To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Co-receptor tropism has been identified to correlate with HIV-1 transmission and the disease progression in patients. A molecular epidemiology investigation of co-receptor tropism is important for clinical practice and effective control of HIV-1. In this study, we investigated the co-receptor tropism on HIV-1 variants of 85 antiretroviral-naive patients with Geno2pheno algorithm at a false-positive rate of 10%. Our data showed that a majority of the subjects harboured the CCR5-tropic virus (81.2%, 69/85). No significant differences in gender, age, baseline CD4+ T-cell counts and transmission routes were observed between subjects infected with CXCR4-tropic or CCR5-tropic virus. The co-receptor tropism appeared to be associated with the virus genotype; a significantly more CXCR4-use was predicted in CRF01_AE infections whereas all CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC were predicted to use CCR5 co-receptor. Sequences analysis of V3 revealed a higher median net charge in the CXCR4 viruses over CCR5 viruses (4.0 vs. 3.0, P < 0.05). The predicted N-linked glycosylation site between amino acids 6 and 8 in the V3 region was conserved in CCR5 viruses, but not in CXCR4 viruses. Besides, variable crown motifs were observed in both CCR5 and CXCR4 viruses, of which the most prevalent motif GPGQ existed in both viral tropism and almost all genotypes identified in this study except subtype B. These findings may offer important implications for clinical practice and enhance our understanding of HIV-1 biology.
This study aim to derive and validate a simple and well-performing risk calculator (RC) for predicting psychosis in individual patients at clinical high risk (CHR).
From the ongoing ShangHai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) program, 417 CHR cases were identified based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), of whom 349 had at least 1-year follow-up assessment. Of these 349 cases, 83 converted to psychosis. Logistic regression was used to build a multivariate model to predict conversion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to test the effectiveness of the SIPS-RC. Second, an independent sample of 100 CHR subjects was recruited based on an identical baseline and follow-up procedures to validate the performance of the SIPS-RC.
Four predictors (each based on a subset of SIPS-based items) were used to construct the SIPS-RC: (1) functional decline; (2) positive symptoms (unusual thoughts, suspiciousness); (3) negative symptoms (social anhedonia, expression of emotion, ideational richness); and (4) general symptoms (dysphoric mood). The SIPS-RC showed moderate discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.744 (p < 0.001). A risk estimate of 25% or higher had around 75% accuracy for predicting psychosis. The personalized risk generated by the SIPS-RC provided a solid estimate of conversion outcomes in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.804 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.662–0.951].
The SIPS-RC, which is simple and easy to use, can perform in the same manner as the NAPLS-2 RC in the Chinese clinical population. Such a tool may be used by clinicians to counsel appropriately their patients about clinical monitor v. potential treatment options.
The present study investigated the adsorption behaviour of Direct Orange 34, a highly toxic dye used in textile industries in Tunisia, on modified kaolinite-rich clays. A kaolin from the Sidi Bader (SDB) area was activated with hydrochloric acid to create the activated clay referred to hearafter as SDBa, or treated with FeSO4•7H2O to obtain its Fe-saturated form, Fe-SDB. The adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, BET surface area and zeta-potential measurements. The equilibrium adsorption data were analysed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The estimated adsorption capacities (qm) for the dye were improved in the Fe-loaded samples. The good fit (R2 = 0.99) with a pseudo-second order expression suggests that the adsorption process could be effective following a chemisorption mechanism. At acidic pH, the optimum dye-retention rate was achieved for SDB (83%) after 60 min. The uptake decreased at neutral pH and increased again in alkaline media. This behaviour might be explained by the formation of covalent bonds between the OH radicals on the external surface and the negatively charged dye molecules. On the other hand, Fe impregnation increased the zeta potential of kaolinite, leading to a greater adsorption capacity compared to its natural and acid-activated counterparts. In addition, the adsorption rate increased when increasing the suspension temperature from 283 to 313 K. The modified kaolinite-rich materials showed satisfactory affinity for adsorbing this reactive dye.
