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Introduction: We previously derived (N = 559) and validated (N = 1,100) the 10-item Ottawa Heart Failure Risk Scale (OHFRS), to assist with disposition decisions for patients with acute heart failure (AHF) in the emergency department (ED). In the current study we sought to use a larger dataset to develop a more concise and more accurate risk scale. Methods: We analyzed data from the prior two studies and from a new cohort. For all 3 groups we conducted prospective cohort studies that enrolled patients who required treatment for AHF at 8 tertiary care hospital EDs. Patients were followed for 30 days. The primary outcome was short-term serious outcome (SSO), defined as death within 30 days, intubation or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) after admission, myocardial infarction, or relapse resulting in hospital admission within 14 days. The fully pre-specified logistic regression model with 13 predictors (where age, pCO2, and SaO2 were modeled using spline functions) was fitted to 10 multiple imputation datasets. Harrell's fast stepdown procedure reduced the number of variables. We calculated the potential impact on sensitivity (95% CI) for SSO and hospital admissions, and estimated a sample size of 2,000 patients. Results: The 1,986 patients had mean age 77.3 years, male 54.1%, EMS arrival 41.2%, IV NTG 3.3%, ED NIV 5.4%, admission on initial visit 49.5%. Overall there were 236 (11.9%) SSOs including 61 deaths (3.1%), meaning that current admission practice sensitivity for SSO was only 59.7%. The final HEARTRISK6 scale is comprised of 6 variables (points) (C-statistic 0.68): Valvular heart disease (2) Antiarrhythmic medication (2) ED non-invasive ventilation (3) Creatinine 80–150 (1); ≥150 (3) Troponin ≥3x URL (2) Walk test failed (1). The probability of SSO ranged from 4.8% for a total score of 0 to 62.4% for a score of 10, showing good calibration. Choosing a HEARTRISK6 total point admission threshold of ≥3 would yield sensitivity of 70.8% (95%CI 64.5-76.5) for SSO with a slight decrease in admissions to 47.9%. Choosing a threshold of ≥2 would yield a sensitivity of 84.3% (95%CI 79.0-88.7) but require 66.6% admissions. Conclusion: Using a large prospectively collected dataset, we created a more concise and more sensitive risk scale to assist with admission decisions for patients with AHF in the ED. Implementation of the HEARTRISK6 scale should lead to safer and more efficient disposition decisions, with more high-risk patients being admitted and more low-risk patients being discharged.
Introduction: Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS) is a new and poorly understood phenomenon with a subset of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) for symptomatic control of their refractory nausea and vomiting. Curently, there is a lack of agreement and considerable practice variability on initial treatment modalities for CHS. The objective of this study was to describe the treatment modalities for patients presenting to ED with cannabis-related sequelae. Methods: This was a health records review of patients ≥18 years presenting to one of two tertiary care EDs (annual census: 150,000) with a discharge diagnosis including cannabis use with one of abdominal pain or nausea/vomiting using ICD-10 codes. Trained research personnel collected data from medical records including demographics, clinical history, results of investigations, and utilization of treatment options within the ED. Descriptive statistics are presented where appropriate. Results: From April 2014 to June 2016, 203 unique ED patients had a discharge diagnosis including cannabis use with abdominal pain or nausea/vomiting. Sixty-nine (33.4%) received any treatment during their visit with 28 (40.6%) receiving IV fluids, of which 24 (85.7%) received normal saline. Anti-emetics were used in 21 (30.4%) patients with ondansetron being the first-line agent in 11 (52.4%) patients followed by dimenhydrinate in 6 (28.6%) and haloperidol in 2 (9.5%) cases. Six patients required two doses of anti-emetics, favouring ondansetron in 3 cases followed by haloperidol, dimenhydrinate, and metoclopramide each used once. Thirteen (19%) patients required analgesia, with the first-line preference being non-opioid medications in 11 versus opioids in 2 cases. Seven patients required multiple modes of analgesia, favouring opioid medications in 4 patients. Twenty-eight (40.6%) patients required anxiolytics with lorazepam being used primarily in 16 (57.1%) patients followed by lorazepam/haloperidol in 5 (17.9%) cases. Conclusion: This ED-based study demonstrates variability of practice patterns for symptomatic treatment of cannabis related ED presentations. Despite knowledge of haloperidol being useful in patients with suspected CHS, physicians opted for ondansetron as first line anti-emetics. Future research should focus on studying various treatment modalities of patients with suspected CHS in the ED to optimize symptomatic treatment.
