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Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) [Dubietis et al., Opt. Commun. 88, 437 (1992)] implemented by multikilojoule Nd:glass pump lasers is a promising approach to produce ultraintense pulses (
). Technologies are being developed to upgrade the OMEGA EP Laser System with the goal to pump an optical parametric amplifier line (EP OPAL) with two of the OMEGA EP beamlines. The resulting ultraintense pulses (1.5 kJ, 20 fs,
) would be used jointly with picosecond and nanosecond pulses produced by the other two beamlines. A midscale OPAL pumped by the Multi-Terawatt (MTW) laser is being constructed to produce 7.5-J, 15-fs pulses and demonstrate scalable technologies suitable for the upgrade. MTW OPAL will share a target area with the MTW laser (50 J, 1 to 100 ps), enabling several joint-shot configurations. We report on the status of the MTW OPAL system, and the technology development required for this class of all-OPCPA laser system for ultraintense pulses.
We analyzed clinical microbiology laboratory practices for detection of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in US short-stay acute-care hospitals using data from the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Annual Facility Survey. Half of hospitals reported testing for carbapenemases, and 1% performed routine polymyxin susceptibility testing using reference broth microdilution.
To describe antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) that occurred in 2011–2014 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Healthcare Safety Network.
Data from central line–associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonias, and surgical site infections were analyzed. These HAIs were reported from acute care hospitals, long-term acute care hospitals, and inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Pooled mean proportions of pathogens that tested resistant (or nonsusceptible) to selected antimicrobials were calculated by year and HAI type.
Overall, 4,515 hospitals reported that at least 1 HAI occurred in 2011–2014. There were 408,151 pathogens from 365,490 HAIs reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network, most of which were reported from acute care hospitals with greater than 200 beds. Fifteen pathogen groups accounted for 87% of reported pathogens; the most common included Escherichia coli (15%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%), Klebsiella species (8%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8%). In general, the proportion of isolates with common resistance phenotypes was higher among device-associated HAIs compared with surgical site infections. Although the percent resistance for most phenotypes was similar to earlier reports, an increase in the magnitude of the resistance percentages among E. coli pathogens was noted, especially related to fluoroquinolone resistance.
This report represents a national summary of antimicrobial resistance among select HAIs and phenotypes. The distribution of frequent pathogens and some resistance patterns appear to have changed from 2009–2010, highlighting the need for continual, careful monitoring of these data across the spectrum of HAI types.
We examined reported policies for the control of common multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in US healthcare facilities using data from the National Healthcare Safety Network Annual Facility Survey. Policies for the use of Contact Precautions were commonly reported. Chlorhexidine bathing for preventing MDRO transmission was also common among acute care hospitals.
We discuss measurements of disk mass from non-circular streaming motions of gas in the barred galaxies NGC 3095 and NGC 4123. in these galaxies with strong shocks and non-circular motions, the inner regions must be disk-dominated to reproduce the shocks. This requires dark matter halos of low central density and low concentration, compared to LCDM halo predictions. in addition, the baryonic collapse to a disk should have compressed the halo and increased the dark matter density, which sharpens the disagreement. One possible resolution is a substantial amount of angular momentum transfer from disk to halo, but this is not particularly attractive nor elegant.
It is well known that the existence of H I and CO gas at “forbidden” velocities in longitude-velocity (l–V) diagrams of the inner Galaxy (e.g. Liszt & Burton 1980, Liszt 1992) is inconsistent with circular motion in an axisymmetric potential. Gas flow in a barred potential could be consistent with the observations, however. We have compared the observations to 2-D hydrodynamical simulations of gas flows in a family of barred potentials. The gas flow pattern is very sensitive to the assumed potential, and the l–V distribution of cool gas in the inner Galaxy places strong constraints on several parameters of the Milky Way bar.
We present Fabry-Perot observations of the velocity field of gas in the barred spiral NGC 4123, and 2-D hydrodynamical simulations of the gas flow in model potentials derived from I-band photometry. The simulated gas flow is quite sensitive to the details of the potential, which enables us to constrain parameters such as the M/LI of the bar and the bar pattern speed. The observations confirm that the dust lanes along the leading edges of the bar are the locations of shocks. Requiring models to produce shocks with the correct alignment constrains the Lagrange point L1 (corotation) to be at a radius 1.1 – 1.4 times the semimajor axis of the bar, i.e. the bar is a fast rotator.
