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Paramedics received training in point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) to assess for cardiac contractility during management of medical out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The primary outcome was the percentage of adequate POCUS video acquisition and accurate video interpretation during OHCA resuscitations. Secondary outcomes included POCUS impact on patient management and resuscitation protocol adherence.
A prospective, observational cohort study of paramedics was performed following a four-hour training session, which included a didactic lecture and hands-on POCUS instruction. The Prehospital Echocardiogram in Cardiac Arrest (PECA) protocol was developed and integrated into the resuscitation algorithm for medical non-shockable OHCA. The ultrasound (US) images were reviewed by a single POCUS expert investigator to determine the adequacy of the POCUS video acquisition and accuracy of the video interpretation. Change in patient management and resuscitation protocol adherence data, including end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) monitoring following advanced airway placement, adrenaline administration, and compression pauses under ten seconds, were queried from the prehospital electronic health record (EHR).
Captured images were deemed adequate in 42/49 (85.7%) scans and paramedic interpretation of sonography was accurate in 43/49 (87.7%) scans. The POCUS results altered patient management in 14/49 (28.6%) cases. Paramedics adhered to EtCO2 monitoring in 36/36 (100.0%) patients with an advanced airway, adrenaline administration for 38/38 (100.0%) patients, and compression pauses under ten seconds for 36/38 (94.7%) patients.
Paramedics were able to accurately obtain and interpret cardiac POCUS videos during medical OHCA while adhering to a resuscitation protocol. These findings suggest that POCUS can be effectively integrated into paramedic protocols for medical OHCA.
The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated gender disparities in some academic disciplines. This study examined the association of the pandemic with gender authorship disparities in clinical neuropsychology (CN) journals.
Author bylines of 1,018 initial manuscript submissions to four major CN journals from March 15 through September 15 of both 2019 and 2020 were coded for binary gender. Additionally, authorship of 40 articles published on pandemic-related topics (COVID-19, teleneuropsychology) across nine CN journals were coded for binary gender.
Initial submissions to these four CN journals increased during the pandemic (+27.2%), with comparable increases in total number of authors coded as either women (+23.0%) or men (+25.4%). Neither the average percentage of women on manuscript bylines nor the proportion of women who were lead and/or corresponding authors differed significantly across time. Moreover, the representation of women as authors of pandemic-related articles did not differ from expected frequencies in the field.
Findings suggest that representation of women as authors of peer-reviewed manuscript submissions to some CN journals did not change during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies might examine how risk and protective factors may have influenced individual differences in scientific productivity during the pandemic.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is heterogeneous and likely entails distinct phenotypes with varying etiologies. Identifying these subgroups may contribute to hypotheses about differential treatment responses. The present study aimed to discern subgroups among children with ASD and anxiety in context of the five-factor model of personality (FFM) and evaluate treatment response differences to two cognitive-behavioral therapy treatments. The present study is a secondary data analysis of children with ASD and anxiety (N=202; ages 7–13; 20.8% female) in a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) randomized controlled trial (Wood et al., 2020). Subgroups were identified via latent profile analysis of parent-reported FFM data. Treatment groups included standard-of-practice CBT (CC), designed for children with anxiety, and adapted CBT (BIACA), designed for children with ASD and comorbid anxiety. Five subgroups with distinct profiles were extracted. Analysis of covariance revealed CBT response was contingent on subgroup membership. Two subgroups responded better to BIACA on the primary outcome measure and a third responded better to BIACA on a peer-social adaptation measure, while a fourth subgroup responded better to CC on a school-related adaptation measure. These findings suggest that the FFM may be useful in empirically identifying subgroups of children with ASD, which could inform intervention selection decisions for children with ASD and anxiety.
Children and adolescents presenting with common and rare gynaecological conditions are described in this chapter. Communication needs to be sensitive and appropriate for age and development to retrieve as much information as possible.
Puberty heralds the development of secondary sexual characteristics, gonadal maturation, and start of reproductive capacity. Pubertal disorders can be divided into precocious and delayed puberty. Menarche is an important marker of puberty and menstruation should be seen as a vital sign. Oligomenorrhoea is pathological over time and most girls with oligomenorrhoea develop polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Sex development in the human is the result of a complex interaction involving production and response to sex hormones which is regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Disorders of sex development occur when an individual’s sex development takes a different path.
Trichotillomania (TTM) and skin picking disorder (SPD) are common and often debilitating mental health conditions, grouped under the umbrella term of body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs). Recent clinical subtyping found that there were three distinct subtypes of TTM and two of SPD. Whether these clinical subtypes map on to any unique neurobiological underpinnings, however, remains unknown.
Two hundred and fifty one adults [193 with a BFRB (85.5% [n = 165] female) and 58 healthy controls (77.6% [n = 45] female)] were recruited from the community for a multicenter between-group comparison using structural neuroimaging. Differences in whole brain structure were compared across the subtypes of BFRBs, controlling for age, sex, scanning site, and intracranial volume.
