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This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
We describe the investigation of two temporally coincident illness clusters involving salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in two states. Cases were defined as gastrointestinal illness following two meal events. Investigators interviewed ill persons. Stool, food and environmental samples underwent pathogen testing. Alabama: Eighty cases were identified. Median time from meal to illness was 5·8 h. Salmonella Heidelberg was identified from 27 of 28 stool specimens tested, and coagulase-positive S. aureus was isolated from three of 16 ill persons. Environmental investigation indicated that food handling deficiencies occurred. Colorado: Seven cases were identified. Median time from meal to illness was 4·5 h. Five persons were hospitalised, four of whom were admitted to the intensive care unit. Salmonella Heidelberg was identified in six of seven stool specimens and coagulase-positive S. aureus in three of six tested. No single food item was implicated in either outbreak. These two outbreaks were linked to infection with Salmonella Heidelberg, but additional factors, such as dual aetiology that included S. aureus or the dose of salmonella ingested may have contributed to the short incubation periods and high illness severity. The outbreaks underscore the importance of measures to prevent foodborne illness through appropriate washing, handling, preparation and storage of food.
Satellite altimetric time series allow high-precision monitoring of ice-sheet mass balance. Understanding elevation changes in these regions is important because outlet glaciers along ice-sheet margins are critical in controlling flow of inland ice. Here we discuss a new airborne altimetry dataset collected as part of the ICECAP (International Collaborative Exploration of the Cryosphere by Airborne Profiling) project over East Antarctica. Using the ALAMO (Airborne Laser Altimeter with Mapping Optics) system of a scanning photon-counting lidar combined with a laser altimeter, we extend the 2003–09 surface elevation record of NASA’s ICESat satellite, by determining cross-track slope and thus independently correcting for ICESat’s cross-track pointing errors. In areas of high slope, cross-track errors result in measured elevation change that combines surface slope and the actual Δz/Δt signal. Slope corrections are particularly important in coastal ice streams, which often exhibit both rapidly changing elevations and high surface slopes. As a test case (assuming that surface slopes do not change significantly) we observe a lack of ice dynamic change at Cook Ice Shelf, while significant thinning occurred at Totten and Denman Glaciers during 2003–09.
Radiocarbon dating and carbon isotope analyses of deep peat and gases in a small ombrogenous peatland in northwestern Ontario reveals the presence of old gases at depth that are 1000–2000 yr younger than the enclosing peat. We suggest that the most likely explanation to account for this age discrepancy is the downward movement by advection of younger dissolved organic carbon for use by fermentation and methanogens bacteria. This study identifies a potentially large supply of old carbon gases in peatlands that should be considered in global carbon models of the terrestrial biosphere.
We report the direct detection of cyclic diameter variations in the Mira variable χ Cygni. Interferometric observations made between 1997 July and 1998 September, using the Cambridge Optical Aperture Synthesis Telescope (COAST) indicate periodic changes in the apparent angular diameter with amplitude 45 per-cent of the smallest value.
The measurements were made in a 50 nm bandpass centred on 905 nm, which is only moderately contaminated by molecular absorption features. To assess the effects of atmospheric stratification on the apparent diameter measured in this band, we have also measured near-infrared diameters for a sample of five Miras, in both the J-band (1.3 μm) and Wing's (1971) 1.04 μm band, which is expected to isolate essentially pure continuum emission. We present J-band visibility curves which indicate that the intensity profiles of the stars in the sample differ greatly from each other.
Research on close binary systems has continued at a high level during the past triennium, although the rate of growth is noticeably slower – probably reflecting the cutbacks in funds to which many of us are subject. There have also been changes of emphasis within the field, which are commented on in the pages that follow. These reflect both changing opportunities for observation and the natural development of the subject. In many areas, the time is ripe for a more critical look at ideas that previously seemed adequate.
The field of variable star research has become so broad and the amount of research to be reported on has grown so rapidly that it is a vain hope that a report of this kind, in a very limited space, could cover the whole field of research and could mention all the papers that have been published in the last three years. It is only hoped that this report presents the significant results achieved in the field of the most important aspects of variable star research. Some important subjects (e.g. cataclysmic variables) relevant to the variable star research are reviewed in the reports of other commissions. This is a consequence of the fact that the research has become very complex and the phenomena producing light variability belong to the field of interest of other commissions, too.
The field of variable-star research is so broad that no report of this nature could possibly mention all the papers that have appeared in the last three years. It is hoped, however, that the reviews below include the most important work and identify the most significant trends. This report comprises ten sections on as many different research topics, each written by a different member of Commission 27. In addition there are (in Section 12) three short reports about ongoing activities of the commission. The commission president is very grateful to the authors of the individual contributions who have worked so conscientously.
