To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This paper presents the filter design in the student design competition of EuMW 2019. This contest motivates students for the design and implementation of a dual-band bandpass filter able to get outstanding performance, where different implementation technologies, such as microstrip, coplanar, multilayer microstrip, substrate integrated waveguide, and some others can be effectively employed. Filters are evaluated by considering a figure of merit (FoM) defined by the insertion loss level, selectivity, spurious-free response, and size. To this end, three viable dual-band bandpass filters with different feeding technologies, resonators, and design topologies are investigated for the optimal FoM.
Soybean meal is rich in soybean isoflavones, which exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer functions in humans and animals. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of soybean isoflavones on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and antioxidative properties in pigs. A total of 72 weaned piglets (7.45 ± 0.13 kg; 36 males and 36 females) were allocated into three treatments and fed corn-soybean meal (C-SBM), corn-soy protein concentrate (C-SPC) or C-SPC supplemented with equal levels of the isoflavones found in the C-SBM diet (C-SPC + ISF) for a 72-day trial. Each treatment had six replicates and four piglets per replicate, half male and half female. On day 42, one male pig from each replicate was selected and euthanized to collect intestinal samples. The results showed that compared to pigs fed the C-SPC diet, pigs fed the C-SBM and C-SPC + ISF diets had higher BW on day 72 (P < 0.05); pigs fed the C-SBM diet had significantly higher average daily gain (ADG) during days 14 to 28 (P < 0.05), with C-SPC + ISF being intermediate; pigs fed the C-SBM diet tended to have higher ADG during days 42 to 72 (P = 0.063), while pigs fed the C-SPC + ISF diet had significantly higher ADG during days 42 to 72 (P < 0.05). Moreover, compared to pigs fed the C-SPC diet, pigs fed the C-SBM diet tended to have greater villus height (P = 0.092), while pigs fed the C-SPC + ISF diet had significantly greater villus height (P < 0.05); pigs fed the C-SBM and C-SPC + ISF diets had significantly increased villus height-to-crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05). Compared with the C-SPC diet, dietary C-SPC + ISF tended to increase plasma superoxide dismutase activity on days 28 (P = 0.085) and 42 (P = 0.075) and reduce plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) content on day 42 (P = 0.089), as well as significantly decreased jejunal mucosa MDA content on day 42 (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference in the expression of tight junction genes among the three groups was found (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that a long-term exposure to soybean isoflavones enhances the growth performance, protects the intestinal morphology and improves the antioxidative properties in pigs.
Diet has direct and indirect effects on health through inflammation and the gut microbiome. We investigated total dietary inflammatory potential via the literature-derived index (Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®)) with gut microbiota diversity, composition and function. In cancer-free patient volunteers initially approached at colonoscopy and healthy volunteers recruited from the medical centre community, we assessed 16S ribosomal DNA in all subjects who provided dietary assessments and stool samples (n 101) and the gut metagenome in a subset of patients with residual fasting blood samples (n 34). Associations of energy-adjusted DII scores with microbial diversity and composition were examined using linear regression, permutational multivariate ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate associations of species and pathways with DII and circulating inflammatory markers. Across DII levels, α- and β-diversity did not significantly differ; however, Ruminococcus torques, Eubacterium nodatum, Acidaminococcus intestini and Clostridium leptum were more abundant in the most pro-inflammatory diet group, while Akkermansia muciniphila was enriched in the most anti-inflammatory diet group. With adjustment for age and BMI, R. torques, E. nodatum and A. intestini remained significantly associated with a more pro-inflammatory diet. In the metagenomic and fasting blood subset, A. intestini was correlated with circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, a pro-inflammatory marker (rho = 0·40), but no associations remained significant upon correction for multiple testing. An index reflecting overall inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with specific microbes, but not overall diversity of the gut microbiome in our study. Findings from this preliminary study warrant further research in larger samples and prospective cohorts.