Introduction: Hyperglycemic emergencies, including diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), often recur in patients who have poorly controlled diabetes. Identification of those at risk for recurrent hyperglycemia visits may improve health care delivery and reduce ED utilization for these patients. The objective of this study was to prospectively characterize patients re-presenting to the emergency department (ED) for hyperglycemia within 30 days of an initial ED visit. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of patients ≥18 years presenting to two tertiary care EDs (combined annual census 150,000 visits) with a discharge diagnosis of hyperglycemia, DKA or HHS from Jul 2016-Nov 2018. Trained research personnel collected data from medical records, telephoned patients at 10-14 days after the ED visit for follow-up, and completed an electronic review to determine if patients had a recurrent hyperglycemia visit to any of 11 EDs within our local health integration network within 30 days of the initial visit. Descriptive statistics were used where appropriate to summarize the data. Results: 240 patients were enrolled with a mean (SD) age of 53.9 (18.6) years and 126 (52.5%) were male. 77 (32.1%) patients were admitted from their initial ED visit. Of the 237 patients (98.8%) with 30-day data available, 55 (23.2%) had a recurrent ED visit for hyperglycemia within this time period. 21 (8.9%) were admitted on this subsequent visit, with one admission to intensive care and one death within 30 days. For all patients who had a recurrent 30-day hyperglycemia visit, 22/55 (40.0%) reported having outpatient follow-up with a physician for diabetes management within 10-14 days of their index ED visit. 7/21 (33.3%) patients who were admitted on the subsequent visit had received follow-up within the same 10-14 day period. Conclusion: This prospective study builds on our previous retrospective work and describes patients who present recurrently for hyperglycemia within 30 days of an index ED visit. Further research will attempt to determine if access to prompt follow-up after discharge can reduce recurrent hyperglycemia visits in patients presenting to the ED.
Introduction: Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is a lifesaving procedure commonly performed by emergency department (ED) physicians that may lead to patient discomfort or adverse events (e.g., unintended extubation) if sedation is inadequate. No ED-based sedation guidelines currently exist, so individual practice varies widely. This study's objective was to describe the self-reported post-ETI sedation practice of Canadian adult ED physicians. Methods: An anonymous, cross-sectional, web-based survey featuring 7 common ED scenarios requiring ETI was distributed to adult ED physician members of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP). Scenarios included post-cardiac arrest, hypercapnic and hypoxic respiratory failure, status epilepticus, polytrauma, traumatic brain injury, and toxicology. Participants indicated first and second choice of sedative medication following ETI, as well as bolus vs. infusion administration in each scenario. Data was presented by descriptive statistics. Results: 207 (response rate 16.8%) ED physicians responded to the survey. Emergency medicine training of respondents included CCFP-EM (47.0%), FRCPC (35.8%), and CCFP (13.9%). 51.0% of respondents work primarily in academic/teaching hospitals and 40.4% work in community teaching hospitals. On average, responding physicians report providing care for 4.9 ± 6.8 (mean ± SD) intubated adult patients per month for varying durations (39.2% for 1–2 hours, 27.8% for 2–4 hours, and 22.7% for ≤1 hour). Combining all clinical scenarios, propofol was the most frequently used medication for post-ETI sedation (38.0% of all responses) and was the most frequently used agent except for the post-cardiac arrest, polytrauma, and hypercapnic respiratory failure scenarios. Ketamine was used second most frequently (28.2%), with midazolam being third most common (14.5%). Post-ETI sedation was provided by > 98% of physicians in all situations except the post-cardiac arrest (26.1% indicating no sedation) and toxicology (15.5% indicating no sedation) scenarios. Sedation was provided by infusion in 74.6% of cases and bolus in 25.4%. Conclusion: Significant practice variability with respect to post-ETI sedation exists amongst Canadian emergency physicians. Future quality improvement studies should examine sedation provided in real clinical scenarios with a goal of establishing best sedation practices to improve patient safety and quality of care.
