To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study investigates suicide risk in late childhood and early adolescence in relation to a family-centered intervention, the Family Check-Up, for problem behavior delivered in early childhood. At age 2, 731 low-income families receiving nutritional services from Women, Infants, and Children programs were randomized to the Family Check-Up intervention or to a control group. Trend-level main effects were observed on endorsement of suicide risk by parents or teachers from ages 7.5 to 14, with higher rates of suicide risk endorsement in youth in the control versus intervention condition. A significant indirect effect of intervention was also observed, with treatment-related improvements in inhibitory control across childhood predicting reductions in suicide-related risk both at age 10.5, assessed via diagnostic interviews with parents and youth, and at age 14, assessed via parent and teacher reports. Results add to the emerging body of work demonstrating long-term reductions in suicide risk related to family-focused preventive interventions, and highlight improvements in youth self-regulatory skills as an important mechanism of such reductions in risk.
Better control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks requires deeper understanding of within-flock virus transmission dynamics. For such fatal diseases, daily mortality provides a proxy for disease incidence. We used the daily mortality data collected during the 2015 H5N2 HPAI outbreak in Minnesota turkey flocks to estimate the within-flock transmission rate parameter (β). The number of birds in Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious and Recovered compartments was inferred from the data and used in a generalised linear mixed model (GLMM) to estimate the parameters. Novel here was the correction of these data for normal mortality before use in the fitting process. We also used mortality threshold to determine HPAI-like mortality to improve the accuracy of estimates from the back-calculation approach. The estimated β was 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3–4.3) per day with a basic reproduction number of 12.8 (95% CI 9.2–17.2). Although flock-level estimates varied, the overall estimate was comparable to those from other studies. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the estimated β was highly sensitive to the bird-level latent period, emphasizing the need for its precise estimation. In all, for fatal poultry diseases, the back-calculation approach provides a computationally efficient means to obtain reasonable transmission parameter estimates from mortality data.
Animal disease outbreaks can cause disruptions in domestic and international markets. Business continuity aims to provide a proactive approach to alleviate some of these negative effects on consumers, producers, and agribusinesses. Using a partial equilibrium model of the U.S. egg industry, the economic impacts of business continuity during an epidemiological simulated disease event are modeled. Results show total welfare losses can be reduced by allowing permitted movement during an outbreak given a specified level of biosecurity. Understanding the potential market responses business continuity can have on the market may lead to reductions in the negative implications of a disease event.
This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
We report the discovery in the Greenland ice sheet of a discrete layer of free nanodiamonds (NDs) in very high abundances, implying most likely either an unprecedented influx of extraterrestrial (ET) material or a cosmic impact event that occurred after the last glacial episode. From that layer, we extracted n-diamonds and hexagonal diamonds (lonsdaleite), an accepted ET impact indicator, at abundances of up to about 5×106 times background levels in adjacent younger and older ice. The NDs in the concentrated layer are rounded, suggesting they most likely formed during a cosmic impact through some process similar to carbon-vapor deposition or high-explosive detonation. This morphology has not been reported previously in cosmic material, but has been observed in terrestrial impact material. This is the first highly enriched, discrete layer of NDs observed in glacial ice anywhere, and its presence indicates that ice caps are important archives of ET events of varying magnitudes. Using a preliminary ice chronology based on oxygen isotopes and dust stratigraphy, the ND-rich layer appears to be coeval with ND abundance peaks reported at numerous North American sites in a sedimentary layer, the Younger Dryas boundary layer (YDB), dating to 12.9 ± 0.1 ka. However, more investigation is needed to confirm this association.
In any society a loss of confidence in the capacity of contemporary institutions and leadership to deal with current problems creates anxieties and feelings of loss of control. A classical reaction to such stress is efforts to return to earlier, presumably simpler, institutional forms and lifestyles, thereby regaining control and the lost sense of purpose and direction. Today in the Northeast, as in much of the nation, many people are alarmed by the recent disturbances and shocks to the American way of life: the energy shortage, the threat of nuclear disaster, high unemployment and prices, faltering state and local finances, and a recurring credibility gap at all levels of government. The perceived inability of institutional forms to deal with these concerns has fostered a re-examination of individual, local and regional goals and a rediscovery of more traditional values based on self-reliance. One manifestation of this phenomenon is the promotion in the region by some professionals and laymen alike of a policy of self-sufficiency in agricultural production.
