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The objective of this study was to identify factors across the socioecological model (SEM) associated with adolescents’ sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake.
This cross-sectional study surveyed adolescents using previously validated instruments. Analyses included descriptive statistics, ANOVA tests, and stepwise nonlinear regression models (i.e., two-part models) adjusted to be cluster robust. Guided by SEM, a 4-step model was used to identify factors associated with adolescent SSB intake - Step 1: demographics (i.e., age, gender), Step 2: intrapersonal [i.e., Theory of Planned Behavior (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intentions), health literacy, media literacy, public health literacy], Step 3: interpersonal (i.e., caregiver’s SSB behaviors, caregiver’s SSB rules), and Step 4: environmental (i.e., home SSB availability) level variables.
Eight middle schools across four rural southwest Virginia counties in Appalachia
790 7th grade students [55.4% female, 44.6% males, mean age 12 (SD=0.5) years].
Mean SSB intake was 36.3 (SD=42.5) fluid ounces or 433.4 (SD=493.6) calories per day. In the final step of the regression model, seven variables significantly explained adolescent’s SSB consumption: behavioral intention (p < 0.05), affective attitude (p<0.05), perceived behavioral control (p<0.05), health literacy (p<0.001), caregiver behaviors (p<0.05), caregiver rules (p<0.05), and home availability (p<0.001).
SSB intake among adolescents in rural Appalachia was nearly three times above national mean. Home environment was the strongest predictor of adolescent SSB intake, followed by caregiver rules, caregiver behaviors, and health literacy. Future interventions targeting these factors may provide the greatest opportunity to improve adolescent SSB intake.
The vacuum-exhausted isolation locker (VEIL) provides a safety barrier during the care of COVID-19 patients. The VEIL is a 175-L enclosure with exhaust ports to continuously extract air through viral particle filters connected to hospital suction. Our experiments show that the VEIL contains and exhausts exhaled aerosols and droplets.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
This paper presents the filter design in the student design competition of EuMW 2019. This contest motivates students for the design and implementation of a dual-band bandpass filter able to get outstanding performance, where different implementation technologies, such as microstrip, coplanar, multilayer microstrip, substrate integrated waveguide, and some others can be effectively employed. Filters are evaluated by considering a figure of merit (FoM) defined by the insertion loss level, selectivity, spurious-free response, and size. To this end, three viable dual-band bandpass filters with different feeding technologies, resonators, and design topologies are investigated for the optimal FoM.
The extent of intertidal flats in the Yellow Sea region has declined significantly in the past few decades, resulting in severe population declines in several waterbird species. The Yellow Sea region holds the primary stopover sites for many shorebirds during their migration to and from northern breeding grounds. However, the functional roles of these sites in shorebirds’ stopover ecology remain poorly understood. Through field surveys between July and November 2015, we investigated the stopover and moult schedules of migratory shorebirds along the southern Jiangsu coast, eastern China during their southbound migration, with a focus on the ‘Critically Endangered’ Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea and ‘Endangered’ Nordmann’s Greenshank Tringa guttifer. Long-term count data indicate that both species regularly occur in globally important number in southern Jiangsu coast, constituting 16.67–49.34% and 64.0–80.67% of their global population estimates respectively, and it is highly likely that most adults undergo their primary moult during this southbound migration stopover. Our results show that Spoon-billed Sandpiper and Nordmann’s Greenshank staged for an extended period of time (66 and 84 days, respectively) to complete their primary moult. On average, Spoon-billed Sandpipers and Nordmann’s Greenshanks started moulting primary feathers on 8 August ± 4.52 and 27 July ± 1.56 days respectively, and their moult durations were 72.58 ± 9.08 and 65.09 ± 2.40 days. In addition, some individuals of several other shorebird species including the ‘Endangered’ Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris, ‘Near Threatened’ Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, ‘Near Threatened’ Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata and Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii also underwent primary moult. Our work highlights the importance of the southern Jiangsu region as the primary moulting ground for these species, reinforcing that conservation of shorebird habitat including both intertidal flats and supratidal roosting sites in this region is critical to safeguard the future of some highly threatened shorebird species.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Observational studies have linked elevated homocysteine to vascular conditions. Folate intake has been associated with lower homocysteine concentration, although randomised controlled trials of folic acid supplementation to decrease the incidence of vascular conditions have been inconclusive. We investigated determinants of maternal homocysteine during pregnancy, particularly in a folic acid-fortified population.
Data were from the Ottawa and Kingston Birth Cohort of 8085 participants. We used multivariable regression analyses to identify factors associated with maternal homocysteine, adjusted for gestational age at bloodwork. Continuous factors were modelled using restricted cubic splines. A subgroup analysis examined the modifying effect of MTHFR 677C>T genotype on folate, in determining homocysteine concentration.
Participants were recruited in Ottawa and Kingston, Canada, from 2002 to 2009.
Women were recruited when presenting for prenatal care in the early second trimester.
