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Social norms are informal rules for behavior, and are fundamental to all societies. Recently, cultural neuroscience investigating the relation between culture, the brain, and behavior has begun to provide unique insights into the psychological and neural mechanisms underlying social norms and their cultural variations. This chapter offers an integrative review of the literature addressing a number of key questions: Are social norms unique to humans? How do people detect norm violations, punish violators, and comply with norms, and what are the brain functions that support such processes? We also explore what might be culturally universal and culturally specific for each of these processes, and how culture and genes might interact to impact norm-related psychological and neural processes. We conclude with a discussion of exciting frontiers that await investigation in the cultural neuroscience of social norms.
Glaciers in the eastern Pamir have reportedly been gaining mass during recent decades, even though glaciers in most other regions in High Mountain Asia have been in recession. Questions still remain about whether the trend is strengthening or weakening, and how far the positive balances extend into the eastern Pamir. To address these gaps, we use three different digital elevation models to reconstruct glacier surface elevation changes over two periods (2000–09 and 2000–15/16). We characterize the eastern Pamir as a zone of transition from positive to negative mass balance with the boundary lying at the northern end of Kongur Tagh, and find that glaciers situated at higher elevations are those with the most positive balances. Most (67% of 55) glaciers displayed a net mass gain since the 21st century. This led to an increasing regional geodetic glacier mass balance from −0.06 ± 0.16 m w.e. a−1 in 2000–09 to 0.06 ± 0.04 m w.e. a−1 in 2000–15/16. Surge-type glaciers, which are prevalent in the eastern Pamir, showed fluctuations in mass balance on an individual scale during and after surges, but no statistical difference compared to non-surge-type glaciers when aggregated across the region.
State-mobilized movements (SMMs) can be found among all regime types, democratic and nondemocratic alike. But certain types of regimes are more likely to generate certain types of SMMs. Communist regimes are partial to proletarian SMMs, calling on the moral authority of the “vanguard revolutionary class” to defuse challenges from other social elements at moments of internal crisis. In light of the signal importance of the proletariat in Marxist-Leninist ideology, it is not surprising that regimes controlled by communist parties should elect to enlist the participation of loyal workers in countermovements intended to delegitimize and demobilize threatening opposition. Unlike repression by the police or military, proletarian action has the advantage of political correctness. Relying on squadrons of workers to neutralize other social forces also promises more pragmatic advantages, especially when the social movement in question is composed largely of students. In responding to contention on the part of idealistic students, whose movements typically generate widespread sympathy among urban residents, intervention by unarmed workers is less apt to alienate the populace than naked military suppression.
What do states gain by sending citizens into the streets? Ruling by Other Means investigates this question through the lens of State-Mobilized Movements (SMMs), an umbrella concept that includes a range of (often covertly organized) collective actions intended to advance state interests. The SMMs research agenda departs significantly from that of classic social movement and contentious politics theory, focused on threats to the state from seemingly autonomous societal actors. Existing theories assume that the goal of popular protest is to voice societal grievances, represent oppressed groups, and challenge state authorities and other powerholders. The chapters in this volume show, however, that states themselves organize citizens (sometimes surreptitiously and even transnationally) to act collectively to advance state goals. Drawn from different historical periods and diverse geographical regions, these case studies expand and improve our understanding of social movements, civil society and state-society relations under authoritarian regimes.
