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In this study, the aerodynamic characteristics of a vertical-axis wind turbine blade coupled with a high-lift device, such as the Gurney flap at the trailing edge, are investigated. For numerical analysis, the force element theory is used to understand how the Gurney flap influences the force evolution of the lift-type vertical-axis wind turbine. This study shows that the lift and drag can be respectively approximated into four elements, which are induced by volume vorticity, rotational velocity, angular acceleration and surface friction of the flow around the blades. Based on the perspective of the force element theory, the present simulation provides a clear picture of how the Gurney flap influences the formation of the aerodynamic force elements during a rotational cycle for a vertical-axis wind turbine. Simulation results show that the contributions mainly result from the surface vorticities, the rotational acceleration of the airfoil, and the acceleration of the surface.
Porphyromonas gingivalis has been linked to the development and progression of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and is considered to be a high-risk factor for ESCC. Currently, the commonly used methods for P. gingivalis detection are culture or DNA extraction-based, which are either time and labour intensive especially for high-throughput applications. We aimed to establish and evaluate a rapid and sensitive direct quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) protocol for the detection of P. gingivalis without DNA extraction which is suitable for large-scale epidemiological studies. Paired gingival swab samples from 192 subjects undergoing general medical examinations were analysed using two direct and one extraction-based qPCR assays for P. gingivalis. Tris-EDTA buffer-based direct qPCR (TE-direct qPCR), lysis-based direct qPCR (lysis-direct qPCR) and DNA extraction-based qPCR (kit-qPCR) were used, respectively, in 192, 132 and 60 of these samples for quantification of P. gingivalis. The sensitivity and specificity of TE-direct qPCR was 95.24% and 100% compared with lysis-direct qPCR, which was 100% and 97.30% when compared with kit-qPCR; TE-direct qPCR had an almost perfect agreement with lysis-direct qPCR (κ = 0.954) and kit-qPCR (κ = 0.965). Moreover, the assay time used for TE-direct qPCR was 1.5 h. In conclusion, the TE-direct qPCR assay is a simple and efficient method for the quantification of oral P. gingivalis and showed high sensitivity and specificity compared with routine qPCR.
We present the results from the abundance analysis of 21 primary stars in Sirius-like systems with various masses of white dwarf companions and orbital separation to understand the origin and nature of Ba stars. Three new Ba dwarfs are found for which masses are relatively low compared to Ba giants. Large fraction of the sample are found to be non-Ba stars, however, some of them have required WD mass and/or close orbital separation. Observed s-process abundances in Ba dwarfs are in good agreement with AGB models of respective WD companion mass, however, it required different pollution factors.
Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute infectious disease caused by serotypes of the enterovirus (EV) family. HFMD reinfection occurs commonly in lack of cross-protection between different EV serotypes. In this study, we investigated the hazards of HFMD reinfection using Cox-proportional hazard model. Retrospective data of 95 209 HFMD cases in Wuhan during 2008–2015 was used. Kaplan–Meier survival methods and Cox-proportional hazard model were used to estimate the hazard probabilities. Of the all HFMD cases, about 2% experienced reinfection (1842/95 209). Kaplan–Meier curves revealed the reinfection risk sharply increased before 40 months from first infection. Higher hazards of reinfection were detected among those who were males, aged 3 years and below, scattered children, belonging to urban areas and first infected with coxsackievirus (CV)-A16 compared with their respective counterparts. Cox-proportional hazard model suggested that gender, age, group, living area and serotypes of first infection had significant effect on reinfection even after adjusting for potential confounding effects of other selected factors considered in the study. These results indicate that boys aged 3 years and below, especially those living in urban areas and first infected with CV-A16 are more prone to reinfection. Interventions should be imposed on these high-risk populations.
We investigated the first presence of qnrA among Shigella sonnei clinical isolates in Jiangsu Province, China. The qnrA-positive isolates coexisted with the mutation in gyrA at codon 83, these isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and 22·2% (2 of 9) of them were resistant to norfloxacin.
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common nasal disorder in children that is prone to recurrence. This study investigated the prevention of chronic rhinosinusitis recurrence with bacteria lysate in children.