Introduction: It is believed by some that emergency physicians prescribe more opioids than required to manage patients’ pain, and this may contribute to opioid misuse. The objective of our study was to assess if there has been a change in opioid prescribing practices by emergency physicians over time for undifferentiated abdominal pain. Methods: A medical record review for adult patients presenting at two urban academic tertiary care emergency departments was conducted for two distinct time periods; the years of 2012 and 2017. The first 500 patients within each time period with a discharge diagnosis of “abdominal pain” or “abdominal pain not yet diagnosed” were included. Data were collected regarding analgesia received in the emergency department and opioid prescriptions written. Opioids were standardized into morphine equivalent doses to compare quantities of opioids prescribed. Analyses included t-test for continuous and chi-square for categorical data. Results: 1,000 patients were included in our study. The mean age was 42.0 years and 69.6% of patients were female. Comparing 2017 to 2012, there was a non-significant decrease in opioid prescriptions written for patients discharged directly by emergency physicians, from 17.8% to 14.4% (p = 0.14). Mean opioid quantities per prescription decreased from 130.4 milligrams of morphine equivalents per prescription to 98.9 milligrams per prescription (p = 0.002). 13.9% of opioid prescriptions in 2017 were for more than 3 days, which is a decrease from 28.1% in 2012. During the emergency department care, there was an increase in foundational analgesia use prior to initiating opioids from 17.6% to 26.8% (p = 0.001). There was also a decrease for within ED opioid analgesia use from 40.0% to 32.8% (p = 0.018). Conclusion: Opioid prescription rates did not change significantly during our study. However, physicians reduced the quantity of opioids per prescription and used less opioid analgesia in the emergency department for abdominal pain of undetermined etiology.
An increasing number of studies have described the relationship between celiac disease and schizophrenia. Based on the reported correlations and the overlapping linkage regions on 19p13, the myosin IXB gene (MYO9B) can be considered a highly relevant positional and functional candidate gene for schizophrenia. The present work was undertaken to investigate the association of the MYO9B gene with schizophrenia in a Chinese population.
A total of 329 patients with schizophrenia and 350 healthy control subjects in a Chinese population were recruited. A PCR-based RFLP protocol was applied to genotype 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs7249490, rs7256689, rs2279007, rs8113494, rs2305767, rs1545620 and rs2305764, in the MYO9B gene to investigate their association with schizophrenia.
The X2 goodness-of-fit test showed that the genotypic distributions of all 7 SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both the patient group and the control group. Disease association was shown for rs8113494 (X2=12.77, P=0.0003, OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.33-2.68) and rs1545620 (X2=15.44, P=8.379e-5, OR=1.65, 95% CI 1.29-2.12), while rs2279007 was associated with schizophrenia in the female subjects (X2=4.637, P=0.031, OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.97) but not in the male subjects (X2=1.082, P=0.299, OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.63-1.15).
The present work shows that the polymorphisms of the MYO9B gene are likely to confer susceptibility to schizophrenia. Because the MYO9B gene has been found to be highly expressed in the tight junction gate, it could be considered as a meeting point for the interaction between environmental and genetic factors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
A growing body of evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity is involved in addictive behaviour and nicotine dependence (ND). Neurotrophic factors, such as neurotrophin 3 (NT3) play a key role in modulating neuronal plasticity. Therefore, an association between nicotine, smoking and neurotrophic factors has been suggested. However, the role of NT3 in ND has not been thoroughly investigated in humans so far.
We investigated the influence of chronic (long-term smoking) and acute nicotine administration on the plasma level of NT3. We measured plasma NT3 levels at baseline and then 15 and 45 minutes after nicotine or placebo administration using an enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent-assay (ELISA). Smokers showed higher NT3 level than non-smokers at baseline. Interestingly, 15 minutes after acute nicotine injection, plasma level of NT3 in both smokers and non-smokers decreased significantly and went back to baseline levels after 30 minutes. We found that plasma nicotine and NT3 levels were positively correlated in smokers at baseline.
There is a direct interaction of nicotine with NT3, which is different in acute and chronic exposure. Interestingly, the concentration of NT3 is correlated and up-regulated in smokers. We propose that neuroplasticity, which plays a role in addictive behaviour such as smoking or nicotine dependence (ND) might be mediated by these interactions of nicotine and NT3. We speculate that these might even play a part in the so called “self-medicating” with cigarettes that is often seen in patients with certain mental disorders.