Introduction: Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a time sensitive aortic catastrophe that is often misdiagnosed. There are currently no Canadian guidelines to aid in diagnosis. Our goal was to adapt the existing American Heart Association (AHA) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) diagnostic algorithms for AAS into a Canadian evidence based best practices algorithm targeted for emergency medicine physicians. Methods: We chose to adapt existing high-quality clinical practice guidelines (CPG) previously developed by the AHA/ESC using the GRADE ADOLOPMENT approach. We created a National Advisory Committee consisting of 21 members from across Canada including academic, community and remote/rural emergency physicians/nurses, cardiothoracic and cardiovascular surgeons, cardiac anesthesiologists, critical care physicians, cardiologist, radiologists and patient representatives. The Advisory Committee communicated through multiple teleconference meetings, emails and a one-day in person meeting. The panel prioritized questions and outcomes, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess evidence and make recommendations. The algorithm was prepared and revised through feedback and discussions and through an iterative process until consensus was achieved. Results: The diagnostic algorithm is comprised of an updated pre test probability assessment tool with further testing recommendations based on risk level. The updated tool incorporates likelihood of an alternative diagnosis and point of care ultrasound. The final best practice diagnostic algorithm defined risk levels as Low (0.5% no further testing), Moderate (0.6-5% further testing required) and High ( >5% computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, trans esophageal echocardiography). During the consensus and feedback processes, we addressed a number of issues and concerns. D-dimer can be used to reduce probability of AAS in an intermediate risk group, but should not be used in a low or high-risk group. Ultrasound was incorporated as a bedside clinical examination option in pre test probability assessment for aortic insufficiency, abdominal/thoracic aortic aneurysms. Conclusion: We have created the first Canadian best practice diagnostic algorithm for AAS. We hope this diagnostic algorithm will standardize and improve diagnosis of AAS in all emergency departments across Canada.
Introduction: Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS) is a poorly understood phenomenon with a subset of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) for symptomatic control of refractory nausea and vomiting. As legalization of marijuana commenced on October 2018, it is important to recognize the presentation of patients related to marijuana consumption. The objective of this study was to describe demographic and ED visit data of patients presenting to the ED with cannabis-related sequelae. Methods: This was a health records review of patients ≥18 years presenting to one of two tertiary care EDs (annual census 150,000 visits) with a discharge diagnosis including cannabis use with one of abdominal pain or nausea/vomiting using ICD-10 codes. Trained research personnel collected data from medical records including demographics, clinical history, results of investigations within the ED. Descriptive statistics including means and standard deviations are presented where appropriate. Results: From April 2014 to June 2016, 203 unique ED patients had a discharge diagnosis including cannabis use with abdominal pain or nausea/vomiting. Mean (SD) age was 30 (13.04) years and 120 (59.1%) were male. Patients presented to the ED independently 84 (41.4%), via EMS with 104 (51.23%) and 15 (7.39%) by police. The majority of patients were triaged as CTAS-2 in 27 (33%) and CTAS-3 in 106 (52.2%) of all cases. Of patients disclosing their method of consumption, 31 (15.3%) had used combustion methods and 30 (14.8%) had edible marijuana. Mean (SD) serum potassium was 3.71 (0.48) mmol/l. 162 (79.8%) were discharged home and 9 (4.4%) were given follow up (all psychiatric). Twenty-nine (14.3%) were admitted to hospital with 28 (13.8%) admitted to psychiatry and 1 (0.5%) admitted to medicine. Conclusion: This ED-based retrospective chart review reports a description of cannabis-related presentations to the ED. Clinicians should be aware of CHS in patients presenting to the ED, especially as Canada enters the era of legalization. Future research should focus on the impact of federal legalization of marijuana on ED utilization for CHS-related presentations.