Phytase has long been used to decrease the inorganic phosphorus (Pi) input in poultry diet. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of Pi supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and phosphate–calcium metabolism in Hy-Line Brown laying hens fed phytase. Layers (n = 504, 29 weeks old) were randomly assigned to seven treatments with six replicates of 12 birds. The corn–soybean meal-based diet contained 0.12% non-phytate phosphorus (nPP), 3.8% calcium, 2415 IU/kg vitamin D3 and 2000 FTU/kg phytase. Inorganic phosphorus (in the form of mono-dicalcium phosphate) was added into the basal diet to construct seven experimental diets; the final dietary nPP levels were 0.12%, 0.17%, 0.22%, 0.27%, 0.32%, 0.37% and 0.42%. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks (hens from 29 to 40 weeks of age). Laying performance (housed laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio) was weekly calculated. Egg quality (egg shape index, shell strength, shell thickness, albumen height, yolk colour and Haugh units), serum parameters (calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D), tibia quality (breaking strength, and calcium, phosphorus and ash contents), intestinal gene expression (type IIb sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, NaPi-IIb) and phosphorus excretion were determined at the end of the trial. No differences were observed on laying performance, egg quality, serum parameters and tibia quality. Hens fed 0.17% nPP had increased (P < 0.01) duodenum NaPi-IIb expression compared to all other treatments. Phosphorus excretion linearly increased with an increase in dietary nPP (phosphorus excretion = 1.7916 × nPP + 0.2157; R2 = 0.9609, P = 0.001). In conclusion, corn–soybean meal-based diets containing 0.12% nPP, 3.8% calcium, 2415 IU/kg vitamin D3 and 2000 FTU/kg phytase would meet the requirements for egg production in Hy-Line Brown laying hens (29 to 40 weeks of age).
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We examined how individual characteristics and characteristics of the socioeconomic and built environment were associated with care coordination’s effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks to identify geographic areas that may benefit from supplementary clinic-community linkages. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We analyzed data with geocoded residential addresses and data from electronic health records for 9946 adults from a Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services funded innovation project from 7/1/2013 to 3/30/2015. Variables included patient-level demographics, Elixhauser comorbidity index, total time with a nurse care manager, and neighborhood factors such as poverty indicators, walkability, and social capital index. Outcomes were change in CVD risk factors, hemoglobin A1C, blood pressure (BP), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Generalized linear models were used to assess the effect of nurse care management program on outcomes after controlling for confounding factors. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We report preliminary models that include patient demographics (age, sex, race), health care utilization, nurse care manager contact time, Elixhauser comorbidity index, neighborhood education status, percent of population below 200% federal poverty level, median home value, walkability score of the residential address, and social capital index. After adjusting for all mentioned variables, in adults with HbA1C more than 7.5% at baseline, females had worsening HbA1C by 0.53% over the study period. Additionally, LDL values in females worsened over the study period by 4.8 mg/dL after adjusting for all variables. No clinically significant changes were noted for BP. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Women’s HbA1C and LDL worsened despite nurse care management and may benefit from additional community-based interventions or interventionists. In future analyses, we anticipate that CVD risk will worsen for patients with higher fast food proximity and with greater geographic distance from their PCP.
Introduction: Selecting appropriate patients for hospitalization following emergency department (ED) evaluation of syncope is critical for serious adverse event (SAE) identification. The primary objective of this study is to determine the association of hospitalization and SAE detection using propensity score (PS) matching. The secondary objective was to determine if SAE identification with hospitalization varied by the Canadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS) risk-category. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of two large prospective cohort studies that enrolled adults (age ≥ 16 years) with syncope at 11 Canadian EDs. Patients with a serious condition identified during index ED evaluation were excluded. Outcome was a 30-day SAE identified either in-hospital for hospitalized patients or after ED disposition for discharged patients and included death, ventricular arrhythmia, non-lethal arrhythmia and non-arrhythmic SAE (myocardial infarction, structural heart disease, pulmonary embolism, hemorrhage). Patients were propensity matched using age, sex, blood pressure, prodrome, presumed ED diagnosis, ECG abnormalities, troponin, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, arrival by ambulance and hospital site. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the interaction between CSRS and SAE detection and we report odds ratios (OR). Results: Of the 8183 patients enrolled, 743 (9.0%) patients were hospitalized and 658 (88.6%) were PS matched. The OR for SAE detection for hospitalized patients in comparison to those discharged from the ED was 5.0 (95%CI 3.3, 7.4), non-lethal arrhythmia 5.4 (95%CI 3.1, 9.6) and non-arrhythmic SAE 6.3 (95%CI 2.9, 13.5). Overall, the odds of any SAE identification, and specifically non-lethal arrhythmia and non-arrhythmia was significantly higher in-hospital among hospitalized patients than those discharged from the ED (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in 30-day mortality (p = 1.00) or ventricular arrhythmia detection (p = 0.21). The interaction between ED disposition and CSRS was significant (p = 0.04) and the probability of 30-day SAEs while in-hospital was greater for medium and high risk CSRS patients. Conclusion: In this multicenter prospective cohort, 30-day SAE detection was greater for hospitalized compared with discharged patients. CSRS low-risk patients are least likely to have SAEs identified in-hospital; out-patient monitoring for moderate risk patients requires further study.