In this study, a PstI polymorphic site with two individual alleles, namely A1 and A2, was identified within the boundary between intron 1 and exon 2 of the cholecystokinin (CCK) type A receptor gene. The PstI polymorphic site was used as a genetic marker to study its association with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. A significant difference in allelic frequency was found between schizophrenic patients with and without auditory hallucinations (χ2 = 6.26, df = 1, P = 0.012), and the odds ratio for the allelic association was 2.21 (95% CI 1.18–4.15) with an attributable fraction of 0.1. The frequency of A1-A1 and A1-A2 genotypes showed a significant excess in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations as compared to those without such symptoms (χ2 = 5.45, df = 1, P = 0.02), and the odds ratio for the genotypic association was 2.27 (95% CI 1.13–4.57) with an attributable fraction of 0.177. The haplotype-based haplotype relative risk (HHRR) test revealed a significant difference between transmitted and non-transmitted alleles in nuclear families of schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations (χ2 = 4.54, df = 1,P = 0.033) but not in those of schizophrenic patients without them. The present study suggests that the CCK-A receptor gene may be associated with auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.
The present study was designed to detect three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on 22q11 that was thought as being of particularly importance for genetic research into schizophrenia. We recruited a total of 176 Chinese family trios of Han descent, consisting of mothers, fathers and affected offspring with schizophrenia for the genetic analysis. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) showed that of three SNPs, rs10314 in the 3′-untranslated region of the CLDN5 locus was associated with schizophrenia (χ2 = 4.75, P = 0.029). The other two SNPs, rs1548359 present in the CDC45L locus centromeric of rs10314 and rs739371 in the 5′-flanking region of the CLDN5 locus, did not show such an association. The global chi-square (χ2) test showed that the 3-SNP haplotype system was not associated with schizophrenia although the 1-df test for individual haplotypes showed that the rs1548359(C)-rs10314(G)-rs739371(C) haplotype was excessively non-transmitted (χ2 = 5.32, P = 0.02). Because the claudin proteins are a major component for barrier-forming tight junctions that could play a crucial role in response to changing natural, physiological and pathological conditions, the CLDN5 association with schizophrenia may be an important clue leading to look into a meeting point of genetic and environmental factors.
Two X-linked microsatellites, (AC)n repeats at the monoamine oxidase (MAO) A locus and (TG)n repeats at the MAO-B locus, were typed by using a PCR-based procedure in 89 nuclear families consisting of mothers, fathers and female affected offspring with schizophrenia or mothers and male affected offspring. A haplotype-based haplotype relative risk (HHRR) approach was applied to detect allelic association of these two microsatellites with schizophrenia. In the families of male patients, a significant difference in frequency distribution was found between transmitted and non-transmitted (TG)n repeats (χ2 = 15.13, df = 6, P = 0.019), and Fisher's exact test showed that allelic frequency of the transmitted (TG)24 was significantly higher than that of the non-transmitted (TG)24 (Fisher's P = 0.003). However, no significant differences in frequency distribution between mother- or father-transmitted and non-transmitted (TG)n repeats were found in the families of female patients. No significant differences in frequency distribution were found between transmitted and non-transmitted (AC)n repeats in the families of either male patients or female patients. The present study suggests that the MAO-B gene may be associated with schizophrenia, and the underlying genetic mechanism of schizophrenia may differ between male and female schizophrenic individuals.
An increasing number of studies have described the relationship between velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) and schizophrenia. in a family-based study, we found that rs10314, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) present in the 3’-flanking region of the CLDN5 gene, was associated with schizophrenia among a Chinese population. High false positive rate is a common problem with the association study of human diseases. It is very important to replicate an initial finding with different samples and experimental designs.
A total of 749 patients with schizophrenia and 383 age and sex matched healthy control subjects in Chinese population were recruited. PCR-based RFLP protocol was applied to genotype rs10314 to see its disease association.