Introduction: The treatment of cutaneous abscesses in the Emergency Department (ED) is common. While most sources describe only incision and drainage (I&D) followed by healing through secondary intention, recent literature suggests that primary repair following I&D results in similar rates of healing as well as treatment failures when compared to standard care in the ED. The primary goal of this research project was to describe the variability in practice with respect to self-reported management of abscesses among Canadian ED physicians and explore potential reluctance in adopting primary repair as a management strategy. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed through the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP). Practicing physician members of CAEP were invited to complete the survey. The 9-question survey probed the willingness of physicians to perform primary closure of abscess in the ED as well as factors that dissuade them from performing this type of closure. The primary outcome was the quantification of practice variability among ED physicians with respect to abscess closure in the ED. The data was presented with simple descriptive statistics. Results: 217 surveys were completed out of 1145 eligible physicians. Physicians working at academic centres comprised 53% of responses, with 47% coming from community centres. Over half of responses were from physicians in practice at least ten years (65.9%). The overwhelming majority of physicians indicated that they manage abscesses following I&D by secondary closure (96.3%). The two main concerns dissuading respondents from performing primary closure of abscesses included risk of treatment failure (47.8%) and the procedure not being considered standard of care (36.7%). Despite these concerns, 67.3% of physicians indicated a willingness to perform primary closure if further evidence supported its use. These physicians were most likely to consider primary closure at the head and neck, breast, trunk, and extremities, however, only 1.5% considered primary closure appropriate for perianal or pilonidal abscesses. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that almost all Canadian ED physicians, regardless of experience or practice centre, manage cutaneous abscesses with I&D followed by healing via secondary intention. With increasing evidence supporting the use of primary closure, many physicians may be willing to adopt primary closure as part of the management of cutaneous abscesses in the ED.
Introduction: With a shift towards competency-based medical education, it is crucial to not only emphasize learner abilities such as clinical skills but also leadership in the conduct of research. Though the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada's (RCPSC) training objectives for Emergency Medicine (EM) residents state that the specialist physician be able to describe the principles of research, the research methodology curriculum across EM training programs in Canada is likely variable. The primary goal of this study was to describe the variability of research methodology teaching among RCPSC-EM residency programs. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed to English-speaking RCPSC-EM program directors (PDs) and EM residents. The survey investigated residents' and PDs’ thoughts on the adequacy of their local curriculum and asked them to quantify their research methodology teaching. The primary outcome was the frequency and content of current research methodology and research ethics teaching as well as a description of scholarly project requirements of EM residency programs across Canada. The data was presented with simple descriptive statistics. Results: 79 EM residents and 7 PDs responded (response rate 22.3% and 58.3%, respectively). All 7 PDs indicate having a research methodology curriculum while 71.6% of residents are aware of this curriculum. Only 57.1% of PDs report having formal assessments. Most programs (71.4%) teach via small groups while 28.6% of programs use large group sessions. Residents identify teaching as led by research staff (68.9%), staff physicians (60%), and EM researchers (57.8%), while only 17.8% use outside educators. Students noted various modalities of curriculum feedback such as online surveys, weekly forms, and verbal feedback. Regarding the strength of the curricula, 85.7% of PDs believed their curriculum prepares residents for board exams, while only 62.2% of residents felt similarly. When asked about using a standard web-based curriculum module if available, 60.5% of residents responded in favour. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that EM residency programs across Canada vary with respect to research methodology curriculum and discrepancies exist between residents’ and program directors’ perceptions of the curriculum. Given the lack of a standardized research methodology curriculum for these residency programs, there is an opportunity for curriculum development to improve training in research methodology.