Introduction: Patients with poorly-controlled diabetes often visit the emergency department (ED) for treatment of hyperglycemia. While previous qualitative studies have examined the patient experience of diabetes as a chronic illness, there are no studies describing patients’ perceptions of ED care for hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to explore the patient experience regarding ED hyperglycemia visits, and to characterize perceived barriers to adequate glycemic control post-discharge. Methods: This study was conducted at a tertiary care academic centre in London, Ontario. A qualitative constructivist grounded theory methodology was used to understand the experience of adult patient partners who have had an ED hyperglycemia visit. Patient partners, purposively sampled to capture a breadth of age, sex, disease and presentation frequency were invited to participate in a semi-structured individual interview to probe their experiences. Sampling continued until a theoretical framework representing key experiences and expectations reached sufficiency. Data were collected and analyzed iteratively using a constant comparative approach. Results: 22 patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes were interviewed. Participants sought care in the ED over other options because of their concern of having a potentially life-threatening condition, advice from a healthcare provider or family member, or a perceived lack of convenient alternatives to the ED based on time and location. Participants’ care expectations centred around symptom relief, glycemic control, reassurance and education, and seeking referral to specialist diabetes care post-discharge. Finally, perceived system barriers that challenged participants’ glycemic control included affordability of medical supplies and medications, access to follow-up and, in some cases, the transition from pediatric to adult diabetes care. Conclusion: Patients with diabetes utilize the ED for a variety of urgent and emergent hyperglycemic concerns. In addition to providing excellent medical treatment, ED healthcare providers should consider patients’ expectations when caring for those presenting with hyperglycemia. Future studies will focus on developing strategies to help patients navigate some of the barriers that exist within our current limited healthcare system, enhance follow-up care, and improve short- and long-term health outcomes.
Introduction: Naloxone is recommended for reversing opioid-associated respiratory depression. There is wide variability in emergency department (ED) practice patterns regarding naloxone use, dosing, and observation time post-administration. This study describes the naloxone practice patterns of ED physicians managing suspected opioid overdose patients. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of adult patients (≥ 18 years) presenting to an academic tertiary care centre (consisting of two EDs with an annual census 150,000 visits) in 2017 with suspected opioid overdose who were administered naloxone in the ED. Patients were identified electronically and the following information was abstracted from patient charts: demographics, naloxone dosage and infusion initiation, disposition data, indications for naloxone administration, response to therapy, and adverse effects. Variability in initial and total dose was examined. Initial dose was also compared in those with cardiorespiratory compromise (CPR given, respiratory rate < 8, or desaturation below 89%) using independent samples median tests. Data was analyzed using standard descriptive statistics. Results: 113 patients met inclusion criteria. Indications for naloxone administration were: level of consciousness (50.5%), respiratory depression (4.0%), miosis (1.0%), a combination of factors (19.8%), or undocumented (24.8%). Median initial dose was 0.40 mg (IQR: 0.20-0.40 mg). Median total naloxone administered in the ED was 0.48 mg (IQR: 0.35-1.2 mg). The initial dose resulted in a response in 43.1% of patients, with 36.0% of responding patients later experiencing subsequent respiratory depression. 31% of patients received a naloxone infusion. Initial dose in patients with cardiopulmonary compromise was significantly different only comparing patients who received CPR versus those who did not (median 0.40 mg; IQR: 0.20-0.80 mg; P = 0.019). Four patients experienced emesis following naloxone. Median length of ED stay was 7.0 hours (IQR: 4.0-9.5 hours), and median hospital length of stay was 3.0 days (IQR: 1.0-5.0 days). Median ED observation time prior to discharge was 4.0 hours (IQR: 2.0-8.0 hours). Ultimate disposition home, to the ward, or to the intensive care unit was 47.1%, 42.2%, and 9.8% respectively (1.0% deceased). Conclusion: The dose and usage of naloxone by ED physicians in this study is variable. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the effective naloxone dosing strategy.