The χ2 goodness-of-fit test showed that the genotypic distributions of rs10314 were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both the patient group (χ2=1.12, P=0.289) and the control group (χ2=0.22, P=0.639). rs10314 was associated with schizophrenia with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.32 in the male subjects (χ2=5.45, P=0.02, 95% CI 1.05-1.67) but not in the female subjects (χ2=0.64, P=0.425, OR=1.14, 95% CI 0.83-1.57). the χ2 test showed a genotypic association only for combined samples (χ2=7.80, df=2, P=0.02). SNP rs10314 is a G to C base change. Frequency of the genotypes containing the C allele was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group.
The present work shows that the CLDN5 gene polymorphism is more likely to be involved in schizophrenic men than women, suggesting that this gene may contribute to the gender differences in schizophrenia.
Prion diseases, or Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with a conformational transformation of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) into a self-feplicating and proteinase K (PK)-resistant conformer, scrapie PrP (PrPSc). Aggregates of PrPSc around neurons lead to neuropathologyical change including neuronal loss, astrogliosis, spongiform degeneration and deposition of amyloid plaques. Currently no effective treatment for prion disease exists. The development of novel therapeutic strategies against prion diseases has become a priority. Several reports have demonstrated that passive and active immune-based therapy can significantly prolong the incubation period of prionoses in vivo, and also some anti-PrP monoclonal can prevent PrP peptide toxicity in vitro. In this study, we have first time identified and purified anti-PrP antibodies from human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) by using PrP peptide affinity chromatography column. The ratio of anti-PrP antibody and IVIG is about 1:1200. In vitro study indicates these anti-PrP antibodies strongly block PrP A117V peptide fibril formation and disrupt formation of fibrillar structures. Furthermore, these antibodies almost completely prevented neurotoxicity of PrP A117V peptide in cultured rat cerebellar granule neuron cultures (CGN). In contrast, immunoglobulins depleted of anti-PrP antibodies had little effect on PrP fibril formation or protection of neuronal cells. Our study suggests that human anti-PrP antibodies may interfere with the pathogenesis of prion disease and these purified antibodies may be a potential therapeutic agent to prevent or slow prion disease progression.
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) suggested that the genes coding for human leukocyte antigens (HLA) were associated with schizophrenia, of which the DRB1*0301, DQA1*0501 and DQB1*0201 variants were strongly associated with a low risk of the illness although the disease-causing variant remains unknown. Haplotype analysis suggested that the haplotypes contraining a HLA-DRB1*13 variant were excessively transmitted by parents to their offspring with schizophrenia in a Chinese population. Accordingly, this study was designed to genotype three HLA-DRB1*13 variants using six HLA-tagging SNPs in a British population to confirm which one of these 3 variants could contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia. Because of the failure of genotyping rs6905141, the DRB1*1302 association was not analysed. While the DRB1*1301 and DRB1*1303 variants were not associated with the disease, the minor allele of rs424232 was used to construct the haplotype tagging to the DRB1*1303 variant showed a strong association with a low risk of schizophrenia (p = 0.002), suggesting that the major allele of rs424232 may be in linkage disequilibrium with a disease-underlying vatriant. In conclusion, the HLA-DRB1*13 variants are unlikely to be involved in the development of schizophrenia but there may be a variant nearby which is involved.
In this study, we aimed to identify protein molecules in the hypothalamus in the female rats injected exogenous androgen before sexual differentiation.
Neonatal female SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group and control female group. Four neonatal male SD rats were control male group. All animals were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of testosterone propionate as experimental group or aseptic oil as control. The rats were sacrificed 90 days after the injection and the brains were collected. 2-DE were performed in order to establish profiles of proteome from rat hypothalamus and followed by MALDITOF- TOF mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins differentially expressed in rat hypothalamus from experimental group as compared to normal control group.
11 differential spots were cut off from the Silver stained gel, and 9 of the spots were identified, which were Dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 (DPYSL3), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K(hnRNP K), Profilin2, Triosephosphate isomerase 1(Tpi 1), Carbonic anhydrase II(CA II), Annexin A3, Protein disulfide isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3), Creatine kinase-B and Secernin 1.
The results of the present study indicate that the development of sexual differentiation may be associated with the alteration in the expression of a large number of cytosolic proteins in the hypothalamus.