Bacteria lysate was administered 10 days per month for 3 months to children with chronic rhinosinusitis, who had just entered a remission phase. Visual analogue score, nasal symptoms scores, rhinitis attack frequency and antibiotic use were assessed at three months and one year.
At one year of follow up, the visual analogue score, nasal discharge and obstruction scores, number of days with rhinitis attacks per month and number of days with antibiotic use per month were significantly decreased in the prevention group versus the control group (p < 0.05).
Bacterial lysate used in the remission period of rhinosinusitis in children was shown to provide long-term prophylaxis. Bacterial lysate can effectively reduce the frequency of rhinosinusitis attacks and ameliorate attack symptoms.
Repeat rectal chlamydia infection is common in men who have sex with men (MSM) following treatment with 1 g azithromycin. This study describes the association between organism load and repeat rectal chlamydia infection, genovar distribution, and efficacy of azithromycin in asymptomatic MSM. Stored rectal chlamydia-positive samples from MSM were analysed for organism load and genotyped to assist differentiation between reinfection and treatment failure. Included men had follow-up tests within 100 days of index infection. Lymphogranuloma venereum and proctitis diagnosed symptomatically were excluded. Factors associated with repeat infection, treatment failure and reinfection were investigated. In total, 227 MSM were included – 64 with repeat infections [28·2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 22·4–34·5]. Repeat positivity was associated with increased pre-treatment organism load [odds ratio (OR) 1·7, 95% CI 1·4–2·2]. Of 64 repeat infections, 29 (12·8%, 95% CI 8·7–17·8) were treatment failures and 35 (15·4%, 95% CI 11·0–20·8) were reinfections, 11 (17·2%, 95% CI 8·9–28·7) of which were definite reinfections. Treatment failure and reinfection were both associated with increased load (OR 2·0, 95% CI 1·4–2·7 and 1·6, 95% CI 1·2–2·2, respectively). The most prevalent genovars were G, D and J. Treatment efficacy for 1 g azithromycin was 83·6% (95% CI 77·2–88·8). Repeat positivity was associated with high pre-treatment organism load. Randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to evaluate azithromycin's efficacy and whether extended doses can overcome rectal infections with high organism load.
We derive zphot for sources in the entire (~0.4 deg2) H-HDF-N field with the EAzY code, based on PSF-matched broad-band (U band to IRAC 4.5 μm) photometry. Our catalog consists of a total of 131,678 sources. We find σNMAD = 0.029 for non-X-ray sources. We also classify each object as a star or galaxy through SED fitting. Furthermore, we match our catalog with the 2 Ms CDF-N main X-ray catalog. For the 462 matched non-stellar X-ray sources, we improve their zphot quality (σNMAD = 0.035) by adding three additional AGN templates. We make our photometry and zphot catalog publicly available.
The paper studied the effect of an array of hemispherical substance-units (HSUs) immersed in inviscid and incompressible liquid on resonance frequency of a quartz crystal resonator (QCR) under the thickness-shear mode (TSM) vibrations. A dynamic model of the compound QCR system, consisting of a QCR and HSUs, was established in advance. The frequency equation of the compound QCR system including the liquid-solid coupling was derived subsequently. Numerical results showed the frequency-shift characteristics of the compound system. The obtained results are useful in resonator design and applications.
Trematode tyrosinases (TYRs) play a major role in the tanning process during eggshell formation. We investigated the molecular and biochemical features of Paragonimus westermani TYR (PwTYR). The PwTYR cDNA was composed of 1568-bp encompassing a 1422-bp-long open reading frame (474-amino acid polypeptide). A strong phylogenetic relationship with Platyhelminthes and Deuterostomian orthologues was evident. The recombinant PwTYR expressed in prokaryotic cells promptly oxidized diphenol substrates, with a preferential affinity toward ortho-positioned hydroxyl groups. It demonstrated fairly weak activity for monophenol compounds. Diphenol oxidase activity was augmented with an increase of pH from 5·0 to 8·0, while monophenol oxidase activity was highest at an acidic pH and gradually decreased as pH increased. Transcription profile of PwTYR was temporally upregulated along with worm development. PwTYR was specifically localized in vitellocytes and eggs. The results suggested that conversion of tyrosine to L-dihydroxyphenylalanine by PwTYR monophenol oxidase activity might be rate-limiting step during the sclerotization process of P. westermani eggs. The pH-dependent pattern of monophenol and diphenol oxidase activity further proposes that the initial hydroxylation might slowly but steadily progress in acidic secreted vesicles of vitellocytes and the second oxidation process might be rapidly accelerated by neural or weak alkaline pH environments within the ootype.