The third symposium on Remote Sensing of Snow and Ice, organized by the International Glaciological Society, took place in Boulder, Colorado, 17–22 May 1992. As part of this meeting a total of 21 papers was presented on snow and ice applications of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data in polar regions. Also during this meeting a NASA sponsored Workshop was held to review the status of polar surface measurements from AVHRR. In the following we have summarized the ideas and recommendations from the workshop, and the conclusions of relevant papers given during the regular symposium sessions. The seven topics discussed include cloud masking, ice surface temperature, narrow-band albedo, ice concentration, lead statistics, sea-ice motion and ice-sheet studies with specifics on applications, algorithms and accuracy, following recommendations for future improvements. In general, we can affirm the strong potential of AVHRR for studying sea ice and snow covered surfaces, and we highly recommend this satellite data set for long-term monitoring of polar process studies. However, progress is needed to reduce the uncertainty of the retrieved parameters for all of the above mentioned topics to make this data set useful for direct climate applications such as heat balance studies and others. Further, the acquisition and processing of polar AVHRR data must become better coordinated between receiving stations, data centers and funding agencies to guarantee a long-term commitment to the collection and distribution of high quality data.
The stability of a low Reynolds number flow on an inclined plane is investigated with respect to modelling the initiation of transverse wave-like ridges which commonly occur on the surfaces of rock-glacier forms. In accordance with field observations indicating the presence of stratification in rock glaciers, two models of rock-glacier structure are considered, each stratified and possessing a lower layer which is treated as a Newtonian fluid. An upper, less compliant layer is treated, alternatively, as a Newtonian fluid of viscosity greater than that of the lower layer, or as an elastic solid under longitudinal compression induced by a decrease in the slope of the underlying incline. A linear stability analysis is used to examine the behaviour of each of the proposed models, and both are found to generate instabilities at wavelengths comparable to those associated with transverse surficial ridges on rock glaciers. The growth rates of a flow disturbance predicted by the viscous-stratified model appear to be too slow to account fully for the development of wave forms of finite amplitude, suggesting that other mechanisms are involved in the amplification of an initial disturbance. The results of the stability analysis of the elastic lamina model indicate that finite surficial ridges may develop on rock glaciers as a product of a buckling instability in the surface region if there is a decrease in the slope of the underlying incline. Both of the analyses illustrate that transverse ridges can occur on the surface of a rock glacier in the absence of any variations in debris supply to the system. The results further imply that the use of these features in the paleoreconstruction of Holocene climatic conditions must entail an assessment of the relative roles of external climatically driven forcing versus internal Theologically derived instability.
Recent upgrades of the Infrared Spatial Interferometer are described. These provide improved sensitivity, precision and convenience of measurement. Analysis of phase fluctuations within the interferometer as well as in the atmosphere above indicates that popular simple atmospheric models need to be refined. Results of stellar observations are presented in another paper (cf. Danchi et al., in these Proceedings).
Most cometary parent molecules do not strongly fluoresce at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths, and some do not possess permanent electric dipole moments, preventing their study in the radio region as well. However, many of these molecules have strong ro-vibrational transitions in the near infrared (λ ∼ 2 – 5 μm). Since the solar flux at these wavelengths is quite strong, parent molecules in cometary comae can be probed directly via fluorescence in these infrared transitions. The feasibility of this approach was convincingly demonstrated by the detection of H2O in comet Halley (1986 III) from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory and by the detection of H2O, CO2, and H2CO using an infrared spectrometer (IKS) on VEGA. Tentative detections of near infrared lines of CH4 were also reported during ground-based and airborne observations of comets Halley and Wilson (1987 VII). High resolution spectroscopy of the infrared water transitions has yielded a wealth of new information on cometary physics: the absolute line intensities and spatial brightness profiles are used to determine water production rates and lifetimes, the relative line intensities probe the kinetic temperature profile in the coma, the line widths and line positions shed light on coma outflow dynamics, and the temporal variability in the lines provides information on the structure of the nucleus. These observations also allow the determination of the water ortho-to-para ratio, which may provide fundamental insight into the origin and/or evolutionary history of cometary nuclei. Similar observations of other molecules (those mentioned above plus others) will provide important complementary data and will also allow us to compile a volatile inventory for cometary nuclei, but such observations are extremely difficult due to the low abundances of these molecules (≤10% relative to water) and the limitations of present infrared facilities. Recent advances in infrared instrumentation promise to extend sensitivities for parent molecule searches to relative abundances well below 1%, especially if cooled, Earth-orbiting facilities are available.
Consideration of the physics of sinking of hollow, rigid bodies leads to equations of motion for sinking cephalopod shells. We have derived equations of motion for three post-mortem sinking situations: sinking with a fixed amount of water in the phragmocone; rapid phragmocone filling (no siphuncular tube); and slow phragmocone filling (siphuncular tube intact). In all three cases sinking speed can be closely approximated by the terminal velocity calculated from the total weight, buoyancy, and drag parameters of the shell.