Monolithic integrated thin film tandem solar cells consisting of a high bandgap perovskite top cell and a low bandgap thin film bottom cell are expected to reach higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) with lower manufacturing cost and environmental impacts than the market-dominant crystalline silicon photovoltaics. There have been several demonstrations of 4-terminal and 2-terminal perovskite tandem devices with CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) or CuInSe2 (CIS) and, similar to the other tandem structures, the optimization of this device relies on optimal choice for the perovskite bandgap and thickness. Therefore, further advancement will be enabled by tuning the perovskite absorber to maximize the photocurrent limited by the current match condition. Here, we systematically study the optical absorption and transmission of perovskite thin films with varying absorber band gap. Based on these results, we model the photocurrent generations in both perovskite and CIS subcells and estimate the performances of projected tandem devices by considering the ideally functioning perovskite and CIS device. Our results show that for perovskite layers with 500 nm thickness the optimal bandgap is around 1.6 eV. With these configurations, PCEs above 20% could be achieved by monolithically integrated perovskite/CIS tandem solar cells. Also by modelling the absorption at every layer we calculate the quantum efficiency at each subcell in addition to tracking optical losses.
Introduction: Hyperglycemia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, often resulting in adverse outcomes such as recurrent ED visits, hospitalization or death. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to identify predictors of these adverse outcomes among patients who present to the ED with hyperglycemia. Methods: Electronic searches of Medline and EMBASE were conducted for studies published in English between the years 1946 and June 2017. Studies with patients presenting to the ED with hyperglycemia were eligible for inclusion. Both adult and pediatric populations were included, as were diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Two reviewers independently screened all titles and abstracts for relevance to the research question. If consensus could not be reached, full-length manuscripts were reviewed. For any discrepancy, a third reviewer was consulted, and disagreement was resolved through discussion. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Study- and patient-specific data were then extracted and presented descriptively in the systematic review. Results: Thirteen observational studies were included, with a combined total of 664,829 patients. The studies scored between 5 to 8 on the Quality Assessment Scale out of a possible total of 8. Predictors of adverse outcomes included patients in both older and younger (< 25) age groups, history of diabetes, multiple comorbidities, patients requiring insulin, sepsis and hyperlactatemia, access to a family physician, a sentinel hyperglycemia visit in the past month, and triage glucose level > 20 mmol/L. Protective factors included no admissions in the past year, care from a diabetes team while in hospital, systolic blood pressure between 90-150 mmHg and heart rate > 110 bpm. Conclusion: This systematic review found eight predictors and four protective factors for adverse outcomes in patients presenting to the ED with hyperglycemia. These factors should be considered for easier identification of higher-risk patients for adverse outcomes in order to guide management and follow-up.
Introduction: Patients with diabetes who are in emerging adulthood, defined as the life stage between 18-29 years, have unique challenges in managing their illness and are at risk of acute complications and loss to follow-up. The studys objective was to describe emergency department (ED) utilization for hyperglycemia in emerging adults with diabetes and to characterize 30-day outcomes including return visits and admission for hyperglycemia. Methods: This was a health records review of emerging adults presenting over a one-year period to four tertiary care EDs with a diagnosis of hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Research personnel collected data on patient characteristics, treatment, disposition, and determined if patients returned to the ED for hyperglycemia within 30 days. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data where appropriate. Results: There were 185 ED encounters for hyperglycemia, representing 116 unique emerging adult patients. Mean (SD) age was 23 (3.5) years and 50.9% were female. 80 (69.0%) had known type 1 diabetes, 11 (9.5%) had type 2, and 25 (21.5%) were newly diagnosed in the ED. Of 185 visits, 98 (53.0%) resulted in hospital admission. 56 (30.3%) returned to the ED for hyperglycemia within 30 days of their initial encounter, and 21 (11.4%) resulted in admission on this subsequent visit. Conclusion: We characterized ED utilization and 30-day outcomes of emerging adults with diabetes for hyperglycemia. Future research should focus on earlier identification of those at higher risk for recurrent ED visits or admission and the efficacy of interventions to prevent these adverse outcomes.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) physicians strive to provide analgesia, amnesia and sedation for patients when performing painful procedures through the use of procedural sedation (PS). Examination of the literature suggests that the application of PS appears to be variable with institutional influences and clinician disagreement on pharmacology, airway management, and monitoring. The primary goal of this research project was to describe the variability of practice with respect to pharmacologic choices and clinical applications of PS among Canadian ED physicians. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed through the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP). Practicing physician members of CAEP were invited to complete the survey. The 20 question survey encompassed various aspects of PS including physician choices regarding PS indications and pharmacology. The primary outcome was the quantification of practice variability among ED physicians with respect to the above listed aspects of PS. The data was presented with simple descriptive statistics. Results: To date, 278 ED physicians responded to our survey (response rate 20.3%). Respondents were primarily academic hospital (53.2%) or community hospital based (38.2%). With emergency medicine training as: CCFP-EM (55.2%), FRCPC (30.1%), and CCFP (9.0%). There was relative agreement on the following interventions requiring PS: 98.4% applied PS for electrical cardioversion and 98.1% for brief (<10 mins) orthopedic manipulations. However, only 36.3% utilized PS for burn debridement in the ED. PS was utilized less frequently (78.1%) for prolonged (>10mins) orthopedic manipulations than brief manipulations. For all procedures aggregated, in hemodynamically stable patients with an American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score of 1, ED physicians utilized propofol 76.3% of the time. Additional agents were utilized at the following rates: fentanyl-propofol (7.6%), ketamine (7.6%), and fentanyl (4%). This inclination towards propofol alone appears to be consistent across modality of ER training, type of ER setting (rural vs academic), and volume of PS performed. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Canadian ED physicians have a clear preference for propofol as a first line pharmacologic agent when administering PS in hemodynamically stable, ASA1 patients. Conversely, there appears to be more variation amongst ED physicians with respect to second line pharmaceutical choices for PS.
