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The second year of life is a period of nutritional vulnerability. We aimed to investigate the dietary patterns and nutrient intakes from 1 to 2 years of age during the 12-month follow-up period of the Growing Up Milk – Lite (GUMLi) trial. The GUMLi trial was a multi-centre, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 160 healthy 1-year-old children in Auckland, New Zealand and Brisbane, Australia. Dietary intakes were collected at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-randomisation, using a validated FFQ. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis of the frequency of food item consumption per d. The effect of the intervention on dietary patterns and intake of eleven nutrients over the duration of the trial were investigated using random effects mixed models. A total of three dietary patterns were identified at baseline: ‘junk/snack foods’, ‘healthy/guideline foods’ and ‘breast milk/formula’. A significant group difference was observed in ‘breast milk/formula’ dietary pattern z scores at 12 months post-randomisation, where those in the GUMLi group loaded more positively on this pattern, suggesting more frequent consumption of breast milk. No difference was seen in the other two dietary patterns. Significant intervention effects were seen on nutrient intake between the GUMLi (intervention) and cows’ milk (control) groups, with lower protein and vitamin B12, and higher Fe, vitamin D, vitamin C and Zn intake in the GUMLi (intervention) group. The consumption of GUMLi did not affect dietary patterns, however, GUMLi participants had lower protein intake and higher Fe, vitamins D and C and Zn intake at 2 years of age.
The mouth may be presented and understood in different ways, be subject to judgement by others and, as we age, may intrude on everyday life due to problems that affect oral health. However, research that considers older people's experiences concerning their mouths and teeth is limited. This paper reports on qualitative research with 43 people in England and Scotland, aged 65–91, exploring the significance of the mouth over the lifecourse. It uses the concept of ‘mouth talk’ to explore narratives of maintaining, losing and replacing teeth. Participants engaged in ‘mouth talk’ to downplay the impact of the mouth, demonstrate socially appropriate ageing, and distance themselves from ‘real’ old age by retaining a moral identity and sense of self. They also found means to challenge dominant discourses of ageing in how they spoke about missing teeth. Referring to Leder's notion of ‘dys-appearance’ and Gilleard and Higgs’ work on the social imaginary of the fourth age, the study illustrates the ways in which ‘mouth talk’ can contribute to sustaining a sense of self in later life, presenting the ageing mouth, with and without teeth, as an absent presence. It also argues for the importance of listening to stories of the mouth in order to expand understanding of people's approaches to oral health in older age.
Miscible liquids often come into contact with one another in natural and technological situations, commonly as a drop of one liquid present in a second, miscible liquid. The shape of a liquid droplet present in a miscible environment evolves spontaneously in time, in a distinctly different fashion than drops present in immiscible environments, which have been reported previously. We consider drops of two classical types, pendant and sessile, in building upon our prior work with miscible systems. Here we present experimental findings of the shape evolution of pendant drops along with an expanded study of the spreading of sessile drops in miscible environments. We develop scalings considering the diffusion of mass to group volumetric data of the evolving pendant drops and the diffusion of momentum to group leading-edge radial data of the spreading sessile drops. These treatments are effective in obtaining single responses for the measurements of each type of droplet, where the volume of a pendant drop diminishes exponentially in time and the leading-edge radius of a sessile drop grows following a power law of
at long times. A complementary numerical approach to compute the concentration and velocity fields of these systems using a simplified set of governing equations is paired with our experimental findings.
The authors developed a practical and clinically useful model to predict the risk of psychosis that utilizes clinical characteristics empirically demonstrated to be strong predictors of conversion to psychosis in clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals. The model is based upon the Structured Interview for Psychosis Risk Syndromes (SIPS) and accompanying clinical interview, and yields scores indicating one's risk of conversion.
Baseline data, including demographic and clinical characteristics measured by the SIPS, were obtained on 199 CHR individuals seeking evaluation in the early detection and intervention for mental disorders program at the New York State Psychiatric Institute at Columbia University Medical Center. Each patient was followed for up to 2 years or until they developed a syndromal DSM-4 disorder. A LASSO logistic fitting procedure was used to construct a model for conversion specifically to a psychotic disorder.
At 2 years, 64 patients (32.2%) converted to a psychotic disorder. The top five variables with relatively large standardized effect sizes included SIPS subscales of visual perceptual abnormalities, dysphoric mood, unusual thought content, disorganized communication, and violent ideation. The concordance index (c-index) was 0.73, indicating a moderately strong ability to discriminate between converters and non-converters.
The prediction model performed well in classifying converters and non-converters and revealed SIPS measures that are relatively strong predictors of conversion, comparable with the risk calculator published by NAPLS (c-index = 0.71), but requiring only a structured clinical interview. Future work will seek to externally validate the model and enhance its performance with the incorporation of relevant biomarkers.