Co-receptor tropism has been identified to correlate with HIV-1 transmission and the disease progression in patients. A molecular epidemiology investigation of co-receptor tropism is important for clinical practice and effective control of HIV-1. In this study, we investigated the co-receptor tropism on HIV-1 variants of 85 antiretroviral-naive patients with Geno2pheno algorithm at a false-positive rate of 10%. Our data showed that a majority of the subjects harboured the CCR5-tropic virus (81.2%, 69/85). No significant differences in gender, age, baseline CD4+ T-cell counts and transmission routes were observed between subjects infected with CXCR4-tropic or CCR5-tropic virus. The co-receptor tropism appeared to be associated with the virus genotype; a significantly more CXCR4-use was predicted in CRF01_AE infections whereas all CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC were predicted to use CCR5 co-receptor. Sequences analysis of V3 revealed a higher median net charge in the CXCR4 viruses over CCR5 viruses (4.0 vs. 3.0, P < 0.05). The predicted N-linked glycosylation site between amino acids 6 and 8 in the V3 region was conserved in CCR5 viruses, but not in CXCR4 viruses. Besides, variable crown motifs were observed in both CCR5 and CXCR4 viruses, of which the most prevalent motif GPGQ existed in both viral tropism and almost all genotypes identified in this study except subtype B. These findings may offer important implications for clinical practice and enhance our understanding of HIV-1 biology.
A layer of silver nanoparticles created by thermal annealing of evaporated silver films can increase the photocurrents in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices by fivefold or more, but significant enhancements have been restricted to wavelengths greater than 800 nm. Here we report a significant enhancement of photoconductance at shorter wavelengths (500-750 nm) by using a monolayer of silver nanoparticles transferred from a colloidal suspension. Photocurrents on SOI increased in the 500-750 nm spectral range with the addition of silver nanoparticles, with enhancements more than two times; enhancements at longer wavelengths were small, in contrast to results with annealed silver films. We prepared similar colloidal silver nanoparticle monolayers layers on nanocrystalline silicon solar cells with conducting oxide top layers. There is an overall decrease in the quantum efficiency of these cells with the deposition of silver nanoparticles. We attribute these effects to the substantial substrate-mediated changes in the localized surface plasmon resonance frequencies of the differing nanoparticle configurations.
After five positive randomized controlled trials showed benefit of mechanical thrombectomy in the management of acute ischemic stroke with emergent large-vessel occlusion, a multi-society meeting was organized during the 17th Congress of the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology in October 2017 in Budapest, Hungary. This multi-society meeting was dedicated to establish standards of practice in acute ischemic stroke intervention aiming for a consensus on the minimum requirements for centers providing such treatment. In an ideal situation, all patients would be treated at a center offering a full spectrum of neuroendovascular care (a level 1 center). However, for geographical reasons, some patients are unable to reach such a center in a reasonable period of time. With this in mind, the group paid special attention to define recommendations on the prerequisites of organizing stroke centers providing medical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, but not for other neurovascular diseases (level 2 centers). Finally, some centers will have a stroke unit and offer intravenous thrombolysis, but not any endovascular stroke therapy (level 3 centers). Together, these level 1, 2, and 3 centers form a complete stroke system of care. The multi-society group provides recommendations and a framework for the development of medical thrombectomy services worldwide.
A number of biological reference materials (RM) have been prepared in our laboratory specifically for validating analytical methods for the determination of Pb in biological matrices (e.g. blood, urine, liver, and bone). The RM's were developed using animal (goats and cows) that are routinely dosed with lead acetate to produce proficiency test samples for blood lead (and erythrocyte protoporphyrin). In cases where an animal becomes injured or infirm, the veterinarian in charge may recommend that the animal be euthanized. In such cases, samples of bone, brain, liver, and other tissues containing lead are removed at autopsy.
Currently, we have collected bone samples from nine goats and one cow that were dosed with lead over periods ranging from 1 to 10 years, During the autopsy, the epiphyses (bone joints) are separated from each long bone. Skin, muscle, and other adhering tissues are dissected or scraped from each bone. Bone marrow is also removed. All bare bones are currently stored at -70°C until analyses for Pb are conducted.
