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Coronary ostial atresia seen with pulmonary atresia and coronary-cameral fistulae or, more rarely, in isolation manifested as left main coronary artery atresia, is well described. We describe the clinical course and post-mortem findings in a neonate who suffered a fatal cardiac arrest and was found to have congenital absence of both coronary ostia in a single/common coronary system.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
Otitis externa is the inflammation of the external auditory canal. The disease is common and shows a seasonal variation with a greater incidence in warmer months. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen in otitis externa and in this retrospective study, we show a corresponding seasonal variation in the proportional incidence of P. aeruginosa isolates from otitis externa in South East England. In total 7770 patients were diagnosed with otitis externa over a period of 9 years from January 2008 to December 2016. P. aeruginosa was isolated from 2802 patients (proportional incidence of 36%). Incidence was higher in the months of August, September and October and in patients between 5 and 15 years of age. We postulate a combination of increased contact with water during warm weather in the holiday season and increased rainfall in the preceding season as a putative mechanism for the seasonal trends.
It is an unfortunate fact that the Near-Middle Eastern area, which has produced its share of the world's more spectacular antiquities, and which has been the focus of archaeological activity for so many years, has supplied but little material for the radiocarbon dating project. The dearth of specimens would seem to be due to two main factors. First, the general lack of attention hitherto given by excavators to non-artifactual materials (i.e., unworked wood, grain, etc.). Second, the understandable reluctance of museum curators to submit actual specimens of artifacts as samples, since they are destroyed in the process.
With few exceptions, measurements of cometary brightness and polarization have been restricted to regions in or near the coma and therefore to a relatively small range of phase angles. Photoelectric techniques are required for detailed wavelength coverage, whereas large-field photographic techniques are better suited for mapping the large regions of sky spanned by a comet tail. Observations with a small field of view provide high spatial resolution but generally restrict multicolor measurements of brightness and polarization to a small region of the comet. Observations with a large field of view (diameter larger than 1 or 2 deg) provide adequate color and spatial coverage but can result in the loss of detail. A compromise is afforded by Fabry photometry, using a modest telescope of small aperture and relatively large field of view.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
Up to now, the geometrical and kinematical structure of the well-known bizarre nebula NGC 7026 has not been discussed in the literature. Using the large vertical Coude spectrograph of the 2.2 m telescope on Calar Alto, Spain, we obtained long-slit spectra covering the nebula at 5 different position angles, in the ranges from 4730 to 5050 Å and from 6470 to 6770 Å. The high spectral (up to 6 km s−1 FWHM) and spatial resolution (seeing-limited ≲ 2″) reveals a rather complex structure in the lines of Hα, Hβ, (OIII) λλ 4959, 5007, HeI 6678, HeII 6560, (NII) λλ 6548, 6583, and (SII) λλ 6716, 6731. Generally, the lines exhibit a double “bowed” appearance; both components consist of several condensations of small angular extent. The velocity field suggests a non-spherical expansion of an elongated thin shell structure. The observations can be explained by an ovoidal or “bipolar” configuration of the nebula consisting of an expanding equatorial toroid (Vexp = 54 km s−1 in (SII)) and two blobs moving at higher velocities outwards along the polar axis (inclination angle with respect to the line-of-sight: 75°). The geometrical and kinematical structure observed in the lines of various excitation degrees indicates a pronounced ionization stratification and allows to derive the dependence of the expansion velocities on the radial distance inside the nebulae. No noticeable extinction within the nebula has been found. The bipolar structure of NGC 7026 resembles that of some other planetary nebulae and might be caused by an equatorial concentration of the circumstellar material lost during the late phase by the progenitor asymptotic giant-branch star. Using distances and interstellar extinctions of 48 stars within 1° of the planetary, we determined a distance of 2180 (≈ ± 700) pc for the nebula.
