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Stress elicits adaptive responses from the brain, but it can also lead to maladaptive consequences. For example, stress can precipitate mental illness, including depression. Prolonged stress also causes damage to neurons in the hippocampus. Antidepressant drugs must be evaluated, not only for their ability to potentiate adaptive responses, but also to inhibit maladaptive consequences of stress. Ongoing research in our laboratory has compared the atypical tricyclic antidepressant, tianeptine, with the typical tricyclics, desipramine and imipramine, with respect to the effects of isolation and repeated restraint stress. Tianeptine and desipramine similarly attenuated isolation stress-induced increases in locus coeruleus and midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels and isolation-stress induced decreases in preproenkephalin mRNA levels in striatum and nucleus accumbens. However, tianeptine and imipramine differed in their effects in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus on 5HT2, and 5HT1A receptor levels but, surprisingly, produced similar effects on levels of the serotonin transporter labelled with [3H] paroxetine. Tianeptine also prevented stress-induced reductions in the length and number of branchpoints of dendrites of CA3 pyramidal neurons in hippocampus; comparison with effects of typical tricyclics are ongoing. Tianeptine also blocked effects of corticosterone treatment to reduce branching and length of CA3 dendrites. These actions of tianeptine may be due to interactions between 5HT and excitatory amino acids in the mossy fiber terminals on CA3 pyramidal neurons. Taken together, these results indicate that tianeptine has unique properties compared to some other antidepressant drugs, but shares in common with those drugs the ability to attenuate stress effects on tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression and on the serotonin transporter. It remains to be seen whether these actions are the basis of a common antidepressant action.
Stress-induced structural and cellular alterations in the hippocampus can contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. The reversal of these alterations may be a mechanism by which antidepressants achieve their therapeutic effect. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the effect of tianeptine on stress-induced structural changes and alterations in cerebral metabolites. To this end, psychosocially stressed male tree shrews were treated with tianeptine. A combination of in vivo and postmortem methods was used to evaluate the antidepressant treatment on the preservation of neuronal plasticity. It was found that all stress-induced effects were prevented by the administration of tianeptine. It is concluded that these findings provide experimental evidence for recent theories that impairment of neuronal viability and neuroplasticity might be important causal factors in mood disorders, suggesting tianeptine as a potential stimulator of neural resilience.
Recent studies have shown that it is important to understand the brain mechanism specifically by focusing on the common and unique functional connectivity in each disorder including depression.
To specify the biomarker of major depressive disorder (MDD), we applied the sparse machine learning algorithm to classify several types of affective disorders using the resting state fMRI data collected in multiple sites, and this study shows the results of depression as a part of those results.
The aim of this study is to understand some specific pattern of functional connectivity in MDD, which would support diagnosis of depression and development of focused and personalized treatments in the future.
The neuroimaging data from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 100) and healthy control adults (HC: n = 100) from multiple sites were used for the training dataset. A completely separate dataset (n = 16) was kept aside for testing. After all preprocessing of fMRI data, based on one hundred and forty anatomical region of interests (ROIs), 9730 functional connectivities during resting states were prepared as the input of the sparse machine-learning algorithm.
As results, 20 functional connectivities were selected with the classification performance of Accuracy: 83.0% (Sensitivity: 81.0%, Specificity: 85.0%). The test data, which was completely separate from the training data, showed the performance accuracy of 83.3%.
The selected functional connectivities based on the sparse machine learning algorithm included the brain regions which have been associated with depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Turbulent structures in stably stratified shear layers are studied with direct numerical simulation. Flow visualization confirms the existence of hairpin vortices and highly elongated structures with positive and negative velocity fluctuations, whose streamwise lengths divided by the layer thickness are
, respectively. The flow at the wavelength related to these structures makes a large contribution to turbulent kinetic energy. These structures become prominent in late time, but with small buoyancy Reynolds numbers indicating suppression of turbulent mixing. Active turbulent mixing associated with the hairpin vortices, however, does occur. The structures and the vertical profile of the integral shear parameter show connections between stable stratified shear layers and wall-bounded shear flows.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
To characterise the dissemination patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in a community, we conducted a study utilising molecular and fundamental descriptive epidemiology. The subjects, consisted of women having community-acquired acute urinary tract infection (UTI), were enrolled in the study from 2011 to 2012. UPEC isolates were subjected to antibacterial-susceptibility testing, O serogrouping, phylotyping, multilocus-sequence typing with phylogenetic-tree analysis and pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From the 209 unique positive urinary samples 166 UPEC were isolated, of which 129 were fully susceptible to the tested antibiotics. Of the 53 sequence types (STs), the four most prevalent STs (ST95, ST131, ST73 and ST357) accounted for 60% of all UPEC strains. Antimicrobial resistance was less frequently observed for ST95 and ST73 than for the others. A majority of rare STs and a few common STs constituted the diversity pattern within the population structure, which was composed of the two phylogenetically distinct clades. Eleven genetically closely related groups were determined by PFGE, which accounted for 42 of the 166 UPEC isolates, without overt geo-temporal clustering. Our results indicate that a few major lineages of UPEC, selected by unidentified factors, are disseminated in this community and contribute to a large fraction of acute UTIs.
