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A comprehensive study of the two-dimensional incompressible shear-driven flow in an open square cavity is carried out. Two successive bifurcations lead to two limit cycles with different frequencies and different numbers of structures which propagate along the top of the cavity and circulate in its interior. A branch of quasi-periodic states produced by secondary Hopf bifurcations transfers the stability from one limit cycle to the other. A full analysis of this scenario is obtained by means of nonlinear simulations, linear stability analysis and Floquet analysis. We characterize the temporal behaviour of the limit cycles and quasi-periodic state via Fourier transforms and their spatial behaviour via the Hilbert transform. We address the relevance of linearization about the mean flow. Although here the nonlinear frequencies are not very far from those obtained by linearization about the base flow, the difference is substantially reduced when eigenvalues are obtained instead from linearization about the mean and in addition, the corresponding growth rate is small, a combination of properties called RZIF (real zero imaginary frequency). Moreover growth rates obtained by linearization about the mean of one limit cycle are correlated with relative stability to the other limit cycle. Finally, we show that the frequencies of the successive modes are separated by a constant increment.
A fully three-dimensional linear stability analysis is carried out to investigate the unstable bifurcations of a compressible viscous fluid past a sphere. A time-stepper technique is used to compute both equilibrium states and leading eigenmodes. In agreement with previous studies, the numerical results reveal a regular bifurcation under the action of a steady mode and a supercritical Hopf bifurcation that causes the onset of unsteadiness but also illustrate the limitations of previous linear approaches, based on parallel and axisymmetric base flow assumptions, or weakly nonlinear theories. The evolution of the unstable bifurcations is investigated up to low-supersonic speeds. For increasing Mach numbers, the thresholds move towards higher Reynolds numbers. The unsteady fluctuations are weakened and an axisymmetrization of the base flow occurs. For a sufficiently high Reynolds number, the regular bifurcation disappears and the flow directly passes from an unsteady planar-symmetric solution to a stationary axisymmetric stable one when the Mach number is increased. A stability map is drawn by tracking the bifurcation boundaries for different Reynolds and Mach numbers. When supersonic conditions are reached, the flow becomes globally stable and switches to a noise-amplifier system. A continuous Gaussian white noise forcing is applied in front of the shock to examine the convective nature of the flow. A Fourier analysis and a dynamic mode decomposition show a modal response that recalls that of the incompressible unsteady cases. Although transition in the wake does not occur for the chosen Reynolds number and forcing amplitude, this suggests a link between subsonic and supersonic dynamics.
The transition to unsteadiness of a three-dimensional open cavity flow is investigated using the joint application of direct numerical simulations and fully three-dimensional linear stability analyses, providing a clear understanding of the first two bifurcations occurring in the flow. The first bifurcation is characterized by the emergence of Taylor–Görtler-like vortices resulting from a centrifugal instability of the primary vortex core. Further increasing the Reynolds number eventually triggers self-sustained periodic oscillations of the flow in the vicinity of the spanwise end walls of the cavity. This secondary instability causes the emergence of a new set of Taylor–Görtler vortices experiencing a spanwise drift directed toward the spanwise end walls of the cavity. While a two-dimensional stability analysis would fail to capture this secondary instability due to the neglect of the lateral walls, it is the first time to our knowledge that this drifting of the vortices can be entirely characterized by a three-dimensional linear stability analysis of the flow. Good agreements with experimental observations and measurements strongly support our claim that the initial stages of the transition to turbulence of three-dimensional open cavity flows are solely governed by modal instabilities.
The onset of unsteadiness in a boundary-layer flow past a cylindrical roughness element is investigated for three flow configurations at subcritical Reynolds numbers, both experimentally and numerically. On the one hand, a quasi-periodic shedding of hairpin vortices is observed for all configurations in the experiment. On the other hand, global stability analyses have revealed the existence of a varicose isolated mode, as well as of a sinuous one, both being linearly stable. Nonetheless, the isolated stable varicose modes are highly sensitive, as ascertained by pseudospectrum analysis. To investigate how these modes might influence the dynamics of the flow, an optimal forcing analysis is performed. The optimal response consists of a varicose perturbation closely related to the least stable varicose isolated eigenmode and induces dynamics similar to that observed experimentally. The quasi-resonance of such a global mode to external forcing might thus be responsible for the onset of unsteadiness at subcritical Reynolds numbers, hence providing a simple explanation for the experimental observations.
