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This document is a resource for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) treating an injured law enforcement K9 (LEK9) in the field and/or during transport by ambulance to a veterinary hospital. A Joint Task Force on Working Dog Care was created, which included veterinarians, EMS directors, EMS physicians, and canine handlers, who met to develop a treatment protocol for injured LEK9s. The protocol covers many major life-threatening injuries that LEK9s may sustain in the line of duty, and also discusses personnel safety and necessary equipment. This protocol may help train EMS providers to save the life of an injured LEK9.
The coastal waters of east Lewis from the Butt of Lewis to Loch Erisort are a proposed Marine Protected Area (MPA) for Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus). A total of 100.4 h (2006.4 km) of active search effort (Beaufort sea states ≤3) was collected during 72 dedicated boat surveys between 2010 and 2017 (primarily in August and September) in the southern part of the MPA and south to the Shiant Isles. Forty Risso's dolphin sightings and 24.1 h of encounter effort were recorded, predominantly along the southern and eastern Eye Peninsula in 20–40 m water depths and at distances <1 km from shore. Group size ranged from one to 50 animals (mean = 11.8 dolphins) and calves occurred in 37.5% of sightings. A total of 2404 shore-based scans (Beaufort sea states ≤3) carried out from Tiumpan Head between September 2011 and December 2017 resulted in 271 (11.3%) ‘dolphin-present’ scans. Dolphins were present year-round, with a seasonal increase between May and October. ‘Calf-present’ scans only occurred between April and October. Photo-identification images from 28 boat surveys produced a minimum population size of 117 animals. There was evidence of high inter- and intra-annual site fidelity, with individual dolphins photographically captured in up to six of the eight survey years, and between two and seven capture dates being recorded for over 45% of individuals within most years. The combined datasets support the importance of east Lewis for Risso's dolphins, and recommendations are made for ongoing monitoring of dolphin occurrence throughout the wider MPA.
A legionellosis outbreak at an industrial site was investigated to identify and control the source. Cases were identified from disease notifications, workplace illness records, and from clinicians. Cases were interviewed for symptoms and risk factors and tested for legionellosis. Implicated environmental sources were sampled and tested for legionella. We identified six cases with Legionnaires’ disease and seven with Pontiac fever; all had been exposed to aerosols from the cooling towers on the site. Nine cases had evidence of infection with either Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 or Legionella longbeachae sg1; these organisms were also isolated from the cooling towers. There was 100% DNA sequence homology between cooling tower and clinical isolates of L. pneumophila sg1 using sequence-based typing analysis; no clinical L. longbeachae isolates were available to compare with environmental isolates. Routine monitoring of the towers prior to the outbreak failed to detect any legionella. Data from this outbreak indicate that L. pneumophila sg1 transmission occurred from the cooling towers; in addition, L. longbeachae transmission was suggested but remains unproven. L. longbeachae detection in cooling towers has not been previously reported in association with legionellosis outbreaks. Waterborne transmission should not be discounted in investigations for the source of L. longbeachae infection.
Vitamin D is obtained by cattle from the diet and from skin production via UVB exposure from sunlight. The vitamin D status of the cow impacts the vitamin D content of the milk produced, much like human breast milk, with seasonal variation in the vitamin D content of milk well documented. Factors such as changes in husbandry practices therefore have the potential to impact the vitamin D content of milk. For example, a shift to year-round housing from traditional practices of cattle being out to graze during the summer months and housed during the winter only, minimises exposure to the sun and has been shown to negatively influence the vitamin D content of the milk produced. Other practices such as changing dietary sources of vitamin D may also influence the vitamin D content of milk, and evidence exists to suggest genetic factors such as breed can cause variation in the concentrations of vitamin D in the milk produced. The present review aims to provide an overview of the current understanding of how genetic and environmental factors influence the vitamin D content of the milk produced by dairy cattle. A number of environmental and genetic factors have previously been identified as having influence on the nutritional content of the milk produced. The present review highlights a need for further research to fully elucidate how farmers could manipulate the factors identified to their advantage with respect to increasing the vitamin D content of milk and standardising it across the year.
