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All tissues are in a constant state of turnover, with a tightly controlled regulation of protein synthesis and breakdown rates. Due to the relative ease of sampling skeletal muscle tissue, basal muscle protein synthesis rates and the protein synthetic responses to various anabolic stimuli have been well defined in human subjects. In contrast, only limited data are available on tissue protein synthesis rates in other organs. Several organs such as the brain, liver and pancreas, show substantially higher (basal) protein synthesis rates when compared to skeletal muscle tissue. Such data suggest that these tissues may also possess a high level of plasticity. It remains to be determined whether protein synthesis rates in these tissues can be modulated by external stimuli. Whole-body protein synthesis rates are highly responsive to protein intake. As the contribution of muscle protein synthesis rates to whole-body protein synthesis rates is relatively small considering the large amount of muscle mass, this suggests that other organ tissues may also be responsive to (protein) feeding. Whole-body protein synthesis rates in the fasted or fed state can be quantified by measuring plasma amino acid kinetics, although this requires the production of intrinsically labelled protein. Protein intake requirements to maximise whole-body protein synthesis may also be determined by the indicator amino acid oxidation technique, but the technique does not allow the assessment of actual protein synthesis and breakdown rates. Both approaches have several other methodological and inferential limitations that will be discussed in detail in this paper.
The “Puente project”, rises up the adherence rate with 38% (1). The aim of the study was to analyse the economic impact of this disease management prgramme of patients with a schizophrenic disorder.
Subjects and methods
“Puente” stands for a programme of LAAP with active outreaching of patients with schizophrenia. The details of the data collection and the subjects have been described elsewhere (1).The hospitalisation rate and the length of stay of the 117 case control pairs have been compared. The cost of hospitalisation in Belgium, recently adjusted by De Ridder et al. (2), have been used in order to map the differences.
The number of hospital days totalised by 23 cases, was 2,152 days, in comparison to 6,371 realised by 42 controls,wich gives 18,6 hospital days per year for the cases and 38.9 days for the controls. Given an hospital cost per day in Belgium of 163.8 € per day, a crude saving of 3,328.5 € per case per year can be realised, correespondng with a net diminution of 2,428.5 € per patient year. Enrolling 1,675 cases per year, creates a saving of 4,066,533 € per year, an equivalent of 24,826 hospital days, or the cost of a psychiatric hospital of 85 beds occupied at 80%.
The Puente programme realised a substantial drop in public patient expenditure of 3,328.5 € per patient year. This is a very strong argument to implement, to finance and to support “Puente” like disease programmes in Belgium.
The Department of Transcultural Psychiatry (TCH) of the Regional Institute for Mental Health Care (Riagg) Rijnmond, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, set up an outreaching program, the Rif-Project, in response to the need for adjusting mental health care services to a more diverse and mobile client population while containing costs. In the past, TCH observed a decline in mental health status in Moroccan clients following their stay in Morocco, which was linked to uncoordinated eclectic health care consumption in Morocco, the pursuit of personally more acceptable diagnoses, somatic checkups or medication, and the occasional use of (stress-inducing) traditional healing methods. Rif-Project is based on the assumption of providing continuation of care to its Moroccan clients who spend their summer months in Morocco, through strategic positioning of TCH care-deliverers across the kingdom. Their activities include the continuation of the treatment program that was initiated in the Netherlands, visiting clients in their preferred environment and system, psycho-education and preventive activities. By monitoring their clients health care consumption, coordinating services in collaboration with local institutions, treatment interventions and psycho-education, TCH-workers were successful in providing and maintaining stability to their clients, which reduced the incidence of deterioration and crisis.
Industrial heat treatment of milk results in protein glycation. A high protein glycation level has been suggested to compromise the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability following protein ingestion. In the present study, we assessed the impact of glycation level of milk protein on post-prandial plasma amino acid responses in humans. Fifteen healthy, young men (age 26 (SEM 1) years, BMI 24 (SEM 1) kg/m2) participated in this randomised cross-over study and ingested milk protein powder with protein glycation levels of 3, 20 and 50 % blocked lysine. On each trial day, arterialised blood samples were collected at regular intervals during a 6-h post-prandial period to assess plasma amino acid concentrations using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma essential amino acid (EAA) concentrations increased following milk protein ingestion, with the 20 and 50 % glycated milk proteins showing lower overall EAA responses compared with the 3 % glycated milk protein (161 (SEM 7) and 142 (SEM 7) v. 178 (SEM 9) mmol/l × 6 h, respectively; P ≤ 0·011). The lower post-prandial plasma amino acid responses were fully attributed to an attenuated post-prandial rise in circulating plasma lysine concentrations. Plasma lysine responses (incremental AUC) following ingestion of the 20 and 50 % glycated milk proteins were 35 (SEM 4) and 92 (SEM 2) % lower compared with the 3 % glycated milk protein (21·3 (SEM 1·4) and 2·8 (SEM 0·7) v. 33·3 (SEM 1·7) mmol/l × 6 h, respectively; P < 0·001). Milk protein glycation lowers post-prandial plasma lysine availability in humans. The lower post-prandial availability of lysine following ingestion of proteins with a high glycation level may compromise the anabolic properties of a protein source.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Dietary deficiencies in Fe and Zn are globally widespread, causing serious health problems such as anaemia, poor pregnancy outcomes, increased risk of morbidity and mortality, stunted growth and impaired physical and cognitive development. Edible insects, of which a diversity of over 2000 species is available, are dietary components for about 2 billion individuals and are a valuable source of animal protein. In the present paper, we review the available information on Fe and Zn in edible insects and their potential as a source of these micronutrients for the rapidly growing human population. The levels of Fe and Zn present in eleven edible insect species that are mass-reared and six species that are collected from nature are similar to or higher than in other animal-based food sources. High protein levels in edible insect species are associated with high Fe and Zn levels. Fe and Zn levels are significantly positively correlated. Biochemically, Fe and Zn in insects occur predominantly in non-haem forms, bound to the proteins ferritin, transferrin and other transport and storage proteins. Knowledge gaps exist for bioavailability in the human alimentary tract, the effect of anti-nutritional factors in other dietary components such as grains on Fe and Zn absorption and the effect of food preparation methods. We conclude that edible insects present unique opportunities for improving the micronutrient status of both resource-poor and Western populations.