Moringa oleifera is a rich source of antioxidants and a promising feed for livestock, due to significant amounts of protein, vitamins, carotenoids and polyphenols, and negligible amounts of anti-nutritional factors. The current study tested whether ensiling would preserve the antioxidant capacity of M. oleifera plants, and assessed whether Moringa silage, fed as a substitute for maize silage, would confer health-promoting traits and affect milk production in dairy cows. To this end, hand-harvested M. oleifera plants were ensiled, with or without molasses and inoculants, in anaerobic jars at room temperature (25 °C) for 37 days. At the end of the storage period the silages were analysed for pH, lactic acid and acetic acid concentrations, aerobic stability, antioxidant capacity, polyphenols and protein content, and tocopherols and carotenoids concentrations. Moringa silages exhibited higher antioxidant capacity compared with fresh and dried Moringa plants, not related to polyphenol content but presumably attributed to accumulation of amino acids and low molecular weight peptides. Based on these findings, a large-scale ensiling protocol was implemented, followed by a feeding trial for dairy cows, in which Moringa silage replaced 263 g maize silage/kg in the diet. Cows fed Moringa silage had higher milk yield and antioxidant capacity and lower milk somatic cell counts compared with controls, during some stages of lactation. These findings imply that ensiling M. oleifera is an appropriate practice by which health and production of dairy cows can be improved.
This study aimed to review available disaster training options for health care providers, and to provide specific recommendations for developing and delivering a disaster-response-training program for non-disaster-trained emergency physicians, residents, and trainees prior to acute deployment.
A comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature of the existing training options for health care providers was conducted to provide specific recommendations.
A comprehensive search of the Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane databases was performed to identify publications related to courses for disaster preparedness and response training for health care professionals. This search revealed 7,681 unique titles, of which 53 articles were included in the full review. A total of 384 courses were found through the grey literature search, and many of these were available online for no charge and could be completed in less than six hours. The majority of courses focused on management and disaster planning; few focused on clinical care and acute response.
There is need for a course that is targeted toward emergency physicians and trainees without formal disaster training. This course should be available online and should utilize a mix of educational modalities, including lectures, scenarios, and virtual simulations. An ideal course should focus on disaster preparedness, and the clinical and non-clinical aspects of response, with a focus on an all-hazards approach, including both terrorism-related and environmental disasters.
HansotiB, KelloggDS, AberleSJ, BroccoliMC, FedenJ, FrenchA, LittleCM, MooreB, SabatoJJr., SheetsT, WeinbergR, ElmesP, KangC. Preparing Emergency Physicians for Acute Disaster Response: A Review of Current Training Opportunities in the US. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(6):643–647.
Radiocarbon and tritium analyses are used to show that the accepted conceptual hydrological model of the Yarkon-Taninim aquifer is untenable. The conventional model would have the groundwater flow in the carbonate Judea Group aquifer from the Beer Sheva region in the south to discharge at the Yarkon springs. Moreover, the conventional model considers the Judea Group aquifer to be a single hydrological entity. However, analysis of the Yarkon springs and surrounding wells demonstrate that it is stratified into upper and lower aquifers.
The water in the deeper aquifer is fresher, cooler and younger compared to the water in the overlying aquifer. The deeper aquifer water type is identical in composition to the Ca-Mg-HCO3 Judean Hills recharge water immediately to the east. It is this recharge water that is dominant at the Yarkon Springs. There appears to be no derived appreciable contribution of groundwater from the Beersheva region in the south. Thus the currently accepted hydrologic model is in need of serious revision. The present study introduces new and high quality groundwater resources to be target for exploitation.
Using the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) on the Hubble Space Telescope we have conducted a coronagraphic imaging survey of 18 main sequence stars with large infrared excesses, searching for circumstellar dust (debris) in scattered light. Dusty disks with radial and hemispheric brightness anisotropies and complex morphologies, both possibly indicative of dynamical interactions with unseen planetary mass companions, were spatially resolved and imaged around three young (≲ 10Myr old) stars. From these observations we describe the debris systems around: a) HR 4796A (A0V), a 70 AU radius ring less than 14 AU wide with unequal ansal flux densities; b) HD 141569A (Herbig Ae/Be), a 400 AU radius disk with a 40 AU wide gap; and c) TW Hya (K7 T-Tauri), a pole-on circularly symmetric disk with a radial break in its surface density of scattering particles. Additionally, our non-detection of scattered light and high precision photometry of a fourth system of similar age, HD 98800 A/B, coupled with mid and thermal IR measurements, greatly constrain a likely model for the debris about the B component.
Studies of airglow, zodiacal light, and galactic light in this triennium were almost as active as in the last. Results of observations obtained during and after the IQSY were the major contributions in this term. Night Airglow studies during the IQSY were widely reviewed in the Annals of the IQSY, vol. 4, in which the following articles are included:
“Night Airglow Observations during the IQSY” (F. E. Roach, L. L. Smith and J. R. McKennan);
“Airglow Research during and since the IQSY” (G. Weill);
“Hydrogen and Hydroxyl Emissions in the Nightglow” (N. N. Shefov and Yu. L. Truttse).