Previous genetic studies of extant planktonic foraminifera have provided evidence that the traditional, strictly morphological definition of species in these organisms underestimates their biodiversity. Here, we report the first case where this pattern is reversed. The modern (sub)tropical species plexus Globigerinoides sacculifer is characterized by large morphological variability, which has led to the proliferation of taxonomic names attributed to morphological end-members within the plexus. In order to clarify the taxonomic status of its morphotypes and to investigate the genetic connectivity among its currently partly disjunct (sub)tropical populations, we carried out a global survey of two ribosomal RNA regions (SSU and ITS-1) in all recent morphotypes of the plexus collected throughout (sub)tropical surface waters of the global ocean. Unexpectedly, we find an extremely reduced genetic variation within the plexus and no correlation between genetic and morphological divergence, suggesting taxonomical overinterpretation. The genetic homogeneity within the morphospecies is unexpected, considering its partly disjunct range in the (sub)tropical Atlantic and Indo-Pacific and its old age (early Miocene). A sequence variant in the rapidly evolving ITS-1 region indicates the existence of an exclusively Atlantic haplotype, which suggests an episode of relatively recent (last glacial) isolation, followed by subsequent resumption of unidirectional gene flow from the Indo-Pacific into the Atlantic. This is the first example in planktonic foraminifera where the morphological variability in a morphospecies exceeds its rDNA genetic variability. Such evidence for inconsistent scaling of morphological and genetic diversity in planktonic foraminifera could complicate the interpretation of evolutionary patterns in their fossil record.
In this response to Guzzo, Fink, King, Tonidandel, and Landis (2015), we suggest industrial–organizational (I-O) psychologists join business analysts, data scientists, statisticians, mathematicians, and economists in creating the vanguard of expertise as we acclimate to the reality of analytics in the world of big data. We enthusiastically accept their invitation to share our perspective that extends the discussion in three key areas of the focal article—that is, big data sources, logistic and analytic challenges, and data privacy and informed consent on a global scale. In the subsequent sections, we share our thoughts on these critical elements for advancing I-O psychology's role in leveraging and adding value from big data.
Prevalence of blaKPC-encoding Enterobacteriaceae (KPC) in Chicago long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs) rose rapidly after the first recognition in 2007. We studied the epidemiology and transmission capacity of KPC in LTACHs and the effect of patient cohorting.
Data were available from 4 Chicago LTACHs from June 2012 to June 2013 during a period of bundled interventions. These consisted of screening for KPC rectal carriage, daily chlorhexidine bathing, medical staff education, and 3 cohort strategies: a pure cohort (all KPC-positive patients on 1 floor), single rooms for KPC-positive patients, and a mixed cohort (all KPC-positive patients on 1 floor, supplemented with KPC-negative patients). A data-augmented Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method was used to model the transmission process.
Average prevalence of KPC colonization was 29.3%. On admission, 18% of patients were colonized; the sensitivity of the screening process was 81%. The per admission reproduction number was 0.40. The number of acquisitions per 1,000 patient days was lowest in LTACHs with a pure cohort ward or single rooms for colonized patients compared with mixed-cohort wards, but 95% credible intervals overlapped.
Prevalence of KPC in LTACHs is high, primarily due to high admission prevalence and the resultant impact of high colonization pressure on cross transmission. In this setting, with an intervention in place, patient-to-patient transmission is insufficient to maintain endemicity. Inclusion of a pure cohort or single rooms for KPC-positive patients in an intervention bundle seemed to limit transmission compared to use of a mixed cohort.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(10):1148–1154
Clinical differentiation of Lewy body disease (LBD) from Alzheimer disease (AD) is still problematic. Many persons with LBD lack the cardinal features of visual hallucinations, fluctuations in cognition, and mild Parkinsonism proposed by McKeith et al. (2005). Some studies suggest that history or presence of depression may help distinguish LBD from AD, but this is confounded because many clinically diagnosed LBD patients have significant co-morbid AD pathology and vice versa (Ranginwala et al., 2008). We aimed to clarify whether history or symptoms of depression differentiate LBD from AD, in autopsy-confirmed patients, excluding patients with mixed AD and LBD pathology.
Maternal infection is associated with oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory responses. We have previously shown that maternal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at E18 alters the subsequent offspring immune response. As immune responses are mediated, in part, by OS, we sought to determine if maternal inflammation during pregnancy programs offspring OS and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of saline or LPS at 18 days’ gestation (n = 4), and pups delivered spontaneously at term. At postnatal day 24, male and female offspring received i.p. injection of LPS. Serum lipid peroxides formation (PD) and CRP levels were determined before and at 4 h following the LPS injection. Pups of LPS-exposed dams had significantly higher basal OS (PD 29.4 ± 5.4 v. 10.1 ± 4.8 nmol/ml) compared with controls. In response to LPS, CRP levels (20.4 ± 2.8 v. 5.7 ± 1.0 ng/ml) were significantly higher among pups of LPS-exposed dams than controls. Prenatal maternal exposure to LPS increases baseline OS levels in neonates and CRP levels in response to LPS. These results suggest that maternal inflammation during the antenatal period may induce long-term sequelae in the offspring that may predispose to adult disease.