Hyperbolic polariton modes are highly appealing for a broad range of applications in nanophotonics, including surfaced enhanced sensing, sub-diffractional imaging, and reconfigurable metasurfaces. Here we show that attenuated total reflectance (ATR) micro-spectroscopy using standard spectroscopic tools can launch hyperbolic polaritons in a Kretschmann–Raether configuration. We measure multiple hyperbolic and dielectric modes within the naturally hyperbolic material hexagonal boron nitride as a function of different isotopic enrichments and flake thickness. This overcomes the technical challenges of measurement approaches based on nanostructuring, or scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy. Ultimately, our ATR approach allows us to compare the optical properties of small-scale materials prepared by different techniques systematically.
Localized turbulence bounded by non-turbulent flow in a uniformly stratified environment is studied with direct numerical simulations of stably stratified shear layers. Of particular interest is the turbulent/non-turbulent interfacial (TNTI) layer, which is detected by identifying the turbulent region in terms of its potential vorticity. Fluid near the outer edge of the turbulent region gains potential vorticity and becomes turbulent by diffusion arising from both viscous and molecular effects. The flow properties near the TNTI layer change depending on the buoyancy Reynolds number near the interface,
. The TNTI layer thickness is approximately 13 times the Kolmogorov length scale for large
), consistent with non-stratified flows, whereas it is almost equal to the vertical length scale of the stratified flow,
is the horizontal length scale near the TNTI layer, and
is the Reynolds number), in the low-
). Turbulent fluid is vertically transported towards the TNTI layer when
is large, sustaining the thin TNTI layer with large buoyancy frequency and mean shear. This sharpening effect is weakened as
decreases and eventually becomes negligible for very low
. Overturning motions occur near the TNTI layer for large
. The dependence on buoyancy Reynolds number is related to the value of
near the TNTI layer, which is smaller than the value deep inside the turbulent core region. An imprint of the internal gravity waves propagating in the non-turbulent region is found for vorticity within the TNTI layer, inferring an interaction between turbulence and internal gravity waves. The wave energy flux causes a net loss of the kinetic energy in the turbulent core region bounded to the TNTI layer, and the amount of kinetic energy extracted from the turbulent region by internal gravity waves is comparable to the amount dissipated in the turbulent region.
An outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in multiple prefectures of Japan in November 2009. We conducted two case–control studies with trace-back and trace-forward investigations to determine the source. The case definition was met by 21 individuals; 14 (66.7%) were hospitalised, but no haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute encephalopathy or deaths occurred. Median age was 23 (range 12–48) years and 14 cases were male (66.7%). No significant associations with food were found in a case–control study by local public health centres, but our matched case–control study using Internet surveys found that beef hanging tender (or hanger steak), derived from the diaphragm of the cattle, was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio = 15.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.00–124.11). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates from patients and the suspected food showed five different patterns: two in faecal and food samples, and another three in patient faecal samples only, although there were epidemiological links to the meat consumed at the restaurants. Trace-back investigation implicated a common food processing company from outside Japan. Examination of the logistics of the meat processing company suggested that contamination did not occur in Japan. We concluded that the source of the outbreak was imported hanging tender. This investigation revealed that Internet surveys could be useful for outbreak investigations.
Recently, many superflares on solar-type stars were discovered as white-light flares (WLFs). A correlation between the energies (E) and durations (t) of superflares is derived as t∝E0.39, and this can be theoretically explained by magnetic reconnection (t∝E1/3). In this study, we carried out a statistical research on 50 solar WLFs with SDO/HMI to examine the t-E relation. As a result, the t-E relation on solar WLFs (t∝E0.38) is quite similar stellar superflares, but the durations of stellar superflares are much shorter than those extrapolated from solar WLFs. We present the following two interpretations; (1) in solar flares, the cooling timescale of WL emission may be longer than the reconnection one, and the decay time can be determined by the cooling timescale; (2) the distribution can be understood by applying a scaling law t∝E1/3B−5/3 derived from the magnetic reconnection theory.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
The influence of baseline severity has been examined for antidepressant
medications but has not been studied properly for cognitive–behavioural
therapy (CBT) in comparison with pill placebo.
To synthesise evidence regarding the influence of initial severity on
efficacy of CBT from all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which
CBT, in face-to-face individual or group format, was compared with
pill-placebo control in adults with major depression.
A systematic review and an individual-participant data meta-analysis
using mixed models that included trial effects as random effects. We used
multiple imputation to handle missing data.
We identified five RCTs, and we were given access to individual-level
data (n = 509) for all five. The analyses revealed that
the difference in changes in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression between
CBT and pill placebo was not influenced by baseline severity (interaction
P = 0.43). Removing the non-significant interaction
term from the model, the difference between CBT and pill placebo was a
standardised mean difference of –0.22 (95% CI –0.42 to –0.02,
P = 0.03, I2 = 0%).