Introduction: Hyperglycemic emergencies, including diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), carry significant morbidity for individuals even after discharge. The objective of this study was to describe the patient-important outcomes and burden of disease for emergency department (ED) patients with hyperglycemia after discharge from hospital. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of patients 18 years presenting to two tertiary care EDs (combined annual census 150,000 visits) with a discharge diagnosis of hyperglycemia, DKA or HHS over a 15-month period (Jul 2016-Oct 2017). During the ED visit, consent was obtained for a telephone follow-up call to determine patient-important outcomes. Trained research personnel collected data from medical records and completed a 14 day telephone follow-up using a standardized questionnaire to determine medication changes, missed days of school or work, and repeat admissions or visits to a healthcare provider. Descriptive statistics were used where appropriate to summarize the data. Results: Thus far, 172 patients have been enrolled in our study. Mean (SD) age is 53.9 (19.3) years and 97 (56.4%) are male. 65 (37.8%) patients were admitted from their initial ED visit. Of the 125 patients (72.7%) providing post-discharge outcomes, 75 (60.0%) required an adjustment to their diabetes medications or insulin. 21 (16.8%) patients missed days of school or work for a median (IQR) duration of 3.5 (1.3, 7.0) days. 85 (68.0%) saw another healthcare provider within a 14 day period, 45 (36.0%) saw their family physician, and 34 (27.2%) saw an internist or endocrinologist. 9 (7.2%) were seen again in the ED, 5 of these patients required admission to hospital. There was one death that occurred within the follow-up period. Conclusion: This prospective study builds on our previous retrospective work and demonstrates that visits for hyperglycemia carry a significant burden of disease beyond what may be seen in a single ED encounter. Further research will attempt to identify the factors that may be predictive of adverse outcomes in hyperglycemic patients presenting to the ED.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) physicians strive to provide analgesia, amnesia and sedation for patients undergoing painful procedures through the use of procedural sedation (PS). While, PS is generally safe and effective in the ED, there is institutional variability and clinician disagreement with respect to the bedside equipment required for airway management and the monitoring of adverse events. The primary goal of this research project was to describe the variability of the bedside setup utilized by Canadian ED physicians preforming PS in conjunction with self-reported adverse events. Methods: An electronic survey was distributed through the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP). Practicing physician members of CAEP were invited to complete the survey. The 20 question survey encompassed various aspects of PS including physician choices regarding bedside setup of airway equipment, and prevalence of self-reported adverse events. The primary outcome was the quantification of variability among ED physicians with respect to the above listed aspects of PS. Data was presented with simple descriptive statistics. Results: 278 ED physicians responded to our survey (response rate 20.9%). Respondents were primarily academic (53.2%) or community hospital based (38.2%). With emergency medicine training as: CCFP-EM (55.2%), FRCPC (30.1%), and CCFP (9.0%). The ED area in which PS was carried out varied; bedside (30.5%), procedure room (37.1%), resuscitation area (31.2%). The basic equipment set utilized appears to be a bag valve mask, suction, and an oral airway. These 3 items were present 95.4%, 95.9%, and 86.3% of the time respectively. The preparation of other items such as capnography and difficult airway equipment is highly variable and appears to be physician specific rather than clinical situation specific. The most common physician self-reported adverse events associated with PS appear to be hypoxia (Spo2<90%), hypotension (sBP<90), and prolonged sedation which occurred in 10.7%, 8.3%, and 8.1% of PS performed. Conclusion: There appears to be significant practice variability with respect to the clinical setting as well as the equipment ED physicians prefer when administering PS. Given that causal relationships cannot be inferred between airway/monitoring equipment preferences and adverse events, future studies should be targeted at identifying optimal bedside set ups which minimize adverse events.
