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Although psychoactive substance use disorders (PSUD) belong to the domain of mental health, their management varies greatly among European countries. Furthermore, both the role of psychiatrists and trainees in the treatment of PSUD is not the same for each European country.
Among the context of the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT), the PSUD Working Group has developed a survey that has been spread out between the 15th of august 2015 and 15th of October 2016, at the aim of gathering information about the training in PSUD in Europe, both from Child and Adolescent, and General Adult Psychiatric (CAP and GAP) trainees.
The survey investigated, at European level, the organisation of the PSUD training, trainees satisfaction, attitudes towards people who use psychoactive substances, management of pharmacologic and involvement in common clinical situations.
A 70-items questionnaire regarding the aforementioned objectives was developed, and shared trough an online data-collecting system among European CAP and GAP trainees, with 40 trainees per country filling the survey in at least 25 countries. One national coordinator per country facilitated the delivering of the survey.
A total of 1250 surveys were filled from more than 25 European countries.
Data from the survey will be promptly analysed.
The survey will be the first to explore European psychiatric trainees attitudes and practices about PSUD. Findings from this independent survey may serve in understanding the needs of trainees in the field of substance misuse psychiatry.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Until July 2016, Spain was not member of European Forum of Psychiatric Trainees. Why? Because Spain did never have Association of Psychiatric trainees. In July 2015, 2 Spanish trainees were invited to attend EFPT meeting in Porto. There, they connect with other European trainees and with the help of MENTA group they starting the foundation of Spanish Psychiatric Trainees Society, now known as SERP. In just 1 year, SERP has increased in number of members and have successfully developed numerous initiatives such as the establishment of our founding documents, the constitution of a democratic board through an Elective General Assembly, the design and update of a website and profiles in the social networks and the organization of the 1st Meeting for National Psychiatric Trainees, which was held in Vitoria-Gasteiz on March 2015 and had as topic Research on psychiatric training period. Last July, Spain was accepted for first time in history as full member of EFPT and we are actively participating in several working groups, even chairing the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry one. This year, Spain is also participating in international exchanges, offering two destination for European trainees. We must acknowledge that during the foundation process, the support of the Spanish National Psychiatric Associations (SEP and SEPB) and EFPT (specially its ENTA group since the first meeting of some of our now board members in the Annual Forum in Porto in 2015), has been crucial.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This paper provides an up-to-date review of the problems related to the generation, detection and mitigation of strong electromagnetic pulses created in the interaction of high-power, high-energy laser pulses with different types of solid targets. It includes new experimental data obtained independently at several international laboratories. The mechanisms of electromagnetic field generation are analyzed and considered as a function of the intensity and the spectral range of emissions they produce. The major emphasis is put on the GHz frequency domain, which is the most damaging for electronics and may have important applications. The physics of electromagnetic emissions in other spectral domains, in particular THz and MHz, is also discussed. The theoretical models and numerical simulations are compared with the results of experimental measurements, with special attention to the methodology of measurements and complementary diagnostics. Understanding the underlying physical processes is the basis for developing techniques to mitigate the electromagnetic threat and to harness electromagnetic emissions, which may have promising applications.
Gyrokinetic simulations of drift waves in low-magnetic-shear stellarators reveal that simulation domains comprised of multiple turns can be required to properly resolve critical mode structures important in saturation dynamics. Marginally stable eigenmodes important in saturation of ion temperature gradient modes and trapped electron modes in the Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX) stellarator are observed to have two scales, with the envelope scale determined by the properties of the local magnetic shear and an inner scale determined by the interplay between the local shear and magnetic field-line curvature. Properly resolving these modes removes spurious growth rates that arise for extended modes in zero-magnetic-shear approximations, enabling use of a zero-magnetic-shear technique with smaller simulation domains and attendant cost savings. Analysis of subdominant modes in trapped electron mode (TEM)-driven turbulence reveals that the extended marginally stable modes play an important role in the nonlinear dynamics, and suggests that the properties induced by low magnetic shear may be exploited to provide another route for turbulence saturation.