We have developed a system, called SKICAT, for producing, managing and analyzing catalogs from the digitized POSS-II survey. The system classifies and matches catalogs from multiple, overlapping plate scans as well as CCD calibration sequences; and it can be used for the scientific analysis of the resulting catalogs. It incorporates a number of novel machine-learning and AI tools, including the star/galaxy classification using decision tree algorithms. This results in star/galaxy separation accurate to 90% or better down to BJ ∼ 21m, i.e. ∼ 1m above the plate limit The final catalog is expected to contain at least 5 × 107 galaxies and > 2 × 109 stars. We present preliminary results on galaxy counts from a test region near the NGP. We find a mild excess over the no-evolution models, smaller than previously found by the APM group. A search for z > 4 quasars and the two-point correlation analysis of this data set are in progress.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, however genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for MDD, as well as for related continuous outcomes, have not shown consistent results. Attempts to elucidate the genetic basis of MDD may be hindered by heterogeneity in diagnosis. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale provides a widely used tool for measuring depressive symptoms clustered in four different domains which can be combined together into a total score but also can be analysed as separate symptom domains.
We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS of the CES-D symptom clusters. We recruited 12 cohorts with the 20- or 10-item CES-D scale (32 528 persons).
One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs713224, located near the brain-expressed melatonin receptor (MTNR1A) gene, was associated with the somatic complaints domain of depression symptoms, with borderline genome-wide significance (pdiscovery = 3.82 × 10−8). The SNP was analysed in an additional five cohorts comprising the replication sample (6813 persons). However, the association was not consistent among the replication sample (pdiscovery+replication = 1.10 × 10−6) with evidence of heterogeneity.
Despite the effort to harmonize the phenotypes across cohorts and participants, our study is still underpowered to detect consistent association for depression, even by means of symptom classification. On the contrary, the SNP-based heritability and co-heritability estimation results suggest that a very minor part of the variation could be captured by GWAS, explaining the reason of sparse findings.
This report describes the clinical presentation and management of a rare case of herpes simplex virus infection in the larynx of a patient treated with methotrexate.
We report a case of a clinically suspicious laryngeal lesion in an 82-year-old woman who started methotrexate treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Shortly afterwards she developed dysphonia, which worsened over four months. On microlaryngoscopy, there was bilateral erythema and ulceration of the vocal folds. No other mucocutaneous lesions or systemic features were present. Biopsies revealed herpes simplex virus infection of the vocal folds; there was complete resolution with oral aciclovir. A brief literature review for this rare entity is presented and the diagnostic challenges arising from under-recognition of atypical presentations are discussed.
To our knowledge, this is the first report of a rare complication of herpes simplex virus infection in the context of methotrexate-induced immunosuppression. It may present therapeutic challenges for conditions which rely on immunosuppressive treatments.
Hybrid cetaceans have been documented to occur both in the wild and in captivity. Identifying wild hybrid individuals can be problematic in the absence of genetic techniques, but published accounts indicate that intermediate morphological characteristics are often present. Between 2010 and 2013, a land-based and boat-based study of the Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) was carried out in nearshore waters around the Eye Peninsula located on north-east Lewis, Scotland. Three atypical individuals were photographed which exhibited morphological features intermediate between Grampus and the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). These individuals were typically larger in body size than Tursiops, and had a dorsal fin shape and size consistent with Grampus. Two individuals had coloration most similar to Tursiops and the third exhibited extensive white linear scarring consistent with Grampus. The intermediate morphology was most apparent in the head shape, with all three individuals exhibiting a defined (in contrast to Grampus) but very short (compared with Tursiops) rostrum and two having an unusually steep (compared with Tursiops) forehead. On one occasion, one of the atypical individuals was observed within a mixed-species school of Grampus and Tursiops. There were four further sightings of atypical dolphins associated with Tursiops-only schools. Atypical dolphins were not recorded within Grampus-only schools. These observations are consistent with hybridization between free-ranging Risso's and bottlenose dolphins, the first such occurrence to be documented for these species in UK waters. The context and significance of these hybridization events are unknown.
