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Little is known about what shapes the choice of employment location in a competitive surgical specialty like otolaryngology – head and neck surgery. This study aimed to identify factors important in determining practice location among Canadian otolaryngologists
An online survey was distributed nationally to active members of the Canadian Society of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery. The survey collected data on general demographics, current practice description, training location, factors deemed important in practice location decisions, and job satisfaction.
A total of 122 survey responses were collected, with a similar proportion of participants in academic versus community practice. The majority of respondents (73 per cent) practised in the same province as their residency training. Participants identified job vacancy, colleague interaction, spouse opinion and hospital services as important in the decision of practice location.
Key determinants of practice location among Canadian otolaryngologists include job vacancies, spouse opinion, and colleague interactions. Overall, Canadian otolaryngologists report high satisfaction with current employment.
Alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln), a highly soluble and stable glutamine dipeptide, is known to improve gut integrity and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary Ala-Gln supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and digestive-absorption function in weaned piglets. A total of 100 purebred Yorkshire piglets weaned at 21 days of age were assigned randomly to four dietary treatment groups and fed a basal diet (control group) or a basal diet containing 0.15%, 0.30% and 0.45% Ala-Gln, respectively. Compared with the control group, piglets fed the Ala-Gln diets had higher average daily gain and lower feed : gain and diarrhea rate (P < 0.05). Moreover, dietary Ala-Gln supplementation increased villous height and villous height : crypt depth ratio in duodenum and jejunum (P < 0.05), as well as the activities of maltase and lysozyme in jejunum mucosa (P < 0.05). In addition, a decrease in serum diamine oxidase activity and crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum was observed in piglets fed the Ala-Gln diets (P < 0.05). Serum cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) concentration and gene expression of cPLA2, Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1, glucose transporter 2 and peptide transporter 1 in jejunum were increased by feeding Ala-Gln diets relative to control diet (P < 0.05). These results indicated that feeding Ala-Gln diet has beneficial effects on the growth performance of weaned piglets, which associated with maintaining intestinal morphology and digestive-absorption function.
This study aimed to (1) explore how palliative care in long-term care (LTC) addresses the tensions associated with caring for the living and dying within one care community, and (2) to inform how palliative care practices may be improved to better address the needs of all residents living and dying in LTC as well as those of the families and support staff. This article reports findings from 19 focus groups and 117 participants. Study findings reveal that LTC home staff, resident, and family perspectives of end-of-life comfort applied to those who were actively dying and to their families. Our findings further suggest that eliciting residents’ perceptions of end-of-life comfort, sharing information about a fellow resident’s death more personally, and ensuring that residents, families, and staff can constructively participate in providing comfort care to dying residents could extend the purview of end-of-life comfort and support expanded integration of palliative principles within LTC.
Schistosomiasis in China has been substantially reduced due to an effective control programme employing various measures including bovine and human chemotherapy, and the removal of bovines from endemic areas. To fulfil elimination targets, it will be necessary to identify other possible reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum and include them in future control efforts. This study determined the infection prevalence of S. japonicum in rodents (0–9·21%), dogs (0–18·37%) and goats (6·9–46·4%) from the Dongting Lake area of Hunan province, using a combination of traditional coproparasitological techniques (miracidial hatching technique and Kato-Katz thick smear technique) and molecular methods [quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR)]. We found a much higher prevalence in goats than previously recorded in this setting. Cattle and water buffalo were also examined using the same procedures and all were found to be infected, emphasising the occurrence of active transmission. qPCR and ddPCR were much more sensitive than the coproparasitological procedures with both KK and MHT considerably underestimating the true prevalence in all animals surveyed. The high level of S. japonicum prevalence in goats indicates that they are likely important reservoirs in schistosomiasis transmission, necessitating their inclusion as targets of control, if the goal of elimination is to be achieved in China.
The present study was performed to test the predictive value of different cut-off points of anthropometric parameters for the presence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) or glucose tolerance abnormalities in north-east Chinese adults.
Multistage random cluster sampling method in a cross-sectional study.
Height, body weight, maximal body weight in the past, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure, 2 h post-load glucose and other lifestyle factors were measured.
We used data from 1058 adults aged 20 years or over, selected in the city of Mudanjiang, in 2005.
BMI, maximal BMI in the past (MAXBMI), waist:hip ratio (WHR), waist:height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) were significantly correlated with each other. Partial correlation coefficients between WHtR and WC, and between MAXBMI and BMI, were higher than those between the other indices. The association of anthropometric indices with T2DM or glucose tolerance abnormalities was significantly highest for the collaboration cut-off points of MAXBMI (≥23·0 kg/m2 for T2DM, ≥22·0 kg/m2 for glucose tolerance abnormalities) with WHtR (≥0·52). Areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves also showed that WHtR was a better anthropometric index that discriminated between the presence and absence of T2DM and an excellent indicator with high Youden’s index.