Convergent studies provide support for abnormalities in the structure and functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the amygdala, the key components of the neural system that subserves emotional processing in major depressive disorder (MDD). We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine potential amygdala–PFC functional connectivity abnormalities in treatment-naive subjects with MDD.
Resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 28 individuals with MDD and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects. Amygdala–PFC functional connectivity was compared between the MDD and HC groups.
Decreased functional connectivity to the left ventral PFC (VPFC) from the left and right amygdala was observed in the MDD group, compared with the HC group (p < 0.05, corrected).
The treatment-naive subjects with MDD showed decreased functional connectivity from the amygdala to the VPFC, especially to the left VPFC. This suggests that these connections may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD at its onset.
This study aimed to confirm that vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) can occur via the infected ovum. Specimens studied were obtained from discarded test-tube embryos from mothers with chronic HBV infection who had received in vitro fertilization treatment. Single-cell reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HBV mRNA in the embryos. HBV mRNA was detected in the cleavage embryos of patients with chronic HBV infection, with a detection rate of 13·2% (5/38). The level of serum HBV DNA was not related to the HBV mRNA positivity rates in embryos. In this study, HBV mRNA was detected in test-tube embryos from HBV-infected mothers who had received in vitro fertilization treatment. This confirms the theory of vertical transmission of HBV via the ovum, thereby providing an important theoretical basis for further study on the mechanism of HBV vertical transmission, influencing factors and blocking measures.
Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are thought to be magnetars which are young isolated neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields of >1014 Gauss. Their tremendous magnetic fields inferred from the spin parameters provide a huge energy reservoir to power the observed X-ray emission. High-energy emission above 0.3 MeV has never been detected despite intensive search. Here, we present the possible Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detection of γ-ray pulsations above 200 MeV from the AXP, 1E 2259+586, which puts the current theoretical models of γ-ray emission mechanisms of magnetars into challenge. We speculate that the high-energy γ-rays originate from the outer magnetosphere of the magnetar.
We report on Chandra observations of the black widow pulsar, PSR B1957+20. Evidence for a binary-phase dependence of the X-ray emission from the pulsar is found with a deep observation. The binary-phase resolved spectral analysis reveals non-thermal X-ray emission of PSR B1957+20, confirming the results of previous studies. This suggests that the X-rays are mostly due to intra-binary shock emission which is strongest when the pulsar wind interacts with the ablated material from the companion star. The geometry of the peak emission is determined in our study. The marginal softening of the spectrum of the non-thermal X-ray tail may indicate that particles injected at the termination shock is dominated by synchrotron cooling.
To describe three rare cases of nasolacrimal relapse of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and to discuss the route of tumour spread from nasopharynx to lacrimal system as well as the relevant computed tomography findings.
We report three cases of nasolacrimal relapse in patients with previously treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The common initial presentations in these cases were epiphora and medial canthal swelling. The tumour spread from the nasopharynx to the lacrimal sac along the lateral nasal wall and nasolacrimal canal. Computed tomography demonstrated nasolacrimal canal invasion and osteomeatal complex obliteration by the tumour. Distant metastasis was detected in two cases.
More targeted radiotherapy should be delivered to prevent under-treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Nasolacrimal relapse of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is an advanced disease with a poor prognosis.