A sighting of four Atlantic humpback dolphins (Sousa teuszii) was recorded and photographed close to the Benin coast on 3 November 2013. This is the first record of the species for Benin, and also represents the first verified record within a 3,065 km stretch of coast extending from Sierra Leone to Nigeria (encompassing the entire northern coast of the Gulf of Guinea). The sighting supports the possibility that some other potential range states may have remained unconfirmed to date due to a paucity of field research in suitable nearshore habitat rather than an absence of the species.
The false killer whale Pseudorca crassidens is currently documented from only six eastern tropical Atlantic (ETA) range states, five of which are evidenced by strandings, by-catch or skeletal remains rather than at-sea sightings and consequently provide no information on habitat or behaviour. Here we report six false killer whale records from cetacean surveys carried out off Gabon (four records) and Côte d'Ivoire (two records) between 2002 and 2012, providing the first at-sea sightings in those two existing range states. All six sightings were located in continental shelf waters (≤103 m depth) and in relatively nearshore (mean = 13.9 km) habitat. Forty-three false killer whales were photo-identified during three encounters on the Gabonese shelf; seven individuals were matched between 2002 and 2006, including two individuals that were present during all three sightings. Observations included predation of Atlantic sailfish Istiophoms albicans and two occurrences in proximity to humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae. Whistles recorded during one sighting had simple structure, short duration and a mean fundamental frequency of 7.8 kHz. These are the first verified records of false killer whales using continental shelf waters in the ETA, indicating that the species occupies neritic habitat in the region in addition to its previously-documented oceanic habitat. The re-sightings of marked individuals between sightings and years suggest that at least some individuals exhibit a degree of site fidelity to Gabonese shelf waters. Further information on distribution, abundance, movements, population structure and mortality rates are required for effective management of the species in the ETA.
Chevalier Jackson was one of the greatest pioneers of otolaryngology. He was a pioneer of oesophagoscopy, bronchoscopy and the removal of foreign bodies. He changed the mortality rate for an airway foreign body from 98 per cent to a survival rate of 98 per cent. He became distressed by the number of preventable injuries in children from the ingestion of caustic substances, most commonly household lye. His experiences of children with oesophageal stricturing secondary to caustic ingestion moved him to start a campaign to force manufacturers to label all poisonous substances as such. This took him from the American Senate to the House of Representatives and back again; the Federal Caustic Poisons Act (1927) is still enforced today. In a career with over 400 publications, written during exacerbations of his pulmonary tuberculosis, his life story is a remarkable one, only part of which is widely known.
The waters off north-west Scotland are known to provide important habitat for the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata). Between October 2008 and April 2011, systematic land-based surveys were carried out to assess the seasonal occurrence, group size and group behaviours of both species in a study area located off Melvaig, near Gairloch. Data were collected on 47 separate days, with a total of 4543 minutes of survey effort (in sea states ≤3) recorded during the spring months and 8204 minutes of effort during the autumn. A total of 189 sightings of marine fauna were recorded, comprising 126 cetacean sightings, 50 seal sightings and 13 sightings of basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus). Six species of cetacean were identified, with most sightings comprising harbour porpoise (N = 72) or minke whale (N = 38). Harbour porpoise abundance was higher in autumn than in spring and there was a variation between years in numbers of minke whales sighted. In porpoises, sea state and cloud cover both influenced sightings and increasing sea state influenced survey area. Foraging behaviour was exhibited in 13% of harbour porpoise sightings and 34% of minke whale sightings. Results demonstrate a regular occurrence of harbour porpoises and minke whales in nearshore waters off Gairloch. Densities are comparable to boat surveys in the region and so support the use of land-based watches as a potential longer-term monitoring method for these species in coastal waters. Given the regular use of this area by these two European Protected Species, as well as the occurrence of a range of human activities potentially affecting them in the region, it may be appropriate to consider protecting this area for their conservation.