We present optical and IR observations of the dwarf nova OY Car during the May 1985 superoutburst. From them we find that the superhump has a temperature of ~8000K and an area of order half the size of the red dwarf or accretion disk. We also compare the behaviour during two simultaneous optical/IR observations. Whilst the light curves in the two pass bands are similar during one observation, in the other observation they show marked differences that may be due to a cool region in the outer disk.
Global VLBI snapshot observations at 1.6 GHz (5 EVN + 4 VLBA) of a sample of low-frequency variable (LFV) radio sources found using the Cambridge Low Frequency Synthesis Telescope (CLFST) are presented. Variability at 151 MHz is almost certainly due to propagation effects in our Galaxy (e.g., refractive interstellar scintillation). Theory indicates that only sources with a significant fraction of their low-frequency flux coming from components with angular sizes ≲ 30 mas will show such effects. This is confirmed by the VLBI images.
We report the analysis of 154 hours of nearly continuous high-speed photometric data on the pulsating DB white dwarf (DBV) GD 358 obtained during the Whole Earth Telescope (WET) run of May 1990. The Fourier transform (FT) of the light curve is dominated by power in the range from 1200 – 1700μHz with more than 180 significant peaks in the total transform. We also see significant power at the sums and differences of the dominant frequencies, indicating the importance of nonlinear behavior. We can use this data to obtain an accurate total stellar mass, and surface He layer mass. The implied surface He layer mass, if correct, provides a significant and surprising challenge to stellar evolution theory, as well as the theory of chemical mixing.
White dwarf stars provide important boundary conditions for the understanding of stellar evolution. An adequate understanding of even these simple stars is impossible without detailed knowledge of their interiors. PG1346+082, an interacting binary white dwarf system, provides a unique opportunity to view the interior of one degenerate as it is brought to light in the accretion disk of the second star as the primary strips material from its less massive companion (see Wood et at. 1987).
PG1346+082 is a photometric variable with a four magnitude variation over a four to five day quasi-period. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the light curve shows a complex, time-dependent structure of harmonics. PG1346+082 exhibits flickering – the signature of mass transfer. The optical spectra of the system contain weak emission features during minimum and broad absorption at all other times. This could be attributed to pressure broadening in the atmosphere of a compact object, or to a combination of pressure broadening and doppler broadening in a disk surrounding the compact accretor. No hydrogen lines are observed and the spectra are dominated by neutral helium. The spectra also display variable asymmetric line profiles.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a predominant immunoglobulin present in human breast milk and is known to play an important role in infant gut immunity maturation. Breast milk composition varies between populations, but the environmental and maternal factors responsible for these variations are still unclear. We examined the relationship between different exposures and levels of IgA in colostrum. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposures analysed influence levels of IgA in colostrum. The present study used 294 colostrum samples from the MecMilk International cohort, collected from women residing in London, Moscow and Verona. Samples were analysed in automated Abbott Architect Analyser. We found an inverse correlation between time postpartum and colostrum total IgA level (r=−0.49, P<0.001). Adjusting for maternal parity, smoking, fresh fruit and fish consumption and allergen sensitization, multiple regression model showed that IgA levels were influenced by colostrum collection time (P<0.0001) and country of collection (P<0.01). Mode of delivery influence did not appear to be significant in univariate comparisons, once adjusted for the above maternal characteristics it showed a significant influence on total IgA (P=0.01). We conclude that the concentration of IgA in colostrum drops rapidly after birth and future studies should always consider this factor in analysis. IgA concentration varied significantly between countries, with the highest level detected in Moscow and lowest in Verona. Mode of delivery effect should be confirmed on larger cohorts. Further work is needed to determine ways to correct for IgA decline over time in colostrum, and to find the cause of variations in IgA levels between the countries.
Offenders with an intellectual disability pose a major challenge to Intellectual Disability Service providers in the Republic of Ireland. This is especially so as no national Forensic Intellectual Disability Service currently exists.
The Forensic Intellectual Disability Working Group of the Irish College of Psychiatrists was established in order to take steps to address this issue by establishing the level of need for a Forensic Intellectual Disability Service in Ireland and developing a college position paper.
No previous study has been carried out to measure offending behaviour amongst persons with an intellectual disability attending mental health services in Ireland.
A postal survey was undertaken targeting the lead clinicians of all Intellectual Disability Psychiatry, General Adult Psychiatry and Forensic Psychiatry Services in the Republic of Ireland. This survey requested anonymous data regarding service users with an intellectual disability and offending behaviour in this population.
Data relating to 431 service users was returned. Those reported to engage in offending behaviour were predominantly young males. Assault was the most common offence type. A significant number of serious offences such as unlawful killing, sexual assault and arson were reported.
There is an urgent need for the development of a Forensic Intellectual Disability Service in the Republic of Ireland. The current efforts of the National Forensic Mental Health Service to establish such a service by the creation of a post of Consultant Forensic Psychiatrist (special interest in intellectual disability) are to be welcomed.