Two new species of egg parasitoids, Oobius saimaensis Yao and Mottern new species and Oobius fleischeri Yao and Duan new species (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are described from eggs of Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger, 1925 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Agrilus fleischeri is a phloem-feeding woodborer of poplar (Populus Linnaeus; Salicaceae) in northeastern China. These two species can be distinguished morphologically as O. fleischeri has five tarsomeres and O. saimaensis has four tarsomeres. Although O. saimaensis is morphologically similar to its sympatric congener O. agrili Zhang and Hang, 2005, an important natural enemy of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888, molecular phylogenetics and morphological data indicate that they are distinct species. Phylogenetic relationships among the new species and other closely related species are also inferred by using DNA sequence data from several ribosomal and mitochondrial genes. In addition, we expand the known distribution of Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan, 2016 to include South Korea.
Curcumin has been attributed with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activities, and has shown highly protective effects against enteropathogenic bacteria and mycotoxins. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the major intestinal pathogenic mycotoxins. The possible effect of curcumin on the alleviation of enterotoxicity induced by OTA is unknown. The effects of dietary curcumin supplementation on OTA-induced oxidative stress, intestinal barrier and mitochondrial dysfunctions were examined in young ducks. A total of 540 mixed-sex 1-day-old White Pekin ducklings with initial BW (43.4±0.1 g) were randomly assigned into controls (fed only the basal diet), a group fed an OTA-contaminated diet (2 mg/kg feed), and a group fed the same OTA-contaminated feed plus 400 mg/kg of curcumin. Each treatment consisted of six replicates, each containing 30 ducklings and treatment lasted for 21 days. There was a significant decrease in average daily gain (ADG) and increased feed : gain caused by OTA (P<0.05); curcumin co-treatment prevented the decrease in BW and ADG compared with the OTA group (P<0.05). Histopathological and ultrastructural examination showed clear signs of enterotoxicity caused by OTA, but these changes were largely prevented by curcumin supplementation. Curcumin decreased the concentrations of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and malondialdehyde, and increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase induced by OTA in the jejunal mucosa of ducks (P<0.05). Additionally, curcumin increased jejunal mucosa occludin and tight junction protein 1 mRNA and protein levels, and decreased those of ρ-associated protein kinase 1 (P<0.05). Notably, curcumin inhibited the increased expression of apoptosis-related genes, and downregulated mitochondrial transcription factors A, B1 and B2 caused by OTA without any effects on RNA polymerase mitochondrial (P<0.05). These results indicated that curcumin could protect ducks from OTA-induced impairment of intestinal barrier function and mitochondrial integrity.
The triplite LiFeSO4F displays both the highest potential ever reported for an Fe-based compound, as well as a comparable specific energy with that of popular LiFePO4. The synthesis is still a challenge because the present approaches are connected with long time, special equipments or organic reagents, etc. In this work, the triplite LiFeSO4F powder was synthesized through an ambient two-step solid-state route. The reaction process and phase purity were analyzed, coupled with structure refinement and electrochemical test.
Holstein-Friesian cattle are the predominant breed of dairy cattle in Northern Ireland. Breeding programmes for the Holstein Friesian have focused on improved milk production with little emphasis on functional traits such as fertility or disease resistance. In contrast Norwegian dairy cattle have been bred via a multi-trait selection procedure and there is evidence that problems associated with disease and fertility have tended to decrease in recent years. It is important, however, to investigate possible differences in efficiency of food use and partitioning of nutrients between the two breeds which may offset the potential advantages of improvements in secondary characteristics. Consequently, the objectives of this experiment were firstly to investigate the effects of breed type on the efficiency of utilization and partitioning of nutrients for milk production and secondly to investigate if there are differences in the energy requirement for maintenance and the efficiency of utilization of ME for lactation (kl) between the two breeds.
Chowdhury and Ørskov (1994) observed that heat production in sheep was reduced by approximately 10% below that at fasting when the animal was offered one third of the predicted maintenance requirement through intragastric nutrition. These authors also suggested that this indicated a glucose deficient state in the fasted animal, and that as a result the heat production at fasting was artificially raised. In agreement with Ørskov and MacLeod (1990), Chowdhury and Ørskov (1994) further stated that when measuring heat production to estimate basal metabolism animals should have their heat production measured when being offered one third of maintenance rather than fasting, although this was not tested by experiment. Birnie et al., (2000) reported that fasting heat production was influenced by the condition score of the cow. The objectives of this experiment were firstly to investigate the influence of maintenance and sub-maintenance levels of feeding on the observed heat production in nonpregnant, nonlactating dairy cows offered a more normal diet and secondly to further examine the influence of cow condition score on the fasting heat production.