Introduction: Extreme heat events due to climate change are becoming increasingly frequent and severe, and may have an impact on human health. Administrative database studies using International Classification of Diseases 10th revision codes (ICD-10) are powerful tools to measure the burden of acute heat illness (AHI) in Canada. We aimed to assess the validity of the coding algorithm for emergency department (ED) encounters for AHI in our region. Methods: Two independent reviewers retrospectively abstracted data from 507 medical records of patients presenting at two EDs in Ontario between May-September 2015-2018. The Gold Standard definition of an AHI is chart-documented heat exposure with a heat related complaint, such as syncope while working outdoors on a hot day. To determine ICD coding algorithm positive predictive value (PPV), records that were previously coded as ICD-10 heat illnesses were compared to the Gold Standard for AHI. To determine sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp) and negative predictive values (NPV), the Gold Standard was compared to randomly selected records. A total of 326,702 ED visits were included in study period with 208 having an ICD-10 code related to heat illness. Sample size calculation demonstrated a need to manually review 62 previously coded heat illnesses and 931 random cases, of which 50 and 474 have been reviewed, respectively. In both abstractions, 20% of cases underwent a blinded duplicate review. Results: In our review of 474 random records, 2 cases were identified as AHI but without an appropriate ICD-10 code, 445 were not AHIs, and no cases had been identified as having an AHI ICD-10 inappropriately applied. In our review of 50 previously coded heat illnesses, 34 were found to be appropriately coded and 16 inappropriately coded, as AHI ICD-10. Average patient age and gender of heat illness vs non-heat illness ED presentations were 32 and 48 years of age and 49% and 64% male, respectively. The leading complaint in AHI was heat stroke/exhaustion (39%), followed by headaches (15%), dizziness (9%), shortness of breath (9%) and syncope/presyncope (6%). 76% of all heat illness presentations presented following a period of physical exertion. Conclusion: Final calculation of Sn, Sp, PPV, NPV for the algorithm will occur upon completion of the review. Preliminary results suggest that ICD-10 coding for AHI may be applied correctly in the ED. This study will help to determine if administrative data can accurately be used to measure the burden of heat illness in Canada.