MAXBMI combined with WHtR was a better anthropometric index associated with T2DM or glucose tolerance abnormalities. The combined use of these two measures is a good choice for T2DM prevention and screening.
Intermolecular photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) has found a wide range of photoelectronic utility. One of the most notable examples includes the natural photosynthesis, where PeT between chlorophyll and quinone triggers photon-to-chemical energy conversion. We observed that phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes exhibited efficient PeT to trigger a cascade of catalytic intermolecular electron transfer among electrochemically active molecules. To establish the photoelectronic utility of PeT, a series of cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes were prepared and evaluated for photoelectrocatalytic conversion of dithienylethene (DTE) compounds. Selective photoexcitation of the Ir(III) complexes facilitated ultrafast PeT from DTE. The oxidative PeT initiated electrocatalytic cycloreversion of DTE, yielding one order of magnitude enhancement in quantum yields relative to direct photochromic conversion.
Exfoliated montmorillonite (exMMT) nanoplatelets are a two-dimensional electrolyte carrying ∼1.78 dissociable monovalent cations per nanometer square. They were fabricated through soap-free emulsion polymerization of poly(methyl methacrylate) in the presence of MMT. Because the dissociated exMMTs are anionic, they were not only capable of gelatinizing 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) ionic liquid-based electrolyte, but also increased the power conversion efficiency of resulting dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) from 6 to 7.77%. Recently, we investigated the ionic conductive mechanism of exMMT-gelled MPII ionic liquid-based electrolyte and found that the exMMTs acted like an oxidizing agent for iodide ions (I-). As exMMTs were mixed with MPII, I- ions readily oxidized to I3- and even to I5- ions by losing the electrons. Consequently, the ionic conductivity was significantly increased due to the fact that I-, I3-, and I5- tended to form redox couples that transported faster by way of the Grothus/exchange reaction process.
The effects of boundary slip on the stability of finite miscible/immiscible liquid-liquid stratified microchannel flow were investigated. In this approach, the boundary slip was considered by Navier slip assumption and the finite-miscible liquid-liquid interface was modeled by double film model. The stability of the flow was studied by the small disturbance theory. The results indicated that the effects of boundary slip on the instability of finite miscible stratified microchannel flow with different viscosity ratio, interface location and the property of interface (i.e. thickness and viscosity distribution of mixed layer) are distinct and complex. The effect intensity of upper and lower boundary slip on flow stability is determined by viscosity ratio, interface structure (different Ns) and film thickness. When the interface changes from the channel center to the wall, the critical Re number is enhanced by boundary slip and especially markedly near the critical line and after across the critical line it suddenly decreases to a small value (even to 424). The flow stability always increased by boundary slip.
The first direct detection of gravitational waves may be made through observations of pulsars. The principal aim of pulsar timing-array projects being carried out worldwide is to detect ultra-low frequency gravitational waves (f ∼ 10−9–10−8 Hz). Such waves are expected to be caused by coalescing supermassive binary black holes in the cores of merged galaxies. It is also possible that a detectable signal could have been produced in the inflationary era or by cosmic strings. In this paper, we review the current status of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array project (the only such project in the Southern hemisphere) and compare the pulsar timing technique with other forms of gravitational-wave detection such as ground- and space-based interferometer systems.
To better understand the response of oxygen vacancy concentration to applied potential, the lattice parameter of pulsed laser deposited La0.6Sr0.4Co1-xFexO3-δ thin films was monitored using in situ X-ray diffraction. We demonstrate that the chemical expansion under applied potential depends on the cathode morphology, which determines the contribution of different reaction pathways. We investigated applied potential dependent lattice expansion on La0.6Sr0.4Co1-xFexO3-δ with 3 different Co:Fe ratios in an attempt to connect bulk chemical expansion data to thin films. We find that the chemical expansion trends in thin films are different than expected from bulk data.
