Treated silica xerogels with controlled porosity and surface area were prepared by the in-situ treatment of hydrogels with hexamethyldisiloxane in the presence of isopropyl alcohol. The resulting hydrogels were hydrophobic and readily transferred to organic solvents allowing their isolation. The surface area and porosity of the xerogel were controlled by varying the pH, time and temperature used to aggregate the hydrogel prior to treatment. The treated xerogels were evaluated as reinforcing fillers in silicone rubber formulations. When the bases were crosslinked with peroxides, silicone elastomers with acceptable mechanical properties were obtained. The relationship between the surface area, porosity and the type and degree of surface treatment of the xerogel, and its reinforcing ability was studied. In general, the mechanical properties of the elastomer increased as the filler structure increased; however, xerogels with higher surface areas were more difficult to incorporate and gave higher plasticity bases.