San Pietro and Rittenberg (1953) reported that urea appeared to meet all the requirements of a satisfactory tracer. Urea is non toxic, not foreign to the body and it shows an even and rapid distribution throughout the total body water without any physiological effect. For these reasons in addition to its easy and accurate measurement, urea is an ideal candidate tracer to estimate empty body water in vivo. Total body water volume (urea space) can be estimated by dividing the total amount of urea infused by the increase in plasma urea concentration from prior to infusion until 12 or 30 minutes after mean infusion time. Kock and Preston (1973) reported significant relationships between urea space measurements and percentage of empty body fat and water in cattle. However, Andrew et al. (1995) using 21 Holstein cows showed that prediction of empty body water using the urea space technique only explained 31 % of the variation. The objective of this experiment was to use the urea dilution technique to estimate the body composition of lactating dairy cows and produce relationships between urea space and body fat and protein content.
Wilting of grass prior to ensiling generally produces positive responses in dry matter (DM) intake of cattle, but the responses in animal performance are often small, or even negative. The primary objective of the present study was to compare energy utilization from heavily wilted and unwilted silages by growing cattle when given at equal metabolisable energy (ME) intakes. A secondary objective was to evaluate effects of silage additive type (inoculant v. formic acid) on energy utilization.
Four silages were produced from unwilted and wilted grasses (DM 193 and 450 g/kg) obtained from a perennial ryegrass sward. The wilted grass was dried in the field for 26 hours using rapid wilting techniques involving crop conditioning and spreading. At ensiling both the unwilted and wilted grasses were each treated with two additives, a bacterial inoculant (Ecosyl, Zeneca Bioproducts Limited) and a formic acid additive (ADD-F, BP Chemicals Ltd.).
In an extensive review of energy metabolism of dairy cows, Agnew and Yan (2000) concluded that high genetic merit cows are capable of partitioning more energy into milk and less into body tissue when compared to low genetic merit cows. The objective of the present study was to use production data for a complete lactation to evaluate the effect of cow genotype on energy partitioning between milk and body tissue.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Compare effectiveness of a patient case-based, interactive teaching approach that included optional student genotyping with traditional didactic teaching strategies for increasing students’ knowledge and ability to effectively use pharmacogenomic data in clinical decision making. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The UF College of Pharmacy offers a required Personalized Medicine (PM) course for pharmacy students as well as an elective course, Clinical Applications of Personalized Medicine (CAPM). Students dual enrolled in the PM and elective CAPM courses comprised the intervention (INT) group, with interactive patient case-based teaching and the option to undergo personal genotyping, whereas students enrolled in PM alone comprised the control (CTR) group, which primarily used a traditional didactic teaching format and did not include personal genotyping. Both groups completed a pre- and post-course patient case-based test (15 questions/1 point each) to evaluate their knowledge and abilities to apply genotype and other patient-specific data to drug therapy recommendations. Pre- and post-course test scores for knowledge were compared between the INT and CTR groups using the Student t-test. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In total, 52 students completed surveys (INT group, n=21; CTR group, n=31). Race was similar between groups, but there were fewer females in the INT compared with CTR group (8 vs. 22, p=0.02). Pre-course knowledge scores did not differ between INT and CTR groups (6.8±2.2 vs. 6.3±1.6 respectively, p=0.34), however, post-course scores were significantly higher in the INT Versus CTR group (10.0±2.3 vs. 7.5±1.7, p<0.0001). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: There have been significant advancements in the clinical applications of pharmacogenomic and genomic data, however, barriers to routine clinical adoption of genomic medicine persist. Developing education and training methods that equip practitioners to effectively translate genomic data into evidence-based clinical recommendations has been identified as a key strategy to overcome such barriers. Our data suggest that a personalized medicine course that employs patient-centered, case-based teaching strategies and includes optional personal genotyping for students compared with traditional didactic instruction improves students’ knowledge and abilities to apply pharmacogenomic data in practice-based scenarios. These results can inform future strategies for educating healthcare professionals on the clinical use of pharmacogenomic and genomic data.