A ‘pulsar timing array’ (PTA), in which observations of a large sample of pulsars spread across the celestial sphere are combined, allows investigation of ‘global’ phenomena such as a background of gravitational waves or instabilities in atomic timescales that produce correlated timing residuals in the pulsars of the array. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) is an implementation of the PTA concept based on observations with the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. A sample of 20 ms pulsars is being observed at three radio-frequency bands, 50 cm (~700 MHz), 20 cm (~1400 MHz), and 10 cm (~3100 MHz), with observations at intervals of two to three weeks. Regular observations commenced in early 2005. This paper describes the systems used for the PPTA observations and data processing, including calibration and timing analysis. The strategy behind the choice of pulsars, observing parameters, and analysis methods is discussed. Results are presented for PPTA data in the three bands taken between 2005 March and 2011 March. For 10 of the 20 pulsars, rms timing residuals are less than 1 μs for the best band after fitting for pulse frequency and its first time derivative. Significant ‘red’ timing noise is detected in about half of the sample. We discuss the implications of these results on future projects including the International Pulsar Timing Array and a PTA based on the Square Kilometre Array. We also present an ‘extended PPTA’ data set that combines PPTA data with earlier Parkes timing data for these pulsars.
We will briefly review in situ synchrotron x-ray investigation of model thin film cathode systems for solid oxide fuel cells. The film cathodes examined in this study are (La,Sr)MnO3_δ (LSM), (La,Sr)CoO3_δ (LSC), and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) thin films epitaxially grown on YSZ single crystal substrates by the pulse laser deposition technique. We find in all cases that Sr is enriched or segregated to the surface of the film cathodes. We concluded that the Sr enrichments or segregations are mainly the results of annealing because they do not depend on whether the cathodes are electrochemically biased or not during annealing. However, at least in the case of LSCF, we find that B-site Co segregates rather uniformly to the surface and the segregation responds sensitively and reversibly to the electrochemical bias.
In recent years, livestock producers have been supplementing animal diets with fish meal (FM) to produce value-added products for health conscious consumers. As components of FM have unique neuroendocrine–immunomodulatory properties, we hypothesize that livestock producers may be influencing the overall health of their animals by supplementing diets with FM. In this study, 40 pregnant ewes were supplemented with rumen protected (RP) soybean meal (SBM: control diet) or RP FM, commencing gestation day 100 (gd100), in order to evaluate the impact of FM supplementation on the innate and acquired immune response and neuroendocrine response of sheep during pregnancy and lactation. On gd135, half the ewes from each diet (n = 10 FM, n = 10 SBM) were challenged iv with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to simulate a systemic bacterial infection and the febrile, respiratory and neuroendocrine responses were monitored over time; the other half (n = 10 FM, n = 10 SBM) of the ewes received a saline injection as control. On lactation day 20 (ld20), all ewes (n = 20 FM, n = 20 SBM) were sensitized with hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and the serum haptoglobin (Hp) response was measured over time. The cutaneous hypersensitivity response (CHR) to HEWL challenge was measured on ld30 (n = 20 FM, n = 20 SBM), and blood samples were collected over time to measure the primary and secondary immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to HEWL. There was an attenuated trend in the LPS-induced febrile response by the FM treatment when compared with the SBM treatment (P = 0.06), as was also true for the respiratory response (P = 0.07), but significant differences in neuroendocrine function (serum cortisol and plasma ACTH) were not observed between treatments. Basal Hp levels were significantly lower in the FM supplemented ewes when compared with the SBM supplemented ewes (P < 0.01), and the Hp response to HEWL sensitization differed significantly over time between treatments (P < 0.01). The CHR to HEWL was also significantly attenuated in the FM treatment compared with the SBM (P < 0.01); however, treatment differences in the primary and secondary IgG responses to HEWL were not observed. These results indicate that FM supplementation differentially affects the innate and acquired immune responses in pregnant and lactating sheep compared with a typical SBM diet of commercial flocks. The long-term implications of this immunomodulation warrant further investigation.
Division VI, consisting of one Commission (Commission 34) and two Working Groups (Astrochemistry WG and Planetary Nebulae WG), has 972 members whose theoretical, observational, and experimental research interests cover a wide spectrum of activities associated with the study of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Universe. As such, the Division has close links with Division VIII, IX, and X. The ISM and stars, the two major visible components of a galaxy, are coupled to each other through star formation, stellar feedback, and gravitational potential; thus, the Division is also closely linked to Division VII.
We use instrumented indentation to characterize the mechanical and transport behavior of a pH-sensitive hydrogel in various aqueous buffer solutions. In the measurement, an indenter is pressed to a fixed depth into a hydrogel disk and the load on the indenter is recorded as a function of time. By analyzing the load–relaxation curve using the theory of poroelasticity, the elastic constants of the hydrogel and the diffusivity of water in the gel can be evaluated. We investigate how the pH and ionic strength of the buffer solution, the hydrogel cross-link density, and the density of functional groups on the polymer backbone affect the properties of the hydrogel. This work demonstrates the utility of indentation techniques in the characterization of pH-sensitive hydrogels.