Patients suffering from major depression can expect as much benefit from
CBT across the wide range of baseline severity. This finding can help
inform individualised treatment decisions by patients and their
This study determined the occurrence of legionellae in private houses for which there were no available data on aquatic environments other than the water supply system. From June 2013 to November 2014, we collected 138 water and 90 swab samples from aquatic environments in 19 houses. Legionella DNA was detected via a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay in 66 (47·8%) water and 17 (18·9%) swab samples. High Legionella DNA detection rates were observed in water samples from washing machines and aquariums. Legionella spp. was isolated from 9 (6·5%) water and 3 (3·3%) swab samples. Legionella pneumophila SG 1 was detected from the outlet water of a bathtub spout and a bath sponge. Use of amoebic co-culture effectively increased legionellae and Legionella DNA detection rates from all sample types. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the heterotrophic plate count was significantly related to Legionella contamination. Our findings indicate that there is a risk of legionellosis from exposure to Legionella spp. in a variety of aquatic environments in residential houses. Control measures for legionellae in houses should include frequent cleaning and disinfecting to reduce heterotrophic bacteria in water and, where possible, preventing aerosolization from aquatic environments.
We report on a study, employing direct numerical simulations, of the turbulent/non-turbulent interface of a wake in a stably stratified fluid. It is found that thresholds for both enstrophy and potential enstrophy are needed to identify the interface. Using conditional averaging relative to the location of the interface, various quantities of interest are examined. The thickness of the interface is found to scale with the Kolmogorov scale. From an examination of the Ozmidov and Kolmogorov length scales as well as the buoyancy Reynolds number, it is found that the buoyancy Reynolds number decreases and becomes of order 1 near the interface, indicating the suppression of the turbulence there by the stable stratification. Finally the overall rate of loss of energy due to internal wave radiation is found to be comparable to the overall rate of loss due to turbulent kinetic energy dissipation.
Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) through-focus imaging (TFI) has been used to determine the three-dimensional atomic structure of Bi segregation-induced brittle Cu grain boundaries (GBs). With TFI, it is possible to observe single Bi atom distributions along Cu  twist GBs using an aberration-corrected STEM operating at 200 kV. The depth resolution is ~5 nm. Specimens with GBs intentionally inclined with respect to the microscope’s optic axis were used to investigate Bi segregant atom distributions along and through the Cu GB. It was found that Bi atoms exist at most once per Cu unit cell along the GB, meaning that no continuous GB film is present. Therefore, the reduced fracture toughness of this particular Bi-doped Cu boundary would not be caused by fracture of Bi–Bi bonds.
When and where marine eels spawn is poorly known even though species such as those of the family Congridae, Muraenidae and Ophichthidae can be caught in continental shelf habitats. The congrid genus Ariosoma includes small continental shelf eel species whose life histories are not yet known. Mature male and female eels of Ariosoma meeki were observed and captured on 17 August 2009 at the surface at night in the western side of the Kuroshio Current in the East China Sea close to new moon, while they were swimming slowly at the surface and exhibiting apparent reproduction-related behaviour. One male and one sex-unidentified eel (seemingly a male based on body shape) were observed to be chasing one larger female with their heads located near her urogenital pore area. The gonads of the female (540 mm) and the male (410 mm) that were caught by a long-handled dip net were in reproductive condition, because some eggs or seminal fluid were released during handling of the two specimens and high gonad-somatic index (GSI) values of 53 in the female and 20 in the male were recorded. This is one of the few cases in which fully ripe reproductive-condition marine eels have been observed or collected and it provides rare information about the spawning location and timing of this eel species.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
Commission 22 (Meteors, Meteorites and Interplanetary Dust) was established at the first IAU General Assembly held in Rome in 1922, with William Frederick Denning as its first President. Denning was an accountant by profession, but as an amateur astronomer he contributed extensively to meteor science. Commission 22 thus established a pattern that has continued to this day that non-professional astronomers were welcomed and valued and could play a significant role in its affairs. The field of meteors, meteorites and interplanetary dust has played a disproportional role in the astronomical perception of the general public through the majestic displays of our annual meteor showers. Those in the field deployed many techniques uncommon in other fields of astronomy, studying the “vermin of space”, the small solid bodies that pervade interplanetary space and impact Earth's atmosphere, the surface of the Moon, and that of our satellites in orbit. Over time, the field has tackled a wide array of problems, from predicting the encounter with meteoroid streams, to the origin of our meteorites and the nature of the zodiacal cloud. Commission 22 has played an important role in organizing the field through dedicated meetings, a data centre, and working groups that developed professional-amateur relationships and that organized the nomenclature of meteor showers. The contribution of Commission 22 to the field is perhaps most readily seen in the work of the presidents that followed in the footsteps of Denning.