Introduction: Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS) in pediatric patients is poorly characterized. Literature is scarce, making identification and treatment challenging. This study's objective was to describe demographics and visit data of pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected CHS, in order to improve understanding of the disorder. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of pediatric patients (12-17 years) with suspected CHS presenting to one of two tertiary-care EDs; one pediatric and one pediatric/adult (combined annual pediatric census 40,550) between April 2014-March 2019. Charts were selected based on discharge diagnosis of abdominal pain or nausea/vomiting with positive cannabis urine screen, or discharge diagnosis of cannabis use, using ICD-10 codes. Patients with confirmed or likely diagnosis of CHS were identified and data including demographics, clinical history, and ED investigations/treatments were recorded by a trained research assistant. Results: 242 patients met criteria for review. 39 were identified as having a confirmed or likely diagnosis of CHS (mean age 16.2, SD 0.85 years with 64% female). 87% were triaged as either CTAS-2 or CTAS-3. 80% of patients had cannabis use frequency/duration documented. Of these, 89% reported at least daily use, the mean consumption was 1.30g/day (SD 1.13g/day), and all reported ≥6 months of heavy use. 69% of patients had at least one psychiatric comorbidity. When presenting to the ED, all had vomiting, 81% had nausea, 81% had abdominal pain, and 30% reported weight loss. Investigations done included venous blood gas (30%), pregnancy test in females (84%), liver enzymes (57%), pelvic or abdominal ultrasound (19%), abdominal X-ray (19%), and CT head (5%). 89% of patients received treatment in the ED with 81% receiving anti-emetics, 68% receiving intravenous (IV) fluids, and 22% receiving analgesics. Normal saline was the most used IV fluid (80%) and ondansetron was the most used anti-emetic (90%). Cannabis was suspected to account for symptoms in 74%, with 31% of these given the formal diagnosis of CHS. 62% of patients had another visit to the ED within 30 days (prior to or post sentinel visit), 59% of these for similar symptoms. Conclusion: This study of pediatric CHS reveals unique findings including a preponderance of female patients, a majority that consume cannabis daily, and weight loss reported in nearly one third. Many received extensive workups and most had multiple clustered visits to the ED.
Introduction: Acute heart failure (AHF) is a common emergency department (ED) presentation and may be associated with poor outcomes. Conversely, many patients rapidly improve with ED treatment and may not need hospital admission. Because there is little evidence to guide disposition decisions by ED and admitting physicians, we sought to create a risk score for predicting short-term serious outcomes (SSO) in patients with AHF. Methods: We conducted prospective cohort studies at 9 tertiary care hospital EDs from 2007 to 2019, and enrolled adult patients who required treatment for AHF. Each patient was assessed for standardized real-time clinical and laboratory variables, as well as for SSO (defined as death within 30 days or intubation, non-invasive ventilation (NIV), myocardial infarction, coronary bypass surgery, or new hemodialysis after admission). The fully pre-specified, logistic regression model with 13 predictors (age, pCO2, and SaO2 were modeled using spline functions with 3 knots and heart rate and creatinine with 5 knots) was fitted to the 10 multiple imputation datasets. Harrell's fast stepdown procedure reduced the number of variables. We calculated the potential impact on sensitivity (95% CI) for SSO and hospital admissions and estimated a sample size of 170 SSOs. Results: The 2,246 patients had mean age 77.4 years, male sex 54.5%, EMS arrival 41.1%, IV NTG 3.1%, ED NIV 5.2%, admission on initial visit 48.6%. Overall there were 174 (7.8%) SSOs including 70 deaths (3.1%). The final risk scale is comprised of five variables (points) and had c-statistic of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.73-0.80): 1.Valvular heart disease (1) 2.ED non-invasive ventilation (2) 3.Creatinine 150-300 (1) ≥300 (2) 4.Troponin 2x-4x URL (1) ≥5x URL (2) 5.Walk test failed (2) The probability of SSO ranged from 2.0% for a total score of 0 to 90.2% for a score of 10, showing good calibration. The model was stable over 1,000 bootstrap samples. Choosing a risk model total point admission threshold of >2 would yield a sensitivity of 80.5% (95% CI 73.9-86.1) for SSO with no change in admissions from current practice (48.6% vs 48.7%). Conclusion: Using a large prospectively collected dataset, we created a concise and sensitive risk scale to assist with admission decisions for patients with AHF in the ED. Implementation of this risk scoring scale should lead to safer and more efficient disposition decisions, with more high-risk patients being admitted and more low-risk patients being discharged.