Clozapine is a second generation antipsychotic drug that is often used for treatment of schizophrenia. Although clozapine does not produce extrapyramidal side effects, it is well documented that it often causes a substantial increase in body weight among the patients who have received the treatment. This is a major issue in antipsychotic medication of schizophrenia as obesity is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. The molecular mechanism that underlies this off-targeting effect has been poorly understood, but we hypothesize that the genes involved in obesity may play a role in developing clozapine-induced obesity. In this study, accordingly, we applied a human cell line (U937 cells) with quantitative PCR analysis to examine the effect of clozapine on the expression of obesity genes that were identified by genome-wide association study (GWAS). Our results revealed that expression of the neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1) gene was significantly higher in U937 cells treated with clozapine concentrations of 0.5 μg/ml (P = 0.0165) and 1.0 μg/ml (P = 0.021), respectively, as compared with that in the vehicle-treated cells. This initial finding suggests that NEGR1 may be a target of clozapine, leading to the development of drug-induced obesity. The NEGR1 gene will be further investigated to determine its association with schizophrenia and to clarify what mechanism may be involved in its expression.
The only generally accepted treatment of coeliac disease (CD) is a lifelong gluten-free diet. Wheat gluten proteins include gliadins, low and high molecular weight glutenins. However, we have found significant structural variations within these protein families among different cultivars. To determine which structural motifs might be less toxic than others, we assessed five variants of α-gliadin immunodominant CD-toxic peptides synthesised as 16mers in CD T cell stimulation assays with gluten-sensitive T cell lines generated from duodenal biopsies from CD-affected individuals. The peptides harboured the overlapping T cell epitopes DQ 2.5-glia-α-2 and naturally occurring variants that differed in certain amino acids (AA). The results revealed that introduction of two selected AA substitutions in α-gliadin peptides reduced immunogenicity. A peptide with three AA substitutions involving two glutamic acids (E) and one glutamine residue (G) revealed the peptide was negative in 5:5 samples. We used CD small-intestinal organ culture to assess CD toxicity that revealed two peptides with selected substitution of both glutamic acid (E) and proline (P) residues abrogated evidence of CD toxicity.
Diet modifies the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and inconclusive evidence suggests that yogurt may protect against CRC. We analysed the data collected from two separate colonoscopy-based case–control studies. The Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study (TCPS) and Johns Hopkins Biofilm Study included 5446 and 1061 participants, respectively, diagnosed with hyperplastic polyp (HP), sessile serrated polyp, adenomatous polyp (AP) or without any polyps. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to derive OR and 95 % CI to evaluate comparisons between cases and polyp-free controls and case–case comparisons between different polyp types. We evaluated the association between frequency of yogurt intake and probiotic use with the diagnosis of colorectal polyps. In the TCPS, daily yogurt intake v. no/rare intake was associated with decreased odds of HP (OR 0·54; 95 % CI 0·31, 0·95) and weekly yogurt intake was associated with decreased odds of AP among women (OR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·55, 0·98). In the Biofilm Study, both weekly yogurt intake and probiotic use were associated with a non-significant reduction in odds of overall AP (OR 0·75; 95 % CI 0·54, 1·04) and (OR 0·72; 95 % CI 0·49, 1·06) in comparison with no use, respectively. In summary, yogurt intake may be associated with decreased odds of HP and AP and probiotic use may be associated with decreased odds of AP. Further prospective studies are needed to verify these associations.
In New York City, a multi-disciplinary Mass Casualty Consultation team is proposed to support prioritization of patients for coordinated inter-facility transfer after a large-scale mass casualty event. This study examines factors that influence consultation team prioritization decisions.
As part of a multi-hospital functional exercise, 2 teams prioritized the same set of 69 patient profiles. Prioritization decisions were compared between teams. Agreement between teams was assessed based on patient profile demographics and injury severity. An investigator interviewed team leaders to determine reasons for discordant transfer decisions.
The 2 teams differed significantly in the total number of transfers recommended (49 vs 36; P = 0.003). However, there was substantial agreement when recommending transfer to burn centers, with 85.5% agreement and inter-rater reliability of 0.67 (confidence interval: 0.49–0.85). There was better agreement for patients with a higher acuity of injuries. Based on interviews, the most common reason for discordance was insider knowledge of the local community hospital and its capabilities.