Although it is unlikely that the east of Sutherland will ever rival the west in geological renown, its varied interests have already furnished material for a considerable literature. Attention has been specially focussed upon a down-faulted coastal strip of Mesozoic rocks, which, starting at Golspie, extends north-eastwards for twenty miles through Brora and Helmsdale to the county boundary at the Ord (fig. 1). Golspie itself stands on a narrow outcrop of Trias. Jurassic follows, with a generally ascending sequence that leads up to Kimmeridgian at Kintradwell, a couple of miles north of Brora (fig. 2). Beyond this Corallian reappears, but only for a short distance. Then Kimmeridgian returns and holds the coast-line continuously for nearly nine miles, until, at the Ord, it disappears beneath the sea. The width of the Kimmeridgian exposures is occasionally three-quarters of a mile, but generally much less.
The habitat preferences and niches of eight cetacean species inhabiting eastern tropical Atlantic waters between Angola and Gabon (1°N–11°S latitude) were examined. A total of 2873 cetacean sightings, recorded between January 2004 and June 2009, was assigned to 10 × 10 km grid cells and linked to four ecogeographical variables (EGVs): water depth, seabed slope, sea surface temperature (SST) and relative frontal strength. Classification trees revealed that the habitat preferences (in terms of the habitats sampled) of most species were primarily determined by SST (for Bryde's whale, sperm whale, short-finned pilot whale and common dolphin) and water depth (for Risso's dolphin, bottlenose dolphin and Atlantic spotted dolphin). Seabed slope was the most important EGV describing the presence of the striped dolphin. A principal component analysis was used to compare the niches of the species with respect to the four EGVs. Nineteen species pairs (68%) differed significantly in median principal component (PC) score for the first PC axis, suggesting differences in their niche centres for that axis. Sixteen species pairs (57%) differed significantly in PC score variance suggesting differences in the niche widths along the first PC axis. Water depth and SST were the most important variables for the first PC axis. Together, these results suggest that cetacean species inhabiting the eastern tropical Atlantic exhibit interspecific variation in their habitat preferences, and so differ in the niches that they occupy. These differences are most likely related to variation in prey species and foraging strategy.
The Moffat Shale Group is a condensed, variable and partly pelagic sequence of mudrocks of Llandeilo—Llandovery age. The sequence has a five-fold lithological subdivision based mainly on the occurrence of grey mudstones within a succession otherwise dominated by fully euxinic black graptolitic mudrocks. Associated with the black mudrocks, especially in the Llandovery, are metabentonite beds which achieve a climax, both in thickness and in number, within the top quarter of the mudrock sequence. A geochemical and mineralogical study has confirmed a volcanic origin for the metabentonites. Major element data highlight a carbonate-dominated environment above the gregarius—convolutus Zones boundary. Phosphorus levels reach a peak at the same boundary, as well as at the Caradoc—Ashgill boundary where phosphorite horizons are known from Wales and Norway. Immobile trace elements have highlighted regular changes in source magma composition. Prolonged periods of crystal fractionation in magmas of intermediate composition gave rise, on eruption, to large volumes of silicic ash which had a deleterious effect on graptolite species and led to local extinctions. Regular fluctuations in ash composition from silicic to intermediate are ascribed to alternating fractionation and magma mixing cycles.
The Ordovician and Silurian successions between Falahill and Galashiels encompass six flysch-dominated formations: the Upper Ordovician Portpatrick and Shinnel Formations representing the Leadhills Group, the Llandovery Mindork, Garheugh, and Buckholm Formations together comprising the Gala Group, and a formation indeterminate of age within the Hawick Group. Southward ensialic andesitic volcanic arc and northward low- to medium-grade sialic sources contributed sediment, whilst ophiolitic and subduction-related sources made minor contributions. Deposition took place firstly, in a SE-migrating back-arc basin bordering the northerly source, the Laurentian continent. Subsequent NW-directed underthrusting led to formation out of the back-arc basin of an imbricate thrust stack which migrated southeastwards. Ultimately a foreland successor basin formed ahead of the rising thrust stack.
Flysch units are typically associated with linear outcrops of Moffat Shales which are the loci of major steep SE-translating reverse faults, two of which participate in a late-stage sinistral strike–slip duplex with large-scale imbrication. The faults divide the succession into a sequence of tectonostratigraphic blocks, successively younger to the SE. At least six of the ten blocks customarily recognised in the Southern Uplands, Blocks 3–8, are represented, some of which coincide with single or complete formations.