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute, July 29-August 9,1968, entitled Atmospheric Emissions, contains some ten significant papers on airglow both in observations and interpretations. Many of them are referred to in the following sections.
Many stations have been engaged in airglow observations since the beginning of the IASY in 1969, although the number of stations seems to be a little less than during the IGY. Stations near the equator and in the southern hemisphere, however, are more numerous and active than during the IGY in response to the strong wishes of many airglow researchers. These efforts are being made especially by G. Weill’s group of France, V. J. Dachs’ and Lange-Hesse’s groups of Germany.
The light of the night sky consists of atmospheric components (airglow, light scattered in the atmosphere) and – even in the case of spaceborne observations – of zodiacal, galactic and extragalactic light. Although all components are of similar importance, investigations on zodiacal light have profitted most by the space age since their object of research, the interplanetary dust cloud, became accessible to direct in-situ measurements. Lunar samples and measurements by micrometeoroid detectors provide individual and eventually detailed information on impact events, which however are limited in number and therefore restricted in statistical significance. Zodiacal light investigations involve scattered light of many particles in large volume elements and therefore provide global information about physical properties and spatial distribution of interplanetary dust grains, however just in terms of average values. Therefore both sources of information are complementary and a synthesis can only be achieved by synoptic interpretation of zodiacal light, micrometeoroid, and meteoroid investigations also including dynamical aspects. Measurements of zodiacal light (and emission) from rockets, manned or non manned spacecraft, and deep space probes gained drastically in importance compared to ground based observations. On the other hand investigations on airglow have become more and more a topic of geophysics Caeronomy). They remain relevant however to astronomy as far as photometric features are concerned. These general trends continued in the last triennium and have influenced the activities of our commission.
The different components of the light of the night sky have their origin in different formations of matter in the universe - encompassing a huge scale of distances ranging from a few kilometers in the earth’s atmosphere to the most distant known galaxies and beyond. Correspondingly, the borderlines to other Commissions are not very well defined and thus material relevant to Commission 21 can also be found in the reports of other Commissions on the following topics: zodiacal light and zodiacal IR emission (Comm. 22, 44), integrated starlight (33, 25), diffuse galactic light (34), extragalactic background light (47), airglow and atmospheric scattered light (50), and space-borne observations of the LONS (44). From the Commission 21 point of view the connecting link between these various fields is the special techniques utilized in the surface photometric measurements and reductions of background radiations which extend over the entire sky. One crucial problem is the separation of the LONS into its several components. The approach for solving this task is to utilize the different spatial distributions and different broad and narrow band spectral properties of each of the LONS component. Thus the successful measurement and separation of one of the LONS components requires a knowledge of the properties of all the other components. This situation has become apparent in recent years as the infrared background radiation database, provided by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), has been analyzed: both the zodiacal and galactic dust emissions have to be analyzed hand in hand, and both these components must be very accurately mastered before any conclusions are possible on the extragalactic component. It is also obvious that very similar problems are encountered in the ultraviolet and infrared wavelength regions as in the more traditional optical domain. Thus the techniques developed in one of these wavelength domains are directly applicable in the others.
A brief description is given of the Skylab ten color photoelectric photometer and the programs of measurements made during Skylab missions SL-2 and SL-3. Results obtained on the polarized brightness of zodiacal light at five points on the antisolar hemisphere are discussed and compared with other published data for the north celestial pole, south ecliptic pole, at elongation 90 degrees on the ecliptic, and at two places near the north galactic pole.
Sky maps made by the Pioneer 10 Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) at sun-spacecraft distances from 1 to 3 AU have been analyzed to derive the brightness of the zodiacal light near the ecliptic at elongations greater than 90 degrees. The change in zodiacal light brightness with heliocentric distance is compared with models of the spatial distribution of the dust. Use of background starlight brightnesses derived from IPP measurements beyond the asteroid belt, where the zodiacal light is not detected, and, especially, use of a corrected calibration lead to considerably lower values for zodiacal light than those reported by us previously.
The Barbier’s relation for the diffusely scattered airglow has been modified in such a way that it may describe, with simple changes of two parameter values, the dependence on zenith distance of the atmospheric diffuse light at any time of the night.
A listing and discussion are given of balloon, rocket, satellite, and space probe observations of the zodiacal light. The paucity of space observations in several critical areas (e.g., in the ultraviolet and near the sun) is noted and suggestions are made for experiments to meet these needs.