The 2009 novel H1N1 influenza pandemic had a significant impact on Shenzhen's population with 2063 laboratory-confirmed human H1N1 cases and five deaths being reported. We used parameters from two population-based surveys and the Shenzhen Influenza Surveillance System to estimate the total number of H1N1 influenza infections in Shenzhen in the 2009 pandemic. The attack rate of influenza-like illness (ILI) in family households was 11·2% (95% CI 9·4–13·0), with 80·2% (95% CI 77·8–82·5) seeking medical care. The ILI attack rate in workers was 38·1% (95% CI 34·3–41·7) with 72·5% (95% CI 66·9–78·0) seeking medical care. The average H1N1 positive rate in individuals reporting ILI and testing by polymerase chain reaction was 22·7%. A total of 611 000–768 000 people, or 4·7–5·9% of the Shenzhen population, are estimated to have experienced H1N1 influenza. The estimated total number of cases of H1N1 is likely to be 330 times greater than the number of laboratory-confirmed cases.
The effects of pyruvate (Pyr), creatine pyruvate (Cr-Pyr) and creatine (Cr) on lipid and protein metabolism were compared in broiler chickens. A total of 400 1-day-old male birds (Aconred) were allocated to four groups, each of which included four replicates (25 birds per replicate). Treatments consisted of unsupplemented basal diet (Control), basal diet containing 2% Pyr, basal diet containing 3% Cr and basal diet containing 5% Cr-Pyr. Cr-Pyr and Pyr significantly decreased the hepatic triglyceride and serum total cholesterol concentration (P < 0.01). Cr-Pyr markedly increased the serum non-esterified fatty acid and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05), whereas the expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (P < 0.05) and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-α (P < 0.01) mRNA in the liver were both decidedly enhanced in the Cr-Pyr group. The relative leg muscle weight was higher in the Cr-Pyr group than in the control group, whereas the serum uric acid content and hepatic glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase activity were lower in the Cr-Pyr and Cr groups (P < 0.05), respectively. Muscle insulin-like growth factor I (P < 0.05) expression was enhanced, and the myostatin (P < 0.01) mRNA level was reduced in both the Cr-Pyr and Cr groups. In addition, Cr-Pyr did not alter body weight or the feed conversion ratio. These results indicate that, compared with Pyr and Cr alone, Cr-Pyr has a bifunctional role in broiler chickens, in that it influences both lipid and protein metabolism.
X-ray powder diffraction was used for the structural study of nonlinear optical borates K1−xNaxSr4(BO3)3 (x≤0.5). Results show that up to 50% K+ can be substituted by Na+ in orthorhombic K1−xNaxSr4(BO3)3. Isolated BO3 triangles in the Na-substituted compound constrict to adjust to a local distribution of alkali-metal atoms, which explains the large range of structural homogeneity. An expansion of the c axis in a unit cell with increasing Na substitution was found probably caused by the tilted BO3 triangles and asymmetric distortion of (K/Na)O8 polyhedra. As the ratio of ionic radii of alkaline-earth and alkali-metal cations decreases and the electronegative difference between alkaline-earth and alkali-metal cations increases, the crystal system of MM′4(BO3)3 borates changes from cubic to orthorhombic and then to monoclinic.
The present study was conducted to determine the effects of a polysaccharide of Atractylodes macrophala Koidz (PAM) as a dietary additive on growth performance, immunoglobulin concentration and IL-1β expression in weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty Landrace×Yorkshire piglets weaned at 28 days old (body weight 7·5±0·07 kg) were assigned to five treatment groups (three pens/group, eight piglets/pen) fed maize/soybean-based diets supplemented with 0, 3, 6 or 9 g of PAM/kg diet or antibiotics (0·4 g flavomycin/kg+0·13 g olaquindox/kg). The experimental period was 28 days. With increasing PAM supplementation levels, average daily gain was greater (quadratic, P<0·05) and the ratio of amount fed to live weight (LW) gain (feed/gain) improved (quadratic, P<0·05) during days 14–28 and overall, and diarrhoea incidence decreased (linear, P<0·05) during days 14–28. Supplementation of PAM also increased (quadratic, P<0·05) serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-6 on day 14, and increased (quadratic, P<0·05) IL-1β expression in jejunal mucosa and lymph nodes. Concentrations of PAM between 6 and 9 g/kg presented the strongest bioactivity compared to the control group or antibiotic-fed group. These findings indicate that PAM is effective in improving growth performance and cytokine response, which suggests that PAM can be used as a diet additive for weanling piglets.