Stars are the main ingredients of galaxies, and the sites of the creation of most chemical elements in our universe. The knowledge that we gain from studying nearby resolved stellar populations assists directly our ability to measure the properties of distant galaxies. The overall objective of this project is to study galaxy formation and evolution in a complete environment of the dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, by using the same methods for all of them. For that purpose, we used the INT to conduct a monitoring survey of the majority of Local-Group dwarf galaxies in order to identify the most evolved AGB stars that are long-period variables (LPV). LPV stars reach their maximum brightness amplitudes at optical wavelengths, owing to changes in temperature. They trace stellar populations as young as ∼30 Myr up to as old as ∼10 Gyr, and identifying them is one of the best ways of reconstructing star-formation history using a method that we have developed and applied successfully to other Local-Group galaxies. Since the luminosity variations span 100–1000 days, we planned observations over 10 epochs, spaced ∼3 months apart; 9 epochs of data have so far been obtained.
Supernova (SN) 1987A has provided a unique opportunity to study how SN ejecta evolve in 30 years time scale. We report our ALMA spectral observations of SN 1987A, taken in 2014, 2015 and 2016, with detections of CO, 28SiO, HCO+ and SO, with weaker lines of 29SiO.
We find a dip in the SiO line profiles, suggesting that the ejecta morphology is likely elongated. The difference of the CO and SiO line profiles is consistent with hydrodynamic simulations, which show that Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities causes mixing of gas, with heavier elements much more disturbed, making more elongated structure.
Using 28SiO and its isotopologues, Si isotope ratios were estimated for the first time in SN 1987A. The estimated ratios appear to be consistent with theoretical predictions of inefficient formation of neutron rich atoms at lower metallicity, such as observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud (about half a solar metallicity).
The deduced large HCO+ mass and small SiS mass, which are inconsistent to the predictions of chemical model, might be explained by some mixing of elements immediately after the explosion. The mixing might have made some hydrogen from the envelope to sink into carbon and oxygen-rich zone during early days after the explosion, enabling the formation of a substantial mass of HCO+. Oxygen atoms may penetrate into silicon and sulphur zone, suppressing formation of SiS.
Our ALMA observations open up a new window to investigate chemistry, dynamics and explosive-nucleosynthesis in supernovae.
The liquidity premium on corporate bonds has been high on the agenda of Solvency regulators owing to its potential relationship to an additional discount factor on long-dated insurance liabilities. We analyse components of the credit spread as a function of standard bond characteristics during 2003–2014 on a daily basis by regression analyses, after introducing a new liquidity proxy. We derive daily distributions of illiquidity contributions to the credit spread at the individual bond level and find that liquidity premia were close to zero just before the financial crisis. We observe the time-varying nature of liquidity premia as well as a widening in the daily distribution in the years after the credit crunch. We find evidence to support higher liquidity premia, on average, on bonds of lower credit quality. The evolution of model parameters is economically intuitive and brings additional insight into investors’ behaviour. The frequent and bond-level estimation of liquidity premia, combined with few data restrictions makes the approach suitable for ALM modelling, especially when future work is directed towards arriving at forward-looking estimates at both the aggregate and bond-specific level.
In the new DR-A in-situ diffusion experiment at Mont Terri, a perturbation (replacement of the initial synthetic porewater in the borehole with a high-salinity solution) has been induced to study the effects on solute transport and retention, and more importantly, to test the predictive capability of reactive transport codes. Reactive transport modeling is being performed by different teams (IDAEA-CSIC, PSI, Univ. Bern, Univ. British Columbia, Lawrence Berkeley Natl. Lab.). Initial modeling results using the CrunchFlow code and focusing on Cs+ behavior are reported here.
In a quest to further our understanding of the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) as well as the unidentified carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), we are mapping DIBs across the sky using hundreds of hot stars as background torches – globular clusters (in particular ω Centauri), nearby stars in and around the Local Bubble, and stars within the Magellanic Clouds. I describe the results so far obtained and our current experiments.
The Sun is located inside an enormous local cavity filled with a million degree, ionized hydrogen gas and surrounded by a wall of dense and cold gas, this cavity is known as the Local Bubble (LB). Since the tempreture of Local Bubble is high, the typical singly-ionized atoms or molecules can not survive at this high tempreture. To overcome this problem we should probe the Local Bubble using species which survive under this condition so we have done a whole sky survey in north hemisphere by observing absorptions in the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) for sight-lines with distance >300 pc. We have done 30 nights observation and have observed 473 bright stars. We found that the correlations between 5780 Å DIBs and Na I D doublets inside of the LB is much more than carriers outside of the LB.