The only certified reference materials for bone Pb are those available from the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD. Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1486 Bone Meal has a certified Pb concentration of only 1.335 μg/g. This is close to normal for humans, but is too low to be of practical use for in vivo X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) equipment, SRM 1400 Bone Ash has a certified Pb concentration of 9.07 μg/g. Neither SRM is optimal for validating in vivo XRF equipment, but they are both very useful in validating other analytical methods for bone Pb such as Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS).
We have developed an accurate, precise, and sensitive method for determining Pb in bone using GFAAS with Zeeman background correction. Using this method, we have analyzed the animal bones for Pb. Bone samples were divided into smaller pieces using a diamond-disc saw, freeze dried, and homogenized in a tantalum ball mill. Samples of bone powder were digested in nitric acid using a closed vessel microwave digestion system. Lead was determined using aqueous Pb standards in a chemical modifier optimized for the bone matrix. The method was validated using NIST SRM Bone Meal and Bone Ash. The detection limit is 0.6 μg/g based on 3 SD. Results for Pb in our animal bone range from approximately 5 to 50 μg/g dry weight. The results indicate that the intact bare bones would be excellent candidates for interlaboratory studies of in vivo XRF measurements of bone Pb. They are stable, well-characterized, easily transported between sites, and cover the clinically relevant range of bone lead concentrations likely to be encountered in the field. It is proposed that these materials be circulated as part of an interlaboratory comparison to interested centers using in vivo XRF After the XRF analyses, the bone samples will be analyzed for Pb by GFAAS for comparison purposes.
The crustacean fauna of the Insect Bed (late Eocene), Isle of Wight is reviewed. The fauna comprises the branchiopod Branchipodites vectensis Woodward, 1879, ostracod Potamocypris brodiei Jones and Sherborn, 1889, and isopod Eosphaeroma margarum (Desmarest, 1822). In addition a new clam shrimp (Crustacea: Diplostraca: Spinicaudata) is described and named Paraleptestheria mitchelli sp. nov. This is the first record of the genus outside China and the first ‘conchostracan' to be described from the European Cenozoic.
Normal odd-chain SFA (OCSFA), particularly tridecanoic acid (n-13 : 0), pentadecanoic acid (n-15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (n-17 : 0), are normal components of dairy products, beef and seafood. The ratio of n-15 : 0:n-17 : 0 in ruminant foods (dairy products and beef) is 2:1, while in seafood and human tissues it is 1:2, and their appearance in plasma is often used as a marker for ruminant fat intake. Human elongases encoded by elongation of very long-chain fatty acid (ELOVL)1, ELOVL3, ELOVL6 and ELOVL7 catalyse biosynthesis of the dominant even-chain SFA; however, there are no reports of elongase function on OCSFA. ELOVL transfected MCF7 cells were treated with n-13 : 0, n-15 : 0 or n-17 : 0 (80 µm) and products analysed. ELOVL6 catalysed elongation of n-13 : 0→n-15 : 0 and n-15 : 0→n-17 : 0; and ELOVL7 had modest activity toward n-15 : 0 (n-15 : 0→n-17 : 0). No elongation activity was detected for n-17 : 0→n-19 : 0. Our data expand ELOVL specificity to OCSFA, providing the first molecular evidence demonstrating ELOVL6 as the major elongase acting on OCSFA n-13 : 0 and n-15 : 0 fatty acids. Studies of food intake relying on OCSFA as a biomarker should consider endogenous human metabolism when relying on OCSFA ratios to indicate specific food intake.
To investigate a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak event involving multiple healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; to characterize transmission; and to explore infection control implications.
Cases presented in 4 healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a tertiary-care hospital, a specialty pulmonary hospital, an outpatient clinic, and an outpatient dialysis unit.
Contact tracing and testing were performed following reports of cases at 2 hospitals. Laboratory results were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and/or genome sequencing. We assessed exposures and determined seropositivity among available healthcare personnel (HCP) cases and HCP contacts of cases.