Diversity within Shigella dysenteriae (n=40) and Shigella boydii (n=30) isolates from children living in Egypt aged <5 years was investigated. Shigella-associated diarrhoea occurred mainly in summer months and in children aged <3 years, it commonly presented with vomiting and fever. Serotypes 7 (30%), 2 (28%), and 3 (23%) accounted for most of S. dysenteriae isolates; 50% of S. boydii isolates were serotype 2. S. dysenteriae and S. boydii isolates were often resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (42%, 17%, respectively), although resistance varied among serotypes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis separated the isolates into distinct clusters correlating with species and serotype. Genetic differences in trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and β-lactam-encoding resistance genes were also evident. S. dysenteriae and S. boydii are genetically diverse pathogens in Egypt; the high level of multidrug resistance associated with both pathogens and resistance to the most available inexpensive antibiotics underlines the importance of continuing surveillance.
The electron field emission properties of sulfur-assisted nanocrystalline carbon (n-C: S) thin films grown on molybdenum substrates by hot-filament CVD technique using methane-hydrogen (CH4/H2) and hydrogen sulfide-hydrogen (H2S/H2) gas mixtures were investigated. The field emission properties of the S-assisted films are reported as a function of sulfur concentration. The incorporation of S caused structural and microstructural changes that were characterized with SEM, AFM and Raman spectroscopy (RS). The S-assisted films show smoother surfaces and smaller grains than those grown without. The lowest turn-on field measured was around 4.5 – 5.0 V/μm films grown with 500 ppm of hydrogen sulfide and at 900 °C. The electron field emission properties of S-assisted films were also compared to those grown without sulfur (i.e., intrinsic). An inverse correlation between the threshold field (Ec) and sulfur concentration was found. These finding are attributed to defect induced states within the electronic band structure.
Sulfur incorporated nanocrystalline carbon (n-C:S) thin films grown on molybdenum substrates by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) using gas mixtures of methane, hydrogen and a range of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations are optically examined using Raman spectroscopy (RS) and ex situ spectroscopic phase modulated ellipsometry (SPME) from near IR to near UV (1.5-5.0 eV) obtaining their vibrational frequencies and pseudodielectric function, respectively. The ellipsometry data (<εr(E)>, <εi(E)>) were modeled using Bruggeman effective-medium theory (BEMT) and five parameters Forouhi and Bloomer (FB) dispersion Model. A simplified two-layer model consisting of a top layer comprising an aggregate mixture of sp3C+sp2C+void and a bulk layer (L2), defined as a dense amorphized FB-modeled material was found to simulate the data reasonably well. Through these simulations, it was possible to estimate the dielectric function of our n-C: S material, along with the optical bandgap (Eg), film thickness (d), and roughness layer (σ) as a function of [H2S]. The physical interpretation(s) of the modeling parameters obtained were discussed. The Raman and ellipsometry results indicate that the average size of nanocrystallites in the sulfur-incorporated carbon thin films becomes smaller with increasing H2S concentration, consistent with AFM measurements. The bandgap was found to decrease systematically with increasing H2S concentration, indicating the enhancement of midgap states and sp2 C network, in agreement with RS results. These results are compared to those obtained for the films grown without sulfur (n-C), in order to study the influence of sulfur addition to the CVD process. This analysis led to a correlation between the film microstructure and its electronic properties.
The biaxial tensile stress of 2.65 kbar in as-grown GaAs/Si for T < 100K is reduced by post-growth patterning of the GaAs and the reduction in stress, as determined by photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence, is dependent on the pattern size and shape. For stripe patterns less than 15 gm wide the stress is largely uniaxial with stress relief normal to the stripe direction. Rectangular patterns exhibited stress relief in orthogonal directions, and a 9 x 12 µm2 rectangle exhibited an average stress of 0.5 kbar. For as-grown GaAs/Si layers 0.9 to 3.25 µm thick, the stress is weakly dependent on layer thickness. For T > looK the stress in as-grown GaAs/Si is reduced and at 295K a value of 1.51 ± 0.21 kbar is obtained. With patterned growth, using a native SiO2 mask, no reduction in stress was observed irrespective of the pattern size, indicating the importance of free GaAs edges in obtaining stress relief.
In optical experiments with laterally patterned modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells we observe spatially separate confinement of electrons and holes to one-dimensional quantum wires. We determine the one-dimensional subband spacing and Fermi energy from inelastic light scattering and photoluminescence spectra. From these measurements we directly determine the one-dimensional electron density.