Introduction: Wide variability exists in emergency department (ED) syncope management. The Canadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS) was derived and validated to predict the probability of 30-day serious outcomes after ED disposition. The objective was to identify barriers and facilitators among physicians for CSRS use to stratify risk and guide disposition decisions Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with physicians involved in ED syncope care at 8 Canadian sites. We used purposive sampling, contacting ED physicians, cardiologists, internists, and hospitalists until theme saturation was reached. Interview questions were designed to understand whether the CSRS recommendations are consistent with current practice, barriers and facilitators for application into practice, and intention for future CSRS use. Interviews were conducted via telephone or videoconference. Two independent raters coded interviews using an inductive approach to identify themes, with discrepancies resolved through consensus. Our methods were consistent with the Knowledge to Action Framework, which highlights the need to assess barriers and facilitators for knowledge use and for adapting new interventions into local contexts. Results: We interviewed 14 ED physicians, 7 cardiologists, and 10 hospitalists/internists across 8 sites. All physicians reported the use of electrocardiograms for patients with syncope, a key component in the CSRS criteria. Almost all physicians reported that the low risk recommendation (discharge without specific follow-up) was consistent with current practice, while less consistency was seen for moderate (15 days outpatient monitoring) and high risk recommendations (outpatient monitoring and/or admission). Key barriers to following the CSRS included a lack of access to outpatient monitoring and uncertainty over timely follow-up care. Other barriers included patient/family concerns, social factors, and necessary bloodwork. Facilitators included assisting with patient education, reassurance of their clinical gestalt, and optimal patient factors (e.g. reliability to return, support at home, few comorbidities). Conclusion: Physicians are receptive to using the CSRS tool for risk stratification and decision support. Implementation should address identified barriers, and adaptation to local settings may involve modifying the recommended clinical actions based on local resources and feasibility.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) syncope management is extremely variable. We developed practice recommendations based on the validated Canadian Syncope Risk Score (CSRS) and outpatient cardiac monitoring strategy with physician input. Methods: We used a 2-step approach. Step-1: We pooled data from the derivation and validation prospective cohort studies (with adequate sample size) conducted at 11 Canadian sites (Sep 2010 to Apr 2018). Adults with syncope were enrolled excluding those with serious outcome identified during index ED evaluation. 30-day adjudicated serious outcomes were arrhythmic (arrhythmias, unknown cause of death) and non-arrhythmic (MI, structural heart disease, pulmonary embolism, hemorrhage)]. We compared the serious outcome proportion among risk categories using Cochran-Armitage test. Step-2: We conducted semi-structured interviews using observed risk to develop and refine the recommendations. We used purposive sampling of physicians involved in syncope care at 8 sites from Jun-Dec 2019 until theme saturation was reached. Two independent raters coded interviews using an inductive approach to identify themes; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Results: Of the 8176 patients (mean age 54, 55% female), 293 (3.6%; 95%CI 3.2-4.0%) experienced 30-day serious outcomes; 0.4% deaths, 2.5% arrhythmic, 1.1% non-arrhythmic outcomes. The serious outcome proportion significantly increased from low to high-risk categories (p < 0.001; overall 0.6% to 27.7%; arrhythmic 0.2% to 17.3%; non-arrhythmic 0.4% to 5.9% respectively). C-statistic was 0.88 (95%CI0.86–0.90). Non-arrhythmia risk per day for the first 2 days was 0.5% for medium-risk, 2% for high-risk and very low thereafter. We recruited 31 physicians (14 ED, 7 cardiologists, 10 hospitalists/internists). 80% of physicians agreed that low risk patients can be discharged without specific follow-up with inconsistencies around length of ED observation. For cardiac monitoring of medium and high-risk, 64% indicated that they don't have access; 56% currently admit high-risk patients and an additional 20% agreed to this recommendation. A deeper exploration led to following refinement: discharge without specific follow-up for low-risk, a shared decision approach for medium-risk and short course of hospitalization for high-risk patients. Conclusion: The recommendations were developed (with online calculator) based on in-depth feedback from key stakeholders to improve uptake during implementation.