In total, 48 cases were identified, involving patients, HCP, and family members across 2 hospitals, an outpatient clinic, and a dialysis clinic. At each hospital, transmission was linked to a unique index case. Moreover, 4 cases were associated with superspreading events (any interaction where a case patient transmitted to ≥5 subsequent case patients). All 4 of these patients were severely ill, were initially not recognized as MERS-CoV cases, and subsequently died. Genomic sequences clustered separately, suggesting 2 distinct outbreaks. Overall, 4 (24%) of 17 HCP cases and 3 (3%) of 114 HCP contacts of cases were seropositive.
We describe 2 distinct healthcare-associated outbreaks, each initiated by a unique index case and characterized by multiple superspreading events. Delays in recognition and in subsequent implementation of control measures contributed to secondary transmission. Prompt contact tracing, repeated testing, HCP furloughing, and implementation of recommended transmission-based precautions for suspected cases ultimately halted transmission.
Using a family systems perspective, we examined the trajectories of father-child and mother-child closeness and conflict across Grades 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, and their associations with child depressive symptoms across middle childhood among 685 families in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD). Father-child and mother-child relationship conflict increased, whereas relationship closeness decreased from Grades 1 to 6. Girls with more slowly increasing father-child conflict, and more slowly decreasing father-child closeness, were at lower risk for depressive symptoms. Boys with more slowly increasing mother-child conflict were at lower risk for depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the important roles of both father-child and mother-child relationships in children's emotional adjustment during middle childhood.
The current experiment aimed at assessing the effects of dietary supplementation of guanidino acetic acid (GAA) on growth performance, thigh meat quality and development of small intestine in broilers. A total of 360 1-day-old female broiler chicks were distributed randomly to four groups of 90 birds each, and each group received GAA dosages of 0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 g/kg of feed dry matter. During the whole experiment of 60 days, broilers had ad libitum access to water and feed and the feed intake was recorded daily. All broilers were weighed before and after the experiment, and 30 broilers of each group were selected randomly to slaughter at the end. Increasing dietary supplementation of GAA increased final live weight and daily body weight gain, gain-to-feed ratio, thigh muscle pH value and fibre diameter of broilers, but decreased daily feed intake, drip loss, cooking loss, shear force value, hardness, gumminess and chewiness of thigh meat. In addition, increasing supplementation of GAA quadratically increased duodenal, jejunal and ileal villus height and width and ratio of villus height to crypt depth, but decreased crypt depth. The results indicated that GAA as a feed additive may support better development of small intestine, thereby resulting in improvement of growth performance and meat quality of broilers.
This study aim to derive and validate a simple and well-performing risk calculator (RC) for predicting psychosis in individual patients at clinical high risk (CHR).
From the ongoing ShangHai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) program, 417 CHR cases were identified based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), of whom 349 had at least 1-year follow-up assessment. Of these 349 cases, 83 converted to psychosis. Logistic regression was used to build a multivariate model to predict conversion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to test the effectiveness of the SIPS-RC. Second, an independent sample of 100 CHR subjects was recruited based on an identical baseline and follow-up procedures to validate the performance of the SIPS-RC.
Four predictors (each based on a subset of SIPS-based items) were used to construct the SIPS-RC: (1) functional decline; (2) positive symptoms (unusual thoughts, suspiciousness); (3) negative symptoms (social anhedonia, expression of emotion, ideational richness); and (4) general symptoms (dysphoric mood). The SIPS-RC showed moderate discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.744 (p < 0.001). A risk estimate of 25% or higher had around 75% accuracy for predicting psychosis. The personalized risk generated by the SIPS-RC provided a solid estimate of conversion outcomes in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.804 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.662–0.951].
The SIPS-RC, which is simple and easy to use, can perform in the same manner as the NAPLS-2 RC in the Chinese clinical population. Such a tool may be used by clinicians to counsel appropriately their patients about clinical monitor v. potential treatment options.