Experiments on modern Nautilus shells yield sinking velocities in agreement with calculated values. The experiments also show that orientation of a sinking Nautilus shell varies as the phragmocone fills with water. With small negative buoyancy the shell sinks with its plane of symmetry upright, but as it fills, it begins to rock from side to side and leans over and sinks with its plane of symmetry horizontal when the camerae are about 55% full.
The maximum sinking speed of upright adult Nautilus shells is approximately 30 cm/sec, which appears to be too small for embedding in the bottom upon impact. The maximum depth to which Nautilus sinks in the upright position ranges from about 7 m for rapidly filling shells to as much as 600 m for slowly filling shells. In the latter case, the shell will continue to fill after coming to rest on the bottom, and the stability of the vertical orientation will be removed within 1 or 2 days. Thus, primary vertical preservation of cephalopod shells indicates water depths less than about 10 m.
The BBXRT observed nine supernova remnants during its nine-day flight. We present preliminary results from some of these observations, emphasizing the ability of BBXRT to perform spatially resolved spectroscopy. The improved spectral resolution and efficiency over previous instruments makes possible measurements of previously undetectable lines, and the broad bandpass allows simultaneous measurement of lines from oxygen through iron.
Analysis of post-mortem buoyancy loss in Nautilus shells suggests that extensive nekroplanktonic drifting occurs infrequently. Most shells do not reach the surface but settle to the sea floor, after a short period of ascent. This occurs because the rate of water influx into the phragmocone due to ambient hydrostatic pressure is sufficiently rapid in most cases to overcome positive buoyancy before the shell reaches the surface. The resulting geographic distribution of Nautilus shells would therefore mirror the distribution of the live animals. Thus, post-mortem drift in Nautilus cannot be used as a basis for questioning the validity of cephalopod paleobiogeography. Estimate of influx rates in ammonoid siphuncles indicates that many, if not most, ammonoid shells also would not become nekroplanktonic. This is especially true for small (<5 cm diameter) shells. Cephalopod paleobiogeographic investigation appears less subject to criticism stemming from the supposed obfuscating effects of post-mortem drift than previously thought.
A complete understanding of radioactive waste glass interactions with near-field materials is essential for appropriate nuclear waste repository performance assessment. In many geologic repository designs, Fe is present both in the natural environment and in the containers that will hold the waste glasses. In this paper we discuss investigations of the alteration of International Simple Glass (ISG) in the presence of Fe0 foil and hematite (Fe2O3). Based on solid analysis, ISG alteration is more pronounced in the presence of Fe0 than with hematite. Additionally, typical glass corrosion is observed for distances of 5 mm between Fe materials and ISG, but incorporation of Fe in the alteration layer is only observed for systems exhibiting full contact between Fe0 material and ISG. Solution analysis results indicate that diatomaceous earth minimizes corrosion to a larger extent than fumed silica does when present with iron and ISG.
The determination of the long-term stability and corrosion of vitrified nuclear waste is an important aspect of research for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It is necessary to understand the rate and mechanisms of Nuclear Waste Glass (NWG) corrosion to determine whether or not the glassy matrix will be able to retain radionuclides for the required repository performance time period. Glass corrosion and the rate of glass corrosions is determined by both chemical and microscopy. Electron Microprobe Analysis (EPMA) is a common and powerful method utilized in the examination of the chemographic difference between corroded and uncorroded NGWs. In this work, two forms of quantitative and semi-quantitative EPMA methods are defined by optimizing the instruments counting statistics against a standard glass and NIST minerals that have compositions similar to the glasses under examination. Data collected on both the planar and cross-sectioned surfaces of an unaltered simulated NWG by Standard based Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) was found to be comparable to the theoretical composition of the glass. Conventional standardless Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) data collected on the same surfaces was not comparable. However, standard-based EDS analysis is shown to be able to discriminate between unaltered and corroded glass surfaces.
In this study wet chemical methods combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy were performed to quantify Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios and total iron content of quenched alkali alumino-boro-silicate (simulated nuclear waste) glasses, applying a colorimetric method. We report lessons learned from experimental challenges encountered associated with the colorimetric method, where 1,10 phenanthroline method is complexed with dissolved glass powder and the resulting solution measured for absorbance at 520 nm to determine Fe(II). To obtain total iron, the solution was then equilibrated with a mild reducing agent to chance all Fe to Fe(II), and the absorbance measured again at 520 nm. These absorbance values allowed for calculation of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio, and the total iron content in the glasses. Total Fe measured is somewhat higher than as-batched target values for waste glasses, but very accurate for reference BCR-2G glass. All quenched alumino-boro-silicate glasses analyzed showed a Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio between 0.06 (± 0.01) and 0.04 (± 0.01). These values are consistent with those obtained for similar glass compositions melted under analogous conditions, indicating a composition of ca. 94-96% Fe(III).