The interaction of an oblique shock wave and a laminar boundary layer developing over a flat plate is investigated by means of numerical simulation and global linear-stability analysis. Under the selected flow conditions (free-stream Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers and shock-wave angles), the incoming boundary layer undergoes separation due to the adverse pressure gradient. For a wide range of flow parameters, the oblique shock wave/boundary-layer interaction (OSWBLI) is seen to be globally stable. We show that the onset of two-dimensional large-scale structures is generated by selective noise amplification that is described for each frequency, in a linear framework, by wave-packet trains composed of several global modes. A detailed analysis of both the eigenspectrum and eigenfunctions gives some insight into the relationship between spatial scales (shape and localization) and frequencies. In particular, OSWBLI exhibits a universal behaviour. The lowest frequencies correspond to structures mainly located near the separated shock that emit radiation in the form of Mach waves and are scaled by the interaction length. The medium frequencies are associated with structures mainly localized in the shear layer and are scaled by the displacement thickness at the impact. The linear process by which OSWBLI selects frequencies is analysed by means of the global resolvent. It shows that unsteadiness are mainly associated with instabilities arising from the shear layer. For the lower frequency range, there is no particular selectivity in a linear framework. Two-dimensional numerical simulations show that the linear behaviour is modified for moderate forcing amplitudes by nonlinear mechanisms leading to a significant amplification of low frequencies. Finally, based on the present results, we draw some hypotheses concerning the onset of unsteadiness observed in shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions.
Methods for investigating and approximating the linear dynamics of amplifier flows are examined in this paper. The procedures are derived for incompressible flow over a two-dimensional backward-facing step. First, the singular value decomposition of the resolvent is performed over a frequency range in order to identify the optimal and suboptimal harmonic forcing and responses of the flow. These forcing/responses are shown to be organized into two categories: the first accounting for the Orr and Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities in the shear layer and the second for the advection and diffusion of perturbations in the free stream. Next, we investigate the dynamics of the flow when excited by a white in space and time noise. We compute the predominant patterns of the random flow which optimally account for the sustained variance, the empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs), as well as the predominant forcing structures which optimally contribute to the sustained variance, the stochastic optimals (SOs). The leading EOFs and SOs are expressed as a linear combination of the suboptimal forcing and responses of the flow and are related to particular instability mechanisms and/or frequency intervals. Finally, we use the leading EOFs, SOs and balanced modes (obtained from balanced truncation) to build low-order models of the flow dynamics. These models are shown to accurately recover the time propagator and resolvent of the original dynamical system. In other words, such models capture the entire flow response from any forcing and may be used in the design of efficient closed-loop controllers for amplifier flows.
The principal objective of this paper is to study some unsteady characteristics of an interaction between an incident oblique shock wave impinging on a laminar boundary layer developing on a flat plate. More precisely, this paper shows that some unsteadiness, in particular the low-frequency unsteadiness, originates in a supercritical Hopf bifurcation related to the dynamics of the separated boundary layer. Various direct numerical simulations were carried out of a shock-wave/laminar-boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI). Three-dimensional unsteady Navier–Stokes equations are numerically solved with an implicit dual time stepping for the temporal algorithm and high-order AUSMPW+ scheme for the spatial discretization. A parametric study on the oblique shock-wave angle has been performed to characterize the unsteady behaviour onset. These numerical simulations have shown that starting from the incident shock angle and the spanwise extension, the flow becomes three-dimensional and unsteady. A linearized global stability analysis is carried out in order to specify and to find some characteristics observed in the direct numerical simulation. This stability analysis permits us to show that the physical origin generating the three-dimensional characters of the flow results from the existence of a three-dimensional stationary global instability.
The theoretical linear stability of a shock wave moving in an unlimited homogeneous
environment has been widely studied during the last fifty years. Important results
have been obtained by Dýakov (1954), Landau & Lifchitz (1959) and then by Swan
& Fowles (1975) where the fluctuating quantities are written as normal modes. More
recently, numerical studies on upwind finite difference schemes have shown some
instabilities in the case of the motion of an inviscid perfect gas in a rectangular channel.
The purpose of this paper is first to specify a mathematical formulation for the
eigenmodes and to exhibit a new mode which was not found by the previous stability
analysis of shock waves. Then, this mode is confirmed by numerical simulations which
may lead to a new understanding of the so-called carbuncle phenomenon.
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