When the subtypes of TTM were compared, low awareness hair pullers demonstrated increased cortical volume in the lateral occipital lobe relative to controls and sensory sensitive pullers. In addition, impulsive/perfectionist hair pullers showed relative decreased volume near the lingual gyrus of the inferior occipital–parietal lobe compared with controls.
These data indicate that the anatomical substrates of particular forms of BFRBs are dissociable, which may have implications for understanding clinical presentations and treatment response.
Initial assessments of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) preparedness revealed resource shortages and variations in infection prevention policies across US hospitals. Our follow-up survey revealed improvement in resource availability, increase in testing capacity, and uniformity in infection prevention policies. Most importantly, the survey highlighted an increase in staffing shortages and use of travel nursing.
Music therapy is frequently provided to patients at the end of life, and studies have shown a benefit in relief of symptoms and a positive impact on quality of life (QoL), but little is known regarding the effect of music therapy (MT) on caregivers. Caregivers are at risk for anxiety, emotional distress and experience anticipatory grief as the patient nears death. Caregivers are present with patients and may also benefit from MT.
To assess the impact of MT on caregivers for hospice patients and determine the feasibility of research in this population.
Twenty caregivers of patients hospitalized for general inpatient hospice care were enrolled. MT was provided by a board-certified music therapist, and sessions included pre-MT assessment, 20-45 minutes of MT, and post-MT assessment. Caregiver stress was measured with the Pearlin Role Overload Measure (ROM), QoL was measured with the Linear Analogue Self-Assessment (LASA), and depression and anxiety were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4). These three measures were taken pre-MT, post-MT and 6 months post-MT. Caregivers were also asked to complete a Music Therapy Program Survey post-MT.
The MT intervention was completed for 15/20 caregivers (75%). Of those who did not complete MT, 2 withdrew prior, 1 was not available, 1 patient passed during the MT session, and 1 patient died prior to MT. 14 caregivers completed pre-MT and post-MT assessments, and 9 caregivers completed assessments at all 3 timepoints. The MT Program Survey (post-MT assessment, n=14) showed 100% of caregivers were very satisfied with MT and would recommend to others, 78% found MT effective for stress relief, 69% for relaxation, 71% for spiritual support, 86% for emotional support, and 71% for feeling of wellness.
Research on MT is feasible for acute hospice care caregivers with a majority of caregivers consenting to research and about half completing surveys pre-MT, post-MT, and 6-months post-MT (9/20). Future larger studies should be conducted to better assess the impact of MT on caregivers.
Elevated depressive symptoms are associated with impairments, reduced quality of life, and societal economic burden. A well-established stress-vulnerability model explaining depressive symptoms is Beck’s cognitive theory (Beck, 1976). An independent line of research demonstrated that a person’s perception of their status in comparison with others’ (subjective social status, SSS) is a stressor associated with depressive symptoms.
Theory-driven research investigating the interplay of different factors associated with depressive symptoms opens the door to improve the lives of the affected individuals and to reduce the overall societal burden. This study’s aim was to examine if SSS can be integrated as a stressor into Beck’s theory, looking specifically at whether it impacts depressive symptoms through the individual components (self, world and future) of the cognitive triad.
In this cross-sectional study, 243 community college students (58.6% female; mean age 23.95 years) in the southern United States completed self-reports measuring SSS, negative views of the self, world and future, and depressive symptoms.
SSS is negatively associated with each view of the cognitive triad. SSS and views of the self and world are negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Mediation analyses displayed a significant direct effect between SSS and depressive symptoms, as well as two indirect effects via negative view of self and world.
While further research is needed, therapists might benefit from our findings when tailoring their treatment to a client by considering their SSS and which negative view is particularly detrimental for this specific client.
There is limited understanding amongst patients and parents of paediatric patients regarding adenoidectomy. Most patients access health-related information online. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of online information on adenoidectomy.
The term ‘adenoid’ was used to search Google, and the first 50 websites identified were screened. For each website, the readability and quality were assessed.
Of the 41 websites that met the inclusion criteria, the mean readability scores corresponded to ‘difficult to read’ and university-level reading categories. For the quality of the websites, the mean score corresponded to ‘fair’ with 39 per cent of the websites containing either ‘poor’ or ‘very poor’ quality data. The ENT UK information is one of the most readable and reliable online resources.
The online information on adenoidectomy is largely set at an inappropriate readability level and of variable quality. Surgeons should consider assisting their patients with online searches regarding adenoidectomy.
Childhood trauma (CT) is associated with an increased risk of mental health disorders; however, it is unknown whether this represents a diagnosis-specific risk factor for specific psychopathology mediated by structural brain changes. Our aim was to explore whether (i) a predictive CT pattern for transdiagnostic psychopathology exists, and whether (ii) CT can differentiate between distinct diagnosis-dependent psychopathology. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the association between CT, psychopathology and brain structure.