Evidence in support of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis has reached the level where it can appropriately be used to inform practice. DOHaD informed interventions supporting primary noncommunicable disease risk reduction should target the pre- and periconceptional periods, pregnancy, lactation, childhood and adolescence. Such interventions are dependent on a health workforce (including dietitians, nurses, midwives, doctors, and nutrition teachers), that has a deep understanding of DOHaD concepts. This study assessed development of awareness of DOHaD concepts during undergraduate health professional training programs. Using a cross-sectional design, a standardized questionnaire was completed by Year 1–4 undergraduate students studying nutrition in Japan (n=309) and Year 1–3 nursing students in New Zealand (n=151). On entry to undergraduate study, most students had no awareness of the terms ‘DOHaD’ or ‘First 1000 Days’. While awareness reached 60% by Year 3 in courses that included DOHaD-related teaching, this remains inadequate. More than 95% of Year 1 undergraduates in both countries demonstrated an appreciation of associations between maternal nutrition and fetal health. However, awareness of associations between parental health status and/or nutritional environment and later-life health was low. While levels of awareness increased across program years, overall awareness was less than optimal. These results indicate evidence of some focus on DOHaD-related content in curricula. We argue that DOHaD principles should be one pillar around which health training curricula are built. This study indicates a need for the DOHaD community to engage with faculties in curriculum development.
The current study advanced research on the link between community violence exposure and aggression by comparing the effects of violence exposure on different functions of aggression and by testing four potential (i.e., callous–unemotional traits, consideration of others, impulse control, and anxiety) mediators of this relationship. Analyses were conducted in an ethnically/racially diverse sample of 1,216 male first-time juvenile offenders (M = 15.30 years, SD = 1.29). Our results indicated that violence exposure had direct effects on both proactive and reactive aggression 18 months later. The predictive link of violence exposure to proactive aggression was no longer significant after controlling for proactive aggression at baseline and the overlap with reactive aggression. In contrast, violence exposure predicted later reactive aggression even after controlling for baseline reactive aggression and the overlap with proactive aggression. Mediation analyses of the association between violence exposure and reactive aggression indicated indirect effects through all potential mediators, but the strongest indirect effect was through impulse control. The findings help to advance knowledge on the consequences of community violence exposure on justice-involved youth.
Early detection of karyotype abnormalities, including aneuploidy, could aid producers in identifying animals which, for example, would not be suitable candidate parents. Genome-wide genetic marker data in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now being routinely generated on animals. The objective of the present study was to describe the statistics that could be generated from the allele intensity values from such SNP data to diagnose karyotype abnormalities; of particular interest was whether detection of aneuploidy was possible with both commonly used genotyping platforms in agricultural species, namely the Applied BiosystemsTM AxiomTM and the Illumina platform. The hypothesis was tested using a case study of a set of dizygotic X-chromosome monosomy 53,X sheep twins. Genome-wide SNP data were available from the Illumina platform (11 082 autosomal and 191 X-chromosome SNPs) on 1848 male and 8954 female sheep and available from the AxiomTM platform (11 128 autosomal and 68 X-chromosome SNPs) on 383 female sheep. Genotype allele intensity values, either as their original raw values or transformed to logarithm intensity ratio (LRR), were used to accurately diagnose two dizygotic (i.e. fraternal) twin 53,X sheep, both of which received their single X chromosome from their sire. This is the first reported case of 53,X dizygotic twins in any species. Relative to the X-chromosome SNP genotype mean allele intensity values of normal females, the mean allele intensity value of SNP genotypes on the X chromosome of the two females monosomic for the X chromosome was 7.45 to 12.4 standard deviations less, and were easily detectable using either the AxiomTM or Illumina genotype platform; the next lowest mean allele intensity value of a female was 4.71 or 3.3 standard deviations less than the population mean depending on the platform used. Both 53,X females could also be detected based on the genotype LRR although this was more easily detectable when comparing the mean LRR of the X chromosome of each female to the mean LRR of their respective autosomes. On autopsy, the ovaries of the two sheep were small for their age and evidence of prior ovulation was not appreciated. In both sheep, the density of primordial follicles in the ovarian cortex was lower than normally found in ovine ovaries and primary follicle development was not observed. Mammary gland development was very limited. Results substantiate previous studies in other species that aneuploidy can be readily detected using SNP genotype allele intensity values generally already available, and the approach proposed in the present study was agnostic to genotype platform.