A multi-disciplinary Mass Casualty Consultation team was able to rapidly prioritize patients for coordinated secondary transfer using limited clinical information. Training for consultation teams should emphasize guidelines for transfer based on existing services at sending and receiving hospitals, as knowledge of local community hospital capabilities influence physician decision-making.
Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for depression, anxiety and suicide. The estimated prevalence of these problems is essential to guide public health policy, but published results vary. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and suicide among Chinese MSM.
Systematic searches of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, CNKI and Wanfang databases with languages restricted to Chinese and English for studies published before 10 September 2019 on the prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts among Chinese MSM. Studies that were published in the peer-reviewed journals and used validated instruments to assess depression and anxiety were included. The characteristics of studies and the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts were independently extracted by authors. Random-effects modelling was used to estimate the pooled rates. Subgroup analysis and univariate meta-regression were conducted to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. This study followed the PRISMA and MOOSE.
Sixty-seven studies were included. Fifty-two studies reported the prevalence of depressive symptoms, with a combined sample of 37 376 people, of whom 12 887 [43.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 38.9–47.5] reported depressive symptoms. Twenty-seven studies reported the prevalence of anxiety symptoms, with a combined sample of 10 531 people, of whom 3187 (32.2%; 95% CI, 28.3–36.6) reported anxiety symptoms. Twenty-three studies reported the prevalence of suicidal ideation, with a combined sample of 15 034 people, of whom 3416 (21.2%; 95% CI, 18.3–24.5) had suicidal ideation. Nine studies reported the prevalence of suicide plans, with a combined sample of 5271 people, of whom 401 (6.2%; 95% CI, 3.9–8.6) had suicide plans. Finally, 19 studies reported the prevalence of suicide attempts, with a combined sample of 27 936 people, of whom 1829 (7.3%; 95% CI, 5.6–9.0) had attempted suicide.
The mental health of Chinese MSM is poor compared with the general population. Efforts are warranted to develop interventions to prevent and alleviate mental health problems among this vulnerable population.
Triptorelin (TRI), a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist allowing ovulation synchronization in pigs, is indispensable for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols. However, the effect of FTAI using TRI (FTAI-TRI) on the reproductive performance is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether FTAI-TRI affects reproductive performance of pigs, including pregnancy rate (PR), number of pigs born alive per litter (NBA), farrowing rate (FR) and total number of pigs born per litter (TNB). A total of 37 trials from 15 studies were extracted and analysed in Stata. A weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for NBA and TNB, and risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI was calculated for PR and FR. Pregnancy rate, TNB and NBA data were applied to a fixed-effect protocol, and FR data were applied to a random-effect protocol. We found that for weaned sows, the FTAI-TRI group had comparable reproductive performance to the artificial insemination (AI) following oestrus detection (EDAI) group. Fixed-time AI has many advantages, including the elimination of the need to heat-check twice daily, so that FTAI-TRI is a good substitute for EDAI. Subgroup analysis indicated that the optimal timing of triptorelin treatment was 96 h after weaning, which gave significant positive effects on PR (RR = 1.08, P = 0.000) and non-significant positive effects on TNB (WMD = 0.12, P = 0.452). Triptorelin at a dose of 100 μg showed better effects than 200 μg, with significant positive effects on PR (RR = 1.09, P = 0.005) and FR (RR = 1.06, P = 0.036). So a single dose of 100 μg was recommended. The optimal protocol was insemination at 24 h and again at 48 h after triptorelin administration if they remained in standing oestrus, and this provided a significantly higher NBA (WMD = 0.59, P = 0.013) that increased by 0.59. For gilts, the FTAI-TRI group showed decreased (not significant) PR (RR = 0.96, P = 0.127) and significantly decreased FR (RR = 0.93, P = 0.013), TNB (WMD = −0.85, P = 0.006) and NBA (WMD = −0.98, P = 0.000), which were inferior to those in the EDAI group. In conclusion, the effects of FTAI-TRI on the reproductive performance of pigs were parity-, treatment timing-, insemination timing-, and dosage-dependent. Fixed-time AI using triptorelin could effectively replace the EDAI protocol for sows, but not for gilts.