Understanding the peculiar properties of Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) via spectroscopic analysis is a challenging task that is now becoming feasible. The advent of 10m-class telescopes and high sensitivity instruments is enabling the gathering of high quality spectra even for the faintest systems. In addition, advances in the modelling of stellar populations, stellar libraries, and full-spectral fitting codes are allowing the recovery of the stellar content shaping those spectra with unprecedented reliability. In this contribution we report on the extensive tests we have carried out using the inversion code STECKMAP. The similarities between the Star Formation Histories (SFH) recovered from STECKMAP (applied to high-quality spectra) and deep Colour-Magnitude diagrams fitting (resolved stars) in two Local Group dwarf galaxies (LMC and LeoA) are remarkable, demonstrating the impressive performance of STECKMAP. We exploit the capabilities of STECKMAP and perform one of the most complete and reliable characterisations of the stellar component of UDGs to date using deep spectroscopic data. We measure radial and rotation velocities, SFHs and mean population parameters, such as ages and metallicities, for a sample of five UDG candidates in the Coma cluster. From the radial velocities, we confirm the Coma membership of these galaxies. We find that their rotation properties, if detected at all, are compatible with dwarf-like galaxies. The SFHs of the UDG are dominated by old (∼ 7 Gyr), metal-poor ([M/H] ∼ -1.1) and alpha-enhanced ([Mg/Fe]∼ 0.4) populations followed by a smooth or episodic decline which halted ∼ 2 Gyr ago, possibly a sign of cluster-induced quenching. We find no obvious correlation between individual SFH shapes and any UDG morphological properties. The recovered stellar properties for UDGs are similar to those found for DDO 44, a local UDG analogue resolved into stars. We conclude that the UDGs in our sample are extended dwarfs whose properties are likely the outcome of both internal processes, such as bursty SFHs and/or high-spin haloes, as well as environmental effects within the Coma cluster.
Genomic and genetic variation among six Italian chicken native breeds (Livornese, Mericanel della Brianza, Milanino, Bionda Piemontese, Bianca di Saluzzo and Siciliana) were studied using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variants (CNV) as markers. A total of 94 DNA samples genotyped with Axiom® Genome-Wide Chicken Genotyping Array (Affymetrix) were used in the analyses. The results showed the genetic and genomic variability occurring among the six Italian chicken breeds. The genetic relationship among animals was established with a principal component analysis. The genetic diversity within breeds was calculated using heterozygosity values (expected and observed) and with Wright’s F-statistics. The individual-based CNV calling, based on log R ratio and B-allele frequency values, was done by the Hidden–Markov Model (HMM) of PennCNV software on autosomes. A hierarchical agglomerative clustering was applied in each population according to the absence or presence of definite CNV regions (CNV were grouped by overlapping of at least 1 bp). The CNV map was built on a total of 1003 CNV found in individual samples, after grouping by overlaps, resulting in 564 unique CNV regions (344 gains, 213 losses and 7 complex), for a total of 9.43 Mb of sequence and 1.03% of the chicken assembly autosome. All the approaches using SNP data showed that the Siciliana breed clearly differentiate from other populations, the Livornese breed separates into two distinct groups according to the feather colour (i.e. white and black) and the Bionda Piemontese and Bianca di Saluzzo breeds are closely related. The genetic variability found using SNP is comparable with that found by other authors in the same breeds using microsatellite markers. The CNV markers analysis clearly confirmed the SNP results.
This paper studies the large-scale low-frequency variability of the wind-driven midlatitude ocean gyres and their western boundary currents, such as the Gulf Stream or Kuroshio, simulated with the eddy-resolving quasi-geostrophic model. We applied empirical orthogonal functions analysis to turbulent flow solutions and statistically extracted robust and significant large-scale decadal variability modes concentrated around the eastward jet extension of the western boundary currents. In order to interpret these statistical modes dynamically, we linearized the governing quasi-geostrophic equations around the time-mean circulation and solved for the corresponding full set of linear eigenmodes with their eigenfrequencies. We then projected the extracted decadal variability on the eigenmodes and found that this variability is a multimodal coherent pattern phenomenon rather than a single mode or a combination of several modes as in the flow regimes preceding developed turbulence.