetic data storage applications. Details of the magnetic properties of the Co/Al2O3 nanocomposites including their retentivity, coercivity, saturation field, and magnetic anisotropy are presented.
We have examined the damage produced by Si-ion implantation into strained Si1-xGex epilayers. Damage accumulation in the implanted layers was monitored in situ by time-resolved reflectivity and measured by ion channelling techniques to determine the amorphization threshold in strained Si1-xGex, (x = 0.16 and 0.29) over the temperature range 30-110°C. The results are compared with previously reported measurements on unstrained Si1-xGex, and with the simple model used to describe those results. We report here data which lend support to this model and which indicate that pre-existing strain does not enhance damage accumulation in the alloy layer.