Carbonatites are enriched in critical raw materials such as the rare-earth elements (REE), niobium, fluorspar and phosphate. A better understanding of their fluid regimes will improve our knowledge of how to target and exploit economic deposits. This study shows that multiple fluid phases penetrated the surrounding fenite aureole during carbonatite emplacement at Chilwa Island, Malawi. The first alkaline fluids formed the main fenite assemblage and later microscopic vein networks contain the minerals of potential economic interest such as pyrochlore in high-grade fenite and rare-earth minerals throughout the aureole. Seventeen samples of fenite rock from the metasomatic aureole around the Chilwa Island carbonatite complex were chosen for study. In addition to the main fenite assemblage of feldspar and aegirine ± arfvedsonite, riebeckite and richterite, the fenite contains micro-mineral assemblages including apatite, ilmenite, rutile, magnetite, zircon, rare-earth minerals and pyrochlore in vein networks. Petrography using a scanning electron microscope in energy-dispersive spectroscopy mode showed that the rare-earth minerals (monazite, bastnäsite and parisite) formed later than the fenite feldspar, aegirine and apatite and provide evidence of REE mobility into all grades of fenite. Fenite apatite has a distinct negative Eu anomaly (determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) that is rare in carbonatite-associated rocks and interpreted as related to pre-crystallization of plagioclase and co-crystallization with K-feldspar in the fenite. The fenite minerals have consistently higher mid REE/light REE ratios (La/Sm ≈ 1.3 monazite, ≈ 1.9 bastnäsite, ≈ 1.2 parisite) than their counterparts in the carbonatites (La/Sm ≈ 2.5 monazite, ≈ 4.2 bastnäsite, ≈ 3.4 parisite). Quartz in the low- and medium-grade fenite hosts fluid inclusions, typically a few micrometres in diameter, secondary and extremely heterogeneous. Single phase, 2- and 3-phase, single solid and multi solid-bearing examples are present, with 2-phase the most abundant. Calcite, nahcolite, burbankite and baryte were found in the inclusions. Decrepitation of inclusions occurred at ∼200°C before homogenization but melting-temperature data indicate that the inclusions contain relatively pure CO2. A minimum salinity of ∼24 wt.% NaCl equivalent was determined. Among the trace elements in whole-rock analyses, enrichment in Ba, Mo, Nb, Pb, Sr, Th and Y and depletion in Co, Hf and V are common to carbonatite and fenite but enrichment in carbonatitic type elements (Ba, Nb, Sr, Th, Yand REE) generally increases towards the inner parts of the aureole. A schematic model contains multiple fluid events, related to first and second boiling of the magma, accompanying intrusion of the carbonatites at Chilwa Island, each contributing to the mineralogy and chemistry of the fenite. The presence of distinct rare-earth mineral microassemblages in fenite at some distance from carbonatite could be developed as an exploration indicator of REE enrichment.
Recently much research has been carried out to enhance piglet survival by genetic improvement. Heritabilities of traits associated with piglet survival are generally low, but the genetic variation is large enough to provide improvement through breeding (Knol et al., 2002). However, correlations between some traits and/or between maternal and direct genetic effects have shown contradictory results, and not many studies have considered these effects. Reports of correlations between piglet survival traits and production traits are even fewer. The aim of this study was to estimate heritabilities of piglet survival traits and their genetic associations with other reproduction traits as well as production traits, using a Bayesian approach and appropriate models and genetic statistical procedures in order to obtain more accurate genetic parameters.
Inbreeding depression leads to the reduction of the mean phenotypic value. There has been a steady increase in inbreeding (F) in the UK since the introduction of reproductive techniques (AI, MOET). There has been an increase in the percent Holstein (%H) in the UK population due to the influx of North American Holstein genes. Crossing these Holsteins to British Friesians can result in the favourable effect of heterosis (het), whereby crossbred progeny out-perform the mid-parent mean for that trait. Of the heterosis in the F1 population, a proportion is lost due to recombination (rec) between parental line genes and is a measure of the epistatic interaction of genes. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of nonadditive genetic effects (F, het, rec, %H) on the estimation of dairy cow fertility breeding values in the UK.
Widespread international use of AI and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) breeding values for milk yield has increased genetic gain in many dairy populations, including the UK. The proliferation of few sires through AI and the coselection of relatives favoured by BLUP has however increased the relatedness and inbreeding of the UK population. Inbreeding is undesirable for a number of reasons and it is important to monitor the rate at which it accumulates. Currently, the level and rates of inbreeding (∆F) are not routinely reported for UK dairy cattle. Optimised selection procedures that maximise genetic gain while constraining ∆F to a pre-defined level have been shown to control ∆F and increase genetic gain over truncation selection at the same ∆F (e.g. Avendaño et al. 2003). The objective of this study was to determine the current rates of inbreeding and to assess the potential of using optimised selection procedures in the UK dairy population.