We used multivariate pattern analysis in data from 643 participants of the Personalised Prognostic Tools for Early Psychosis Management study (PRONIA), including healthy controls (HC), recent onset psychosis (ROP), recent onset depression (ROD), and patients clinically at high-risk for psychosis (CHR). Participants completed structured interviews and self-report measures including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, SCID diagnostic interview, BDI-II, PANSS, Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument, Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms and structural MRI, analyzed by voxel-based morphometry.
(i) Patients and HC could be distinguished by their CT pattern with a reasonable precision [balanced accuracy of 71.2% (sensitivity = 72.1%, specificity = 70.4%, p ≤ 0.001]. (ii) Subdomains ‘emotional neglect’ and ‘emotional abuse’ were most predictive for CHR and ROP, while in ROD ‘physical abuse’ and ‘sexual abuse’ were most important. The CT pattern was significantly associated with the severity of depressive symptoms in ROD, ROP, and CHR, as well as with the PANSS total and negative domain scores in the CHR patients. No associations between group-separating CT patterns and brain structure were found.
These results indicate that CT poses a transdiagnostic risk factor for mental health disorders, possibly related to depressive symptoms. While differences in the quality of CT exposure exist, diagnostic differentiation was not possible suggesting a multi-factorial pathogenesis.
Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic agent responsible for human Q fever, a potentially severe disease that can lead to persistent infection. This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence to C. burnetii antibodies and its association with potential risk factors in the human population of five regions of Québec, Canada. A serum bank comprising sera from 474 dog owners was screened by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay followed by confirmation of positive or equivocal sera by an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Observed seroprevalences of 1.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0–6.6), 2.6% (95% CI: 0.5–7.4) and 5.9% (95% CI: 3.4–9.6) were estimated in the regions of Montréal, Lanaudière and Montérégie, respectively, which all included at least 83 samples. Having lived or worked on a small ruminant farm (prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 5.4; 95% CI: 1.6–17.7) and being a veterinarian or veterinary student (POR = 6.1; 95% CI: 1.6–24.0) were significantly associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. Antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in the human population of Québec. Although seropositivity to this agent was associated with occupational contact with domestic animals, antibodies were also detected in people with no reported professional exposure. No associations with ruminant farm proximity were identified.
Ethnohistoric accounts indicate that the people of Australia's Channel Country engaged in activities rarely recorded elsewhere on the continent, including food storage, aquaculture and possible cultivation, yet there has been little archaeological fieldwork to verify these accounts. Here, the authors report on a collaborative research project initiated by the Mithaka people addressing this lack of archaeological investigation. The results show that Mithaka Country has a substantial and diverse archaeological record, including numerous large stone quarries, multiple ritual structures and substantial dwellings. Our archaeological research revealed unknown aspects, such as the scale of Mithaka quarrying, which could stimulate re-evaluation of Aboriginal socio-economic systems in parts of ancient Australia.
Healthcare personnel with severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were interviewed to describe activities and practices in and outside the workplace. Among 2,625 healthcare personnel, workplace-related factors that may increase infection risk were more common among nursing-home personnel than hospital personnel, whereas selected factors outside the workplace were more common among hospital personnel.
Food security status is a continuum ranging from high to very low food security. While marginal food security falls next to high food security on the spectrum, new quantitative research indicates marginal food security status is associated with negative health outcomes and poor academic performance among college students. Qualitative research focusing on college students experiencing marginal food security has not been conducted. The current study aims to qualitatively explore experiences of college students with marginal food security and to identify themes to better understand and provide context regarding how marginal food security impacts students.
Students were recruited for semi-structured interviews with questions designed to study the challenges associated with students’ food situations. All interviews were recorded and transcribed with themes identified via an inductive approach.
A large public university on the US west coast.
Thirty college students.
Key themes that emerged: purchasing cheap unhealthy foods, insufficient time to prepare and eat meals on a regular basis, stress and anxiety around the inability to eat healthy food and future health issues, self-perception of health when eating poorly along with physical symptoms and low academic motivation by not fully participating in their courses due to few healthy food options or missing meals.
Marginal food security can potentially diminish students’ health and their capacity to learn and succeed in their coursework. The results emphasise that students experiencing marginal food security should not be grouped with students experiencing high food security.
Practices vary regarding the timing of discharge after sinonasal surgery. This study aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of same-day discharge compared to next-day discharge after sinonasal surgery.
A retrospective single-surgeon audit of sinonasal surgery over a 12-month period was performed. Demographic and clinical details, including distance travelled home, timing of discharge, hospital re-presentation, and complications, were collected and compared between the same-day discharge and next-day discharge groups. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed.
A total of 181 patients were identified; 117 underwent day-case surgery, of which 6 re-presented to the emergency department. Sixty-four patients stayed overnight after surgery, and six of those patients re-presented to the emergency department. The per patient cost was $3262 for day-case sinonasal surgery and $5050 for those admitted overnight after surgery (p < 0.001).
Routine same-day discharge after sinonasal surgery is achievable, safe and cost-effective.