In 7587 participants, factors significantly associated with higher homocysteine concentration were nulliparous, smoking and chronic hypertension, while factors significantly associated with lower homocysteine concentration were non-Caucasian race, history of a placenta-mediated complication and folic acid supplementation. Maternal age and BMI demonstrated U-shaped associations. Folic acid supplementation of >1 mg/d during pregnancy did not substantially increase folate concentration. In the subgroup analysis, MTHFR 677C>T modified the effect of folate status on homocysteine concentration.
We identified determinants of maternal homocysteine relevant to the lowering of homocysteine in the post-folic acid fortification era, characterised by folate-replete populations. A focus on periconceptional folic acid supplementation and improving health status may form an effective approach to lower homocysteine.
Two upper Middle Permian palaeosols, consisting of coal and pyrite intercalated with a 20 cm thick limestone, were found near Mount Emei in the SW Sichuan Basin, China. The macro- and micromorphology and physico-chemical properties, in conjunction with the mineralogical composition of the palaeosol horizons were investigated. This type of palaeosol is common within the Permian intertidal facies of the Upper Yangtze Craton. The section reflects fluctuations within the range of 0–25 m in relative sea-level, with the depositional environment changing from shallow-marine to littoral, followed by tidal-flat to littoral, and finally to continental volcanic rocks, based on a combination of palaeopedological and carbonate microfacies analyses. Such short-term relative sea-level fluctuations in late Middle Permian times in the SW Sichuan Basin of South China are consistent with the long-term falling trend on a global scale in late Middle Permian times, and may be related to regionally variable subsidence and global cooling. The combination of coastal palaeosol and carbonate microfacies analyses is proposed as an additional tool for estimating the amplitude of sea-level changes.
A nonlinear station-keeping control method for a multi-vectored propeller airship under unknown wind field with thrust saturation is developed, which is composed of three modules: nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC), disturbance observer (DOB) and tracking differentiator (TD). The nonlinear kinematics and dynamics models are introduced, and the wind effect is considered by the wind-induced aerodynamic force. Based on both models, an explicit NMPC is designed. Then a nonlinear DOB is introduced to estimate the wind disturbance. A TD, showing the relationship between the maximum propulsion force and the maximum flight acceleration, is proposed to handle the thrusts’ amplitude saturation. Stability analysis shows that the closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable. Simulations for a multi-vectored propeller airship are conducted to demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Dijkstra, Wahl, Buytenhuijs, van Halem, Al-jibouri, de Korte, and Rekké (2018) present in their keynote article a promising computational model of word recognition and word production in monolinguals and bilinguals, called Multilink. We agree with the authors that the model is a “basis for the development of a more general computational model of word retrieval” (Dijkstra et al., 2018). However, it is also important that such a model is universal.
BACKGROUND: Metabolomics technology has the potential to revolutionize how we screen, diagnose, and treat cancer, as well as improve upon existing cancer molecular tests that may not sufficiently capture the complexity of most malignancies. In this study, we explore the clinical potential of metabolomics analysis in the diagnosis and risk-stratification of brain tumors. METHODS: To test the hypothesis that brain tumor type and survival could be predicted with metabolomics, we analyzed the pre-operative serum and urine samples of patients with glioblastoma (GBM), oligoastrocytoma (OA2), meningioma (M1) and compared them to healthy controls. (HC). Sera from immune-deficient NOD-SCID mice xenografted with human GBM brain tumor initiating cells were also studied. RESULTS: Metabolomics analysis of patient samples was able to accurately differentiate GBM, OA2, M1 and HC (p = 2.3 x 10-26). Subsequently, a prediction model developed and validated internally was able to diagnose GBM with a sensitivity of 86.7% and specificity of 93.8%, and distinguish whether a GBM patient possess O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation (p = 7.4 x 10-10). Within the MGMT methylated group, the model was able to predict longevity (p = 3.25 x 10-4). The model was also able to predict survival irrespective of MGMT methylation status (p = 2.9 x 10-6). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we demonstrate that metabolomic analysis of patient biofluids can identify brain tumors, distinguish brain tumor subtypes, and independently predict MGMT status as well as longevity among GBM patients. Metabolomics analysis may facilitate non-invasive diagnosis of aggressive brain tumours.
Introduction: Health advocacy training is an important part of emergency medicine practice and education. There is little agreement, however, about how advocacy should be taught and evaluated in the postgraduate context, and there is no consolidated evidence-base to guide the design and implementation of post-graduate health advocacy curricula. This literature review aims to identify existing models used for teaching and evaluating advocacy training, and to integrate these findings with current best-practices in medical education to develop practical, generalizable recommendations for those involved in the design of postgraduate advocacy training programs. Methods: Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed searches combined both MeSH and non-MeSH variations on advocacy and internship and residency. Forward snowballing that incorporated grey literature searches from accreditation agencies, residency websites and reports were included. Articles were excluded if unrelated to advocacy and postgraduate medical education. Results: 507 articles were identified in the search. A total of 108 peer reviewed articles and 38 grey literature resources were included in the final analysis. Results show that many regulatory bodies and residency programs integrate advocacy training into their mission statements and curricula, but they are not prescriptive about training methods or assessment strategies. Barriers to advocacy training were identified, most notably confusion about the definition of the advocate role and a lower value placed on advocacy by trainees and educators. Common training methods included didactic modules, standardized patient encounters, and clinical exposure to vulnerable populations. Longitudinal exposure was less common but appeared the most promising, often linked to scholarly or policy objectives. Conclusion: This review indicates that postgraduate medical education advocacy curricula are largely designed in an ad-hoc fashion with little consistency across programs even within a given discipline. Longitudinal curriculum design appears to engage residents and allows for achievement of stated outcomes. Residency program directors from emergency medicine and other specialties may benefit from promising models in pediatrics, and a shared portal with access to advocacy curricula and the opportunity to exchange ideas related to curriculum design and implementation.
Superior and inferior rice grains have different weights and are located on the upper primary branch and lower secondary branches of the panicle, respectively. To study differences in germination vigour of these two types of grain, a number of factors were investigated from 0 to 48 h of germination. The present study demonstrated that in inferior grains the starch granule structure was looser at 0 h, with full water absorption at 48 h, while in superior grains the structure was tight and dense. Relative water content increased, and dry matter decreased, more rapidly in inferior grains than in superior ones. Abscisic acid and gibberellin levels, as well as α-amylase activity, also changed more rapidly in inferior grains, while soluble sugar content and amylase coding gene expression increased more rapidly in inferior than superior grains during early germination. The expression of OsGAMYB was higher in inferior grains at 24 h but higher in superior grains at 48 h. The phenotypic index of seedlings was higher in seedlings from superior grains at the two-leaf stage. However, the thousand-grain weight and yield per plant in superior and inferior plants showed no significant difference at harvest. The present study indicates that inferior grains germinate faster than superior ones in the early germination stage. Although inferior grains produced weaker seedlings, it is worthwhile using them in rice production due to their comparative yield potential over that of superior grains.
A new helminthomorph millipede, Sinosoma luopingense new genus new species, from the Triassic Luoping biota of China, has 39 body segments, metazonites with lateral swellings that bear a pair of posterolateral pits (?insertion pits for spine bases), and sternites that are unfused to the pleurotergites. This millipede shares a number of characters with nematophoran diplopods, but lacks the prominent dorsal suture characteristic of that order. Other “millipede” material from the biota is more problematic. Millipedes are a rare part of the Luoping biota, which is composed mainly of marine and near-shore organisms. Occurrences of fossil millipedes are exceedingly rare in Triassic rocks worldwide, comprising specimens from Europe, Asia, and Africa, and consisting of juliform millipedes and millipedes that are either nematophorans or forms very similar to nematophorans.
Four complete platysiagid fish specimens are described from the Luoping Biota, Anisian (Middle Triassic), Yunnan Province, southwest China. They are small fishes with bones and scales covered with ganoine. All characters observed, such as nasals meeting in the midline, a keystone-like dermosphenotic, absence of post-rostral bone, two infraorbitals between dermosphenotic and jugal, large antorbital, and two postcleithra, suggest that the new materials belong to a single, new Platysiagum species, P. sinensis sp. nov. Three genera are ascribed to Platysiagidae: Platysiagum, Helmolepis and Caelatichthys. However, most specimens of the first two genera are imprints or fragmentary. The new, well-preserved specimens from the Luoping Biota provide more detailed anatomical information than before, and thus help amend the concept of the Platysiagidae. The Family Platysiagidae was previously classed in the Perleidiformes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Platysiagidae is a member of basal Neopterygii, and its origin seems to predate that of Perleidiformes. Moreover, platysiagid fishes are known from the Middle Triassic of the western Tethys region. The newly found specimens of platysiagids from Luoping provide additional evidence that both eastern and western sides of the Tethys Ocean were biogeographically more connected than previously thought.
The in vivo effects of administering free and microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum LIP-1 cells (2·0×109 colony-forming units/d) were evaluated in high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. Results from real-time quantitative PCR targeting to LIP-1 cells showed a higher colon colonisation count of LIP-1 in the rats receiving microencapsulated cells compared with free cells (P<0·05). Moreover, the microencapsulated LIP-1 treatment resulted in a more obvious lipid-lowering effect (P<0·05). Meanwhile, their faecal samples had significantly less lipopolysaccharide-producing bacteria (especially Bilophila, Sutterella and Oscillibacter) and mucosa-damaging bacteria (Bilophila and Akkermansia muciniphila), whereas significantly more SCFA-producing bacteria (P<0·05) (namely Lactobacillus, Alloprevotella, Coprococcus, Eubacterium and Ruminococcus) and bacteria that potentially possessed bile salt hydrolase activity (Bacteroides, Clostridium, Eubacterium and Lactobacillus), and other beneficial bacteria (Alistipes and Turicibacter). Further, Spearman’s correlation analysis showed significant correlations between some of the modulated gut bacteria and the serum lipid levels. These results together confirm that microcapsulation enhanced the colon colonisation of LIP-1 cells, which subsequently exhibited more pronounced effects in improving the gut microbiota composition of hyperlipidaemic rats and lipid reduction.