The anabolic potential of a dietary protein is determined by its ability to elicit postprandial rises in circulating essential amino acids and insulin. Minimal data exist regarding the bioavailability and insulinotropic effects of non-animal-derived protein sources. Mycoprotein is a sustainable and rich source of non-animal-derived dietary protein. We investigated the impact of mycoprotein ingestion, in a dose–response manner, on acute postprandial hyperaminoacidaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. In all, twelve healthy young men completed five experimental trials in a randomised, single-blind, cross-over design. During each trial, volunteers consumed a test drink containing either 20 g milk protein (MLK20) or a mass matched (not protein matched due to the fibre content) bolus of mycoprotein (20 g; MYC20), a protein matched bolus of mycoprotein (40 g; MYC40), 60 g (MYC60) or 80 g (MYC80) mycoprotein. Circulating amino acid, insulin and uric acid concentrations, and clinical chemistry profiles, were assessed in arterialised venous blood samples during a 4-h postprandial period. Mycoprotein ingestion resulted in slower but more sustained hyperinsulinaemia and hyperaminoacidaemia compared with milk when protein matched, with overall bioavailability equivalent between conditions (P>0·05). Increasing the dose of mycoprotein amplified these effects, with some evidence of a plateau at 60–80 g. Peak postprandial leucine concentrations were 201 (sem 24) (30 min), 118 (sem 10) (90 min), 150 (sem 14) (90 min), 173 (sem 23) (45 min) and 201 (sem 21 (90 min) µmol/l for MLK20, MYC20, MYC40, MYC60 and MYC80, respectively. Mycoprotein represents a bioavailable and insulinotropic dietary protein source. Consequently, mycoprotein may be a useful source of dietary protein to stimulate muscle protein synthesis rates.
The VLA has been used at 4.9 GHz to observe a small region of sky in order to extend the radio source count to low flux density (Fomalont et al., these proceedings) and to look for small scale fluctuations in the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background radiation.
In order to extend radio source counts to lower flux density, we have used the VLA to survey a small region of sky at 4.885 GHz (6 cm) to a limiting flux density of 50 μJy. Details of this deep survey are given in the paper by Kellermann et al. (these proceedings). In addition, we have observed 10 other nearby fields to a limiting flux density of 350 μJy in order to provide better statistics on sources of intermediate flux density.
The background of discrete extragalactic radio sources is described from the point of view of its simplest properties: surface density and surface distribution. New considerations, particularly with regard to the latter, open the possibility of detecting Universal structure on many angular scales. At the same time, these considerations imply the need for greater sophistication in the interpretation of source counts and of the microwave background (MWBG) fluctuations.
Climate change is a growing international concern, and it is well established that the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a contributing factor. So far, within animal production, there is little or no concerted effort on long-term breeding strategies to mitigate against GHG from ruminants. In recent years, several consortia have been formed to collect and combine data for genetic evaluation. The discussion areas of these consortia focus on (1) What are methane-determining factors, (2) What are genetic parameters for methane emissions, (3) What proxies can be used, and what is their association with methane emission, and (4) How to move on with breeding for lower emitting animals? The methane-determining factors can be divided into four groups: (1) rumen microbial population, (2) feed intake and diet composition, (3) host physiology and (4) host genetics. The genetic parameters show that enteric methane is a heritable trait, and that it is highly genetically correlated with dry matter intake. So far, the most useful proxies relate to feed intake, milk mid IR spectral data and fatty acids in the milk. To be able to move on with a genetic evaluation and ranking of animals for methane emission, it is crucial to make measurements on commercial farms. In order to make that possible, it will be necessary to develop phenotypes that can be used by the farmer to optimise the production on farm level. Also, it is crucial to develop equipment that makes it possible to make measurements without interfering with everyday routines or identify proxies that are highly related to methane and which could easily be measured on a large scale. International collaboration is essential to make progress in this area. This is both in terms of sharing ideas, experiences and phenotypes, but also in terms of coming to a consensus regarding what phenotype to collect and to select for.
The galaxy identified with the flat-spectrum radio source PKS 2005-489 has a bright stellar nucleus with V ⋍ 13 mag. Optical, UV and X-ray observations indicate variability and power-law continua in each of these wavebands, leading to the conclusion that PKS 2005-489 is one of the brightest BL Lac objects known.
Radio source counts at several wavelengths are shown and discussed in terms of evolving populations. The deepest counts now reach a surface density close to a million sources per steradian. At this level essentially all of the luminous radio galaxies and quasars appear to be included, and the weaker sources apparently reflect